%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 41 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 66 0 R 88 0 R ] /Count 12 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141129000830+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141129000830+00'00') /Title (The Dutch Republic. Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall 1477-1806) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4318 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Dutch Republic. Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall 1477-1806)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In April 1616 Hugo Grotius, in his capacity as head of a delegation from the States of Holland to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amsterdam city council, treated, or subjected, the council to what Jonathan Israel in his 'The Dutch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republic. Its Rise Greatness and Fall 1477-1806...pp.439-40, has described as an immense harangue.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 519.608 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 519.608 257.673 m 533.600 257.673 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 533.600 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an effort to persuade Amsterdam not to oppose the church policies of the Oldenbarnevelt regime, Grotius, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we are told, warned that too much insistence upon doctrinal conformity might bring upon the public Church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fate of the Dutch Anabaptists 'who already have so many sects among them that there is hardly anyone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who knows their number, or all their names'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If religion is what is done with one's solitude, then, of course, we shall never know all that there is to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known, or even all that we might wish to know, about Dutch Anabaptism, or any other sect or church, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early seventeenth century, or in any other century. Nevertheless, readers of The Dutch Republic will get to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(know a great deal more about the number and names of Dutch Anabaptism than was known apparently to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries of Grotius, and than they are likely to have come across in any single volume history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch Republic in the early modern period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, among many other things, readers will learn that there were, in fact, no fewer than six main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confessional blocs within Dutch Anabaptism by the 1590's - the Waterlanders, Old Frisians, Old Flemish, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Young Frisians, Young Flemish and 'so called High Germans'; they will learn something of the size or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 June, 1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Israel)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780198730729)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1995)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1280pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clarendon Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780198207344.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Graham Gibbs)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 519.6077 257.9875 533.5997 269.8675 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7498 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of these blocs in relation to each other, to other religious groups, and to the population of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republic as a whole; how they were distributed geographically throughout the Republic, and where their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largest concentrations of strength lay; the names of some of their most notable adherents in literature and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pictorial arts, and of some of their leading theologians; something also of the nature of the differences and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctions between them, in doctrine, organization and life-style; they will learn also, if they pursue the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fortunes of the Dutch Anabaptists further, something of the reconciliation and continuance of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences and distinctions, and of their further refinement, from the time of the Amsterdam rift of 1664, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('so-called Lammerenkrijg', down to the end of the eighteenth century, during which time Dutch Anabaptism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was reduced from six main confessional blocs to three - the Lambs, the Sunists \(in turn divided into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moderate and conservative wings\), and the ultra-orthodox remnants of the Old Flemish and Old Frisians; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they will learn too that Dutch Anabaptism declined precipitately in numbers over a century and a half, so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that by 1809 it constituted between 1.4% and 1.8% of the population of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numbers 30,890 or 30,780 \(depending on whether East Friesland alone is excluded or East Friesland and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former Generality Lands are excluded\), whereas in the 1640's Dutch Anabaptists numbered about 75,000. or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about 5% of the population of the Republic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have taken from the author's treatment of Dutch Anabaptism to illustrate several of the most immediately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(striking features of the book as a whole. It is illustrative in the first place of an extraordinarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensive and informed historical curiosity, astonishing in the range of its erudition and the grandeur of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its scale. All aspects of Dutch history, even the most recondite, are confronted and subject to close and keen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scrutiny. As might have been expected, given the author's track record, economic and political matters, or, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he might prefer, politico-economic matters, are prominent. But intellectual and cultural matters also loom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large . Treated for the most part in separate chapters, there is, nevertheless, a consistent attempt to connect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural and intellectual developments with what is happening elsewhere in the Dutch economy, in Dutch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society and in the Dutch political world, and, where it seems to the author to be appropriate, in the world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside the Dutch Republic. In particular, an effort is made to connect developments in Dutch art to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successive phases in the development of the Dutch economy perceived by the author as having occurred in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the seventeenth century. One of the most intriguing of the connections suggested is, if I understand the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passage correctly \(p.559\), to the effect that the switch to monochrome, predominantly brown and gray )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pictures in the early 1620's, in many genres, may have been affected by the collapse of Dutch trade with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those areas of America and southern Europe which provided the substances from which Dutch painters made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their most brilliant red, blue and yellow pigments: as a consequence those pigments became both scarce and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expensive. The suggestion may of course prove to be not so much a red herring as a pigment of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagination, but it seems to be a suggestion worth taking seriously.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chronological terms, the emphasis in the work is where it is usually to be found in studies of the Republic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the early modern period, and where arguably it should be placed, on the period between c.1588 and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death of William III in 1702. Well over half the text is devoted to this period. The eighteenth century gets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more space than it usually gets, and there are some welcome features, particularly the innovative treatment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Dutch Enlightenment. But on the whole the treatment of the eighteenth century lacks something of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority, though not the clear-cut confidence, characteristic of the earlier sections of the work, and lacks too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something of the earlier pertinacity in following things through, as well as command of detail.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Massive in its scope, the work is also rich and dense in its detail, particularly in its statistical detail. Like its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predecessor, Dutch Primacy in World Trade 1585-1740 \(Oxford, 1989\), it has many statistical tables. Dutch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Primacy had 99 tables, the present work has 52, 48 of which are new, or rather are additional to those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previously published in Dutch Primacy. In this respect, the contrast with Professor Israel s successor volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in The Oxford History of Modern Europe, E.H.Kossmann's, The Low Countries 1780-1940 \(Oxford, 1978\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not be more marked. Kossmann provides no statistical tables for a period in which statistical data are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more voluminous, and more reliable, than they are for the early modern period of European history: a case, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one supposes therefore, of deliberate abstinence, of tabula erasa.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kossmann's work is no worse for the lack of statistical tables and is easier reading. Israel's would be much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impoverished without them but is sometimes heavy going. He draws frequently upon statistical tables, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7279 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially in matters social and economic. They are necessary, the author would argue - has argued - to help )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to illustrate, to underline, to flesh out, even 'to confirm', what is already suggested by a mass on non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statistical evidence, and have to be set within - are set within - a specific historical context. For the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part, the tables are made to perform the role, and to serve the purposes, for which they were intended, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they are usually evaluated within a particular and detailed historical context, but not always. There are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instances, not numerous, perhaps, given the size of the work and the variety of its themes, the multiplicity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its tables and the frequency with which they are invoked, when what is in the tables does not sit easily with, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed contradicts, what is asserted in the text, or is subject to an interpretation other than that offered by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author. Some of the discrepancies between table and text are trivial, some have more substance and bear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon some of the major themes of the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, on p.15, Holland in the late fifteenth century is described as having 'a uniquely high percentage of her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population living in towns'. Yet on the same page, Table 1, \('The population of the main provinces of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Low Countries in 1477'\), shows Holland with 45w/O of its population urban - only 1% more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gelderland incidentally - whilst Overijssel is shown in the table as having 48% of its population urban, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is described later in the text \(p.113\) as having 52% of its population urban in the late fifteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Or, take the case of Haarlem, and of other inland towns of Holland, in the first half of the sixteenth century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On p.119 we are told that 'all inland Holland towns either stagnated or grew only marginally after 1500.' Yet, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to Table 3 \(p.114\) \('The population of the main cities of the Low Countries 1300-1560 \(estimates\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the population of Haarlem between 1500 and 1560 went up by some 30% \(from 11,500 to 14,000\), whilst in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same period the population of Delft went up by some 33% \(from 10,500 to 14,000\), and Gouda by just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over 28% \(from 7000 to 9,000\). Admittedly the rate of growth of these towns was very much less than, on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completely different scale from, that experienced by Amsterdam \(125% increase\), or Rotterdam \(c.60% )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increase\), or Enkhuizen \(128%\), in the same period. Israel's main point still stands, therefore: the maritime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towns of Holland grew vigorously, much more vigorously than its inland towns, but, on the basis of Table 3, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haarlem, Delft and Gouda can hardly be described either as having stagnated, or as having experienced only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marginal growth, unless by growth is meant annualized growth, which would raise problems about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descriptions of growth made elsewhere in the volume.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Table 3 raises more problems of the same kind in connection with statements in the text. It is noted on p.119, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the reference is to Table 3, that there was impressive growth in Utrecht and Groningen between 1500 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1560, but that more common was the tendency to stagnate, as was the case with Zwolle, Kampen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Deventer and Zutphen. On p.308 a rather different story is told: the non-maritime towns of the north )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Netherlands - among which are mentioned specifically Deventer, Zwolle, Utrecht and Groningen- stagnated, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('for an entire century, down to 1590'. Yet, according to Table 3, between 1500 and 1560, the population of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Deventer went up by c.31% \(from 8.000 to 10,500\), that of Zwolle by c.43% \(from 7,000 to 10,000\), of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Utrecht by c.73% \(from 15,000 to 26,000\), of Groningen by c.66% \(from 7,500 to 12,500\), and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nijmwegen by c.37.5% \(from 8,000 to 11,000\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Or, take the cautionary case of Middelburg in 1622. It is described on p.379 as a sizable city, with over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30,000 inhabitants in 1622. The reference is to Table 22 \(p.381\), \('Catholic population of cities outside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holland and Utrecht'\), where the estimated total population is given as 35,000. In Table 12 \(p.328\), \('Urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansion in Holland and Zealand 1570-1647 \(estimates\)\), however, Middleburg's population in 1622 is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given as 25,000. It begins to look as if 'over 30,000' has been cited in the text because it is more or less half )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way between the 35,000 of Table 22 and the 25,000 of Table 12. There seems no reason for doing this, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unless in the belief that the truth lies usually more or less equidistant between two extremes, which seems an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlikely explanation, given the author's noted trenchancy. On the evidence provided, it is possible only to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say that estimates for the population of Middleburg in 1622 range between 25,000 and 35,000, a margin of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(error of 40%, and it would have been better to have left it at that.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sometimes, too, a crucial element in the historical context seems to have been overlooked, with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequence that a misleading, sometimes an erroneous impression, has been conveyed. Thus, in dealing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with changes in the distribution of wealth in Overijssel in the course of the late seventeenth century and the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7310 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first half of the eighteenth century, Professor Israel notes that the number of small independent farmers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diminished, and refers to Table 48 \(p.1018\), \('Changes in distribution of wealth in Overijssel 1675-1758\)'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Table indicates a fall in the percentage of artisans and small farmers from 46.5% in 1675 to 42.7% in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1758. But given that the population of Overijssel apparently rose from some 70,678 in 1675 to 132,124 in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1764 \(Dr. Joh. de Vries, De economische achteruitgang der Republiek in de achttiende eeuw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Leiden,1968\),p.167\), the numbers of artisans and small farmers would seem to have increased by something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the order of 72%.[ 1675 - 46.5% of 70,678 = c.32,865: 1764 - 42.7% of 13,2124 = c.56,417; an increase )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of c.23,552, or c.72%].)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A more important problem arises from the treatment of Dutch urbanization and de-urbanization. Here, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although what is said in the text matches the data, it arguably fails to bring out the most crucial implications )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the data. On the evidence provided, there can be doubt that Professor Israel is right in stating that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population of the principal cities of the Republic, and of Holland in particular, 'rose during the period 1647-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1672 at an impressive rate \(p.620\), and that there was an impressive growth of Holland's cities between 1647 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1688 \(p.622\). But there can be no doubt either, on the basis of Table 30 \(p.621\), \('The population of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(main Holland cities 1635-1700'\), that far and away the most impressive growth occurred between 1647 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1672, an increase of the order of 34%, as against a mere c.1.2% between 1672 and 1688. Indeed, between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1672 and 1688, only Rotterdam of the six main cities of Holland appears to have increased its population, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other five seem to have stagnated. Admittedly there was a slight surge forward in the population of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amsterdam between 1688 and 1700, but the other five main cities, according to Table 30, declined.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the light of these data, there is a case for dating the beginning the long-term decline of Holland's cities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the reversal of the long-term trends towards urbanization, in 1672 rather that 1688. That is not say, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, that 'the process of de-urbanization was continuous from the late 1680's'. \(p.858\) Between c.1700 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and c.1720 there seem to have been population recoveries in Amsterdam, Leiden, Haarlem and Delft. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Compare Tables 30 and 44 \(p.1007\) \('The population of 10 Dutch maritime and industrial cities, 1688-1815 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Indeed, on the basis of Table 44, one might argue, as Professor Israel has argued \(p.1006\), that the end of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the urbanization process occurred in the middle decades of the eighteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, whatever the time-scale for Dutch de-urbanization, and its precise chronology, its scale, even the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mere fact that it had occurred at all, marks out the Dutch Republic when set against the general trend in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe in the eighteenth century towards urbanization - though not as emphatically, it would seem as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Austrian Brabant, or the main cities of Flanders and Brabant, in the first half of the eighteenth century. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Austrian Brabant. the proportion of the population dwelling in cities fell by 11% between 1700 and 1755 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p.1012\), and, according to Table 47 \(p.1012\) \('The population of the main cities of Flanders and Brabant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1615-174'\), the population of the main cities of Flanders and Brabant fell by 20% between 1690 and 1755. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, elsewhere \(p.1006\), it is noted that the proportion of the Dutch population living in the Republic's 30 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largest cities 'having remained almost unchanged between 1690 and 1730, contracted from c.36.3% of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(total population in 1730 to 32.8% in 1755, a fall of 3.5% over a period of 65 years. And in roughly the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, between 1700 and 1749 \(Table 44 \(as above\), and Table 30 \(p.621\) \('The population of the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holland cities 1635-1700'\), the combined populations of Amsterdam, Leiden, Rotterdam, Haarlem, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Delft - the only cities for which data between 1700 and 1749 appear to be available - fell by c.14%.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These figures, so far as they relate to the first half of the eighteenth century, are difficult to square with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assertion that the process of de-urbanization in the Austrian Netherlands was only remotely comparable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p.1011\), was of only remotely comparable severity \(p.1012\), with what occurred in the Dutch Republic. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rather the reverse seems to have been true for more than half of the eighteenth century, when de-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urbanization in Austrian Brabant, and in the main cities of Flanders as well as Brabant, appears to have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a significantly higher order of severity than that experienced in the Dutch Republic in the same period. If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this is so, then it adds grist to the mill Professor Israel's mill - that the middle decades of the eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century were decisive in the chronology of Dutch de-urbanization, not simply in terms of the Dutch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republic but relative to its southern neighbour.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is time to turn to non-numerate matters. Readers of Professor Israel's previous work will have come to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 7365 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expect not only weighty scholarship, but strong, clear, forcibly expressed, independent judgments, well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supported by evidence, which take issue often with received wisdom and with long-established orthodoxy: it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has made for lively reading. The present work will not disappoint. There is much to command attention and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respect, and there is much that invites comment, or that provokes disagreement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is in the first place the repetition of the argument advanced in Dutch Primacy that the explanation for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch dominance in world trade lies not in its dominance of the Baltic trades but in its conquest of what is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described as the 'rich trades' - trades in sugar, spices, dyestuffs, silks etc. - as well as Spanish American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(silver. I lack the knowledge to come to a view on this matter, but the case as presented by Professor Israel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has force and seems persuasive. I make only three general points.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first is that only an informed reader, a reader familiar with the reception given to Dutch Primacy by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch historians, would be aware that Professor Israel?s case is hotly contested )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 417.608 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 417.608 628.515 m 431.600 628.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 431.600 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or, indeed, that there is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrary view. The second is prompted by the evidence Professor Israel provides of the extent to which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immigrant wealth, derived from the Baltic trades, the so-called moedernegotie, suckled the birth and infancy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 'rich trades'. There seems to me to be present here something of the chicken-and-egg problem. Granted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that without the fundamental restructuring of the Dutch overseas trading system in the 1590's, the recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influx of immigrants and skills could not have been absorbed \(p.311\), there seems also to be a case for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saying that without the influx of immigrant wealth, the fundamental re-structuring of the Dutch overseas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trading system might have been delayed, and would have been much more difficult to realize.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My third point concerns perceptions and their importance in the policies of the Dutch Republic. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whatever the realities of the Dutch trading system, there can be no doubt that the Baltic trades continued to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be regarded in the Dutch Republic, and outside it, in the seventeenth century and beyond it, as the source and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainspring of the country s economic primacy and prosperity, as well as its maritime strength. The herring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fishery, in particular, was regarded with particular reverence, as valuable as gold - 'a Mine of Gold'-, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enjoyed unique protection in the Dutch economy as the only commodity which could be loaded or unloaded, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(day or night, weekdays, Sundays, and holidays, throughout the year. Also, such perceptions informed and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determined decisions in foreign policy. When in 1718 the Dutch were agonising over whether or not to join )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Quadruple Alliance, what caused them, and Holland and Amsterdam in particular, to dig in their heels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and refuse to accede, was their inability to secure from Britain and the other signatories to the alliance a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guarantee of the highest possible security for the Baltic trades, rather than, as is argued \(p.998\), their deep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern about the sluggish revival since 1713 of Dutch trade with Spain and Spanish America.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 488.948 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 488.948 345.651 m 502.940 345.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But the most striking of Professor Israel's challenges to orthodoxy is his interpretation of the Dutch Revolt. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In brief, the argument is that the Netherlands north and south of the great rivers were already largely separate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entities before the Revolt. The Revolt essentially confirmed an already existing, underlying separation. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unification of the northern provinces was both inherently logical and eventually irreversible. The iron logic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the situation meant that the non-maritime provinces of the north were sucked into Holland's sphere of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control. The outcome of the Revolt was the necessary conclusion to the previous history of the region and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not, as Pieter Geyl argued, the product of particular military and strategic factors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is considerable strength in the argument. Professor Israel makes a strong case that large differences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the provinces of the north and the south existed before the Revolt, though it may be argued that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underplays the existence and strength of integrating intellectual and judicial forces before the Revolt.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More to the point, or at least to my point, is the difficulty I see created by the admission that the fate of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolt was several times in the balance and might have been crushed: had Leiden fallen in August 1574, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolt as a whole might have been crushed - 'With the entire Revolt in the balance'.\(p.181\); 'if Orange had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been a less skillful and tenacious leader the Revolt might well have been overwhelmed militarily'.\(p.183-4\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There seems to be an uncomfortable conjunction here of the contingent and the necessary, unless of course )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Revolt is to be reduced to a blip in the inexorable progress towards duality, interesting but essentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irrelevant.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 417.6077 628.8295 431.5997 640.7095 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 488.9477 345.9655 502.9397 357.8455 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 7017 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The religious dimension to the Revolt also comes in for provocative treatment. At the outset of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation in the Netherlands, Catholic commitment among the people was weak, 'as in England', or not as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in England you follow Scarisbrick et al. Massive defection followed, which affected both the elites of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society and the population in general. By the early 1560's 'Protestantism, open, semi-concealed, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicodemist, saturated the entire country'.\(p.l41\) That will seem a puzzling claim to those familiar with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widely-held view that only a small proportion of the population at this time was committed to Protestantism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that it took nearly 100 years, until 1650, for the situation to be reached when Protestantism could lay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claim to the allegiance of about 50% of the population of the Dutch Republic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Religion figures prominently in Professor Israel's treatment of the seventeenth century. There is a well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informed account of the nature, extent, and the limitations of tolerance in the Republic, in practice as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in theory, and of its growth in the eighteenth century, in respect of Catholics, Lutherans, and especially Jews, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for whom, 'decline or no decline, the Republic was...a land of opportunity', albeit limited opportunity, hard-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(won, by no means universal, and under persistent pressure, as seems to have been the case of tolerance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally in the Dutch Republic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More arresting, however, is his treatment of the divisions within the Reformed Church: not just the familiar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Remonstrant Contraremonstrant division of the first decades of the seventeenth century, but the later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divisions between Voetians and Cocceians. For Professor Israel these later divisions constituted an integral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and important part of political conflict, and of 'party-faction' conflict, in the later seventeenth century, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repercussions which were felt throughout Dutch society. It is a post-Roorda, post Namierite approach to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch politics in the period, and is refreshing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Refreshing also, though mostly in the sense of invigorating dissent, is Professor Israel's treatment of Dutch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign policy under William III and after. Dissent arises principally from the priority attached by the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to economic factors in determining the Republic, and Holland and Amsterdam in particular, to join a general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coalition with the Habsburgs and to prepare for the invasion of England in 1688, and in determining the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch role in the so-called War of the Spanish Succession. For Professor Israel the decisive factor, the pivot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon which everything turned in 1688, was the economic war between France and the Dutch Republic, just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as, in the so-called War of the Spanish Succession, the reasons for the Republic's involvement in the war, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and for its determination to continue with the war, in the face of unprecedented damage to the Dutch trading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system, were, in the first place, and fundamentally, concern for the survival and recovery of the Dutch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trading system.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To begin at the end, it might be argued that what determined the role of the Dutch in the so-called War of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish Succession was neither the interests of Holland nor the traditions of William III, but the strategy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the coalition. Alternatively, or additionally, it might be argued that too sharp an antithesis is being made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the interests of Holland and the traditions of William III. Serious and debilitating conflicts between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the two had arisen in the 1680's, but there was a point, a level, at which they coalesced - were subsumed - in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a common concern to achieve an enduring strategic security and, above all, in a determination to avoid a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repetition of the trauma of 1672. The spectre of 1672 haunted Dutch foreign policy in 1688, when the threat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a renewal of the Anglo-French collusion of 1670 and 1672 seemed real to the Republic and was widely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feared in the Republic, and among its leaders. This spectre, and this fear, seem to me to have been the true )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pivot upon which Dutch foreign policy turned in 1688, and turned again in the so-called War of the Spanish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Succession.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part of the evidence for this latter claim comes from the French political agent in the Republic in 1706, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helvtius. Helvtius is cited in support of the view that, despite the enormous damage done to the Dutch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trading system by the war, there was solid support among merchants, manufacturers, and the public, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the States of Holland, for going on with the war, and in the context of the development of the argument that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what brought about consensus was the conviction that if the Bourbon Succession was not reversed, the old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trading system would be done for anyway. Helvtius certainly provides support for the view that there was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solid support in Holland in 1706 for going on with the war, and for the view that the union of the Bourbon )] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 6988 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thrones was seen by the Dutch to pose a great threat to their trading system. What he also writes, however, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that that consensus in favour of going on with the war had more to do the trauma of 1672, and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determination to avoid its repetition, than with the damage being done to the Dutch trading system. I quote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the passage:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Un autre motif beaucoup plus essential qui les a embarqus dans la ligue, c'est celui de la )] TJ ET BT 64.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(libert, pour laquelle ils sont prests, disent-ils de risquer non seulement leur commerce, mais )] TJ ET BT 64.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(touts leurs biens et leurs vies mesmes. Elle n'a pour remparts que les Pais Bas Espagnols contre )] TJ ET BT 64.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(les forces redoutables de la France, qui malgre cette barrire les a mis deux doigts de leur perte )] TJ ET BT 64.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dans la guerre de 1672 que seroit [?inevitable] si cette monarchie reglant a` son gr le )] TJ ET BT 64.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gouvernement de celle d'Espagne venoit a entreprendre une seconde fois la conqueste de la )] TJ ET BT 64.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hollande....Ils reconnoissent qu'une bonne paix est l'unique remede qui puisse reparer les )] TJ ET BT 64.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breches faites a leurs finances et a`leur commerce, mais ils sont persuades qu?une paix mal )] TJ ET BT 64.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concue, mal cimente, et peu fidellement observe ne serviroit qu' a` introduire la politique de )] TJ ET BT 64.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France en Espagne et serrer par ce noeud l'union des deux couronnes augmenter leurs forces )] TJ ET BT 64.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dsja trop redoutables et preparer aux Provinces Unies des dangers infiniment plus terribles )] TJ ET BT 64.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pour elles que les incommodites qu'elles essuient aujourd'hui.')] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 361.808 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 361.808 557.235 m 375.800 557.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is difficult to see this passage as other than a clear echo of the priorities of Dutch foreign policy as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood and practiced by William III, and as enunciated by him to the States of Holland on the 4th. of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(November 1683, when he declared that, although commerce was the pillar of the state, he would not risk the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state for trade and, if the state was lost, commerce would also be lost.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 367.292 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 367.292 476.211 m 381.284 476.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 381.284 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It was the traditions of William III, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than the interests of Holland, that defined the reasons for Dutch entry into the so-called War of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish Succession, for their continuance in the war in 1706, and afterwards, and shaped decisively the kind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of peace the Dutch would seek.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the event, the Dutch did not get the peace they wanted, or that William III had envisaged. After 1713, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before, the Dutch were between a rock and a hard place, driven on the one hand by the need, as they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceived it, never to separate from Britain, and, on the other, by the need at all costs to avoid involvement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in war, which might follow from too close a connection with Britain. As Professor Israel shows, for some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades at least after 1713, the Dutch were able to follow in their foreign policy a course which protected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential Dutch interests. But there can be no doubt that in terms of the pecking order of the European power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system, the Republic had declined by 1713, and was seen to have declined.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Decline is an unavoidable theme, a dominating theme, in discussing the Dutch Republic in the eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. Historians continue to disagree about the nature and extent of the decline, about when and where the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rot started, about when and where the rot became apparent, but the fact of a decline is accepted.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Israel has much to say about decline: indeed, the last section of his book is entitled 'Age of Decline )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1702-1806'. It cannot be denied that the title is appropriate, though, as Professor Israel is at pains to make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear, the 'Age of Decline' was also in important respects, and for a considerable part of the period, an age of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued vitality. For he argues convincingly that the Dutch Enlightenment, rooted in the technological and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other scientific advances in anatomy, botany and medicine of the Early or Pre-Enlightenment, made the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch the instructors of Europe in these fields, and continued to be an influential force in Europe generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until 1740 or 1750. In the course of the argument he writes of the Dutch Enlightenment and the Dutch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Huguenot Enlightenment as distinct and, in some respects, separate phenomena, of a cultural divide between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the intellectual flowering in the French language, on the one hand, and Dutch and Latin, on the other.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In what is said about the Dutch Enlightenment there is much that will be unfamiliar to English readers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is also undoubted force in the distinction drawn between the Dutch Enlightenment and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment of Bayle and others, but less force than appears at first sight. It is true that very few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Huguenots, including the Huguenot elite, knew Dutch, though Basnage did. It is also true that a great deal of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 361.8077 557.5495 375.7997 569.4295 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 367.2917 476.5255 381.2837 488.4055 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 44 0 R 47 0 R 50 0 R 53 0 R ] /Contents 42 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Length 7999 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the material concerned with the late Cartesian and Cocceian movements was in Dutch. But much of it was in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Latin, which was accessible to the Huguenot elite. The process, therefore, whereby Dutch religious and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual controversies were 'screened out' from the European agenda of the Enlightenment, may have had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less to do with the linguistic barrier of Dutch, than the pressures exerted upon Huguenots by the Walloon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church not to get involved in Cocceian-Voetian disputes and related matters, to which reference is made, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps to a natural prudence on the part of recently arrived immigrants not to give hostages to fortune by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(getting involved in Dutch party and factional conflicts. In any case, there were holes in the screen. Leclerc, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he can be regarded as a Huguenot, an honorary Huguenot perhaps, was a friend of Van Limborch, who is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(said to have acted as a 'taalbemiddelar' for him, and he was also a friend of Anthonie van Dale, one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Early Enlightenment figures, who wrote in Latin as well as Dutch.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 352.640 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 352.640 666.771 m 366.632 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 366.632 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Leclerc also acknowledged the stir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caused by Balthasar Bekker's De Betoverde Wereld, and the importance of making it known immediately to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who did not read Dutch, by providing a lengthy extract in French for readers of his Bibliothque )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universelle et historique in 1691, the year of the work s publication.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 358.976 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 358.976 624.003 m 372.968 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But Professor Israel is a bit shaky on his Huguenots. He is too dismissive of the contributions of Huguenots )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the Republic's role as the hub of the European Enlightenment, reducing them to 'additional factors', and he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentions not at all their role in introducing Europe to English science, English culture and English history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the same time, however, as he underestimates, and fails to acknowledge the importance of some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Huguenots, he grossly inflates the importance of one Huguenot, Rousset de Missy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rousset de Missy, who is best known as a leading journalist and as an Orangist agitator in the Orangist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution of 1747-51, is described as radical, a participant in the compilation of 'arguably the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensational text in the Radical Enlightenment', Les Trois Imposteurs , indeed, the standard-bearer of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition , a fierce critic of regents and regent corruption as well as of traditional thought since 1719, and an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eager advocate of the dissemination of Locke political ideas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would be wearisome - to me certainly - to go over ground already ploughed.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 410.276 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 410.276 431.187 m 424.268 431.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 424.268 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Suffice it to repeat that on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the evidence presently available, all of these descriptions of Rousset de Missy are either unclear, as in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(description of him as a radical, or, in the case of the other descriptions cannot be justified in the light of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available evidence.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 125.984 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 125.984 388.419 m 139.976 388.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 139.976 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Even the existence of 'The Radical Enlightenment', still seems to me to be in question.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Difficult to justify too is the description of the Orangist Revolution of 1747 as 'a full scale revolution', as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult as it is to accept the view that 1702 witnessed 'a fundamental change in the structure of Dutch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics'. 'Fundamental' is an over-used word which crops up with unusual frequency to describe the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recurrent spasms in the Dutch body politic between Stadholderate and Stadholderless regimes. What may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strike the reader, from the abundant evidence which Professor Israel provides, is the extent to which at these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moments of change including the Second Orangist Revolution and the Batavian Revolution - change was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined as the restoration of some golden or better or mythical past: revolution perhaps, but revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely in the sense of a return to a previous point of departure. The Batavian Revolution was a further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of the tendencies manifested in the movements of 1672,1702-3,1747-8 rather than \(as has often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been supposed\) a fundamental new beginning linked to revolutionary trends elsewhere in the late eighteenth- )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century western Atlantic world'\(p.1105\),and \(rather than is supposed\) the first major European manifestation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the wider Atlantic revolutionary upheaval engulfing the western world in the wake of the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution.\(p.1119\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A brief word is called for in respect of the treatment of the economic decline of the Dutch Republic. Here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again Professor Israel is characteristically forthright about a complex and contentious problem. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic Golden Age is held to have lasted broadly from 1590 to 1740. Long before that, however, the gold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had become tarnished. A long-term deterioration of the Dutch economy had set in between 1672 and 1677, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though the permanent, irreversible decline of Holland as a maritime and industrial power commenced only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in, and around 1688, with the onset of the 9 Years War, from which time dates also the long-term decline of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch cities. Even in the early eighteenth century, however, there was some light amidst the encircling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gloom: Dutch commerce continued to be strong, shipbuilding along the Zaan, and some manufactures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reached their peak, and the Republic continued to be an important centre of European finance. From the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 43 0 obj [41 0 R /Fit] endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 352.6397 667.0855 366.6317 678.9655 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj [41 0 R /Fit] endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 358.9757 624.3175 372.9677 636.1975 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 49 0 obj [41 0 R /Fit] endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 410.2757 431.5015 424.2677 443.3815 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 52 0 obj [41 0 R /Fit] endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 125.9837 388.7335 139.9757 400.6135 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 56 0 R >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Length 6955 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1720's, however, the Dutch trading system was crumbling, and the main Holland towns declined rapidly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their trade and industry. Economic decline, both absolute and relative, and widespread social decay, were the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grim realities of the Republic by the 1740's and thereafter in the eighteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is not the only view of Dutch economic decline, nor the prevailing view, but it is a view that is well argued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and will surely provoke debate. It would have been useful, however, if it had been made clear to readers that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other views exist.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would have been useful too in this connection if Professor Israel had brought together the various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanations that historians have provided for Dutch decline, and given his view on them. Granted, as is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asserted, that the root cause of decline lay in external factors, in the damage done by the growth of strongly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protectionist economies in many European states in the eighteenth century, and, in the longer term, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater damage caused by the Republic's lack of the natural and imperial resources which were available to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustain Britain s economic growth, what of other factors?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many factors have been suggested as contributing to Dutch economic decline. Professor Israel mentions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several, but he does not take them very far. He mentions, for example, 'moral decline', as a contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obsession, which it was, but not the fact that it has been the subject of lively debate among Dutch historians. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He mentions also 'the astounding increase in Dutch investment abroad', and adjudges it as both a symptom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Dutch economic collapse, and a factor strengthening the economies of the Republic s competitors, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly Britain. These carefully worded comments suggest that he knows more than he is saying. In that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(event, it is a pity that he did not say more, for what he does say raises a number of matters that deserve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ventilation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is in the first place the question of the extent to which investment abroad by the Dutch in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century had increased over the seventeenth century, when there had also been investment and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speculation in foreign enterprises and foreign funds. Laying that aside, it seems clear that Britain's industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development was only marginally assisted by Dutch capital and would have occurred without it. Moreover, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even if Dutch capital had not been exported abroad in the eighteenth century, it is by no means certain that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been invested in risky industrial enterprises. Many of those who invested abroad in British funds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the eighteenth century were small investors - spinsters, widows, retired military officers, orphanages, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clerics. It seems reasonable to suggest that such people were looking for security, stability and absence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(risk, for immediate and certain returns on their capital. It seems very unlikely that such investors, with such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(requirements, would have settled for something more risky, or that in a country where the social prestige of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merchants stood much higher than that of the industrialist, that they would have invested their money in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch industry. In any case, which industries? It would have been valuable to have had Professor Israel's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views on these matters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, something could have been said about other factors which have attracted the attention of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians: the importance of levels of indirect taxation; the high costs of labour; the increased costs of fuel, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically of peat, allegedly the equivalent in importance to the Dutch economy in the seventeenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Groningen gas in the twentieth; to declining demand as an inhibitor of technological inventiveness; to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preponderance of the commercial tradition; to the lack of a strong central authority, for granted that its lack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had not prevented Dutch economic prosperity in the seventeenth century, was its lack an impediment in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century when the Republic faced increased foreign competition? Or, if unchanging structures are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an irrelevance, what importance is to be attached to the argument that a tendency towards oligarchisation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ossification in governing circles, towards a more self-enclosed regent governing class, towards a narrowing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the channels of social mobility, induced in the Republic a kind of arteriosclerosis of the body politic, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drowsy, incestuous complacency, which inhibited initiative, inventiveness, enterprise and vision. Perhaps the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fate of the Republic would have been better if its fate had been worse. Enterprise and rejuvenation are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes evoked by sudden collapse where they are not evoked by steady erosion. The Dutch did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enjoy, or maybe were spared for too long, sudden collapse. And when rejuvenation came, it came first in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shape of political rejuvenation.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R ] /Contents 58 0 R >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Length 7089 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is a tribute to Professor Israel and his work that after 1130 pages a reader should be asking for more. More )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will undoubtedly be forthcoming. Meantime, however, admiration and pleasure have to be registered for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(staggering achievement, the culmination - at least for the moment - of a decade or so of remarkable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creativity. It is on a scale which matches the importance of its subject, and it is carried through with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unflagging zest. It is certain to become compulsory reading for students of Dutch and European history in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early modern period. Those who read it will emerge not only much better informed about the emergence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the United Provinces as a great power and its decline in the eighteenth century, about its thought, religion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics, culture and society, and their complex interplay, in the early modern period, but more important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they will take away a determination to know more, and to re-examine what they thought they knew. That has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly been my experience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If I have seemed unduly critical, my defence is that the work has been consistently stimulating, that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author rejoices in polemics, and that I could have gone on longer. The decline in Dutch universities in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, for example, or more specifically the contraction in student )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numbers, takes on a rather different aspect, seems less of a problem grounded exclusively in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances of the Dutch situation, if attention is not placed exclusively on foreign students, but takes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch students, and is placed in a European context which saw a widespread contraction in student numbers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in many European universities in the early eighteenth century. Or, to turn to the southern Netherlands, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is invoked to point up the contrasts and similarities with the north, and to establish the relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the two. If the cultural barriers between the south and the north remained intact in the eighteenth century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they did not obstruct all mutual cultural enrichment: Dutch flower painting and Dutch landscape painting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to inspire and to find imitators in the Austrian Netherlands. Further, on the evidence provided the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightened initiatives of the Brussels regime in the 1758's and 1760?s seem characterized more by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frustration than by achievement. But there was stimulation to both trade and industry from both Jan van )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brouchoven, count of Bergeyck, government minister in Brussels at the beginning of the eighteenth century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Charles Alexander of Lorraine, governor from 1741-80, both of whom imposed vigorous mercantilist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programmes. It was a striking example of what could be achieved with energetic leadership, driven partly by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the realization of the Habsburgs that if the Austrian Netherlands were to be exchanged for Bavaria, a better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bargain might be struck if the lands were put in good order; and it was in striking contrast to the lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(energetic leadership in the Dutch Republic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Israel draws attention to the effectiveness of neighbourhood watches in reducing blatant street )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prostitution and all forms of violent crime, including rape, in Amsterdam in the seventeenth century. If, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed, rape was reduced, as distinct from having become more difficult to prove, it seems possible that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more consequence was the system of street lighting invented by Jan van der Heyden, and which lit up the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city with 1800 public lanterns in 1670.\( pp.681-82\). I cite this, in an already swollen review, in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make the point that Professor Israel has shed much light himself. He has illuminated some of the darker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corners of Dutch history and shown many of its familiar landmarks in a new light. Also, though he has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejected Pieter Geyl's view of the Dutch Revolt, his own work is an excellent demonstration of Geyl's dictum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about history being an argument without end.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is also a snip at 25. Oxford University Press deserves our thanks and other university presses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should take note.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 115.676 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 115.676 191.091 m 135.668 191.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 157.587 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 126.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan I.lsrael,' The 'New History' versus ' Traditional History' in interpreting Dutch world trade )] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primacy', in ' Een fraaie synthese op een wankele basis. J.I.lsrael, Dutch primacy in world trade."',\( )] TJ ET BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bijdragen en Mededelingen betreffende de Geschiedenis der Nederlanden, 106/3 \(1991\), 472-4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 524.228 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 524.228 97.059 m 551.888 97.059 l S BT 64.016 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 82.803 m 90.344 82.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 69.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J.L. van Zanden, ' De 'nieuwe visie' van Israel', and Leo Noordegraaf, ' Vooruit en achteruit in de )] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(handelgeschiedenis van de Republiek' in ' Een fraaie synthese...', B.M.G.N.,106/3\( 1991\),451-68 )] TJ ET endstream endobj 59 0 obj [57 0 R /Fit] endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 115.6757 191.4055 135.6677 203.2855 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 524.2277 97.3735 551.8877 109.2535 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 83.1175 90.3437 94.9975 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R 80 0 R 82 0 R 84 0 R 86 0 R ] /Contents 67 0 R >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Length 8638 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neither van Zanden nor Noordegraff appears in the bibliography to the Dutch Republic.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 486.260 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 486.260 795.075 m 540.248 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ragnhild Hatton, Diplomatic relations between Great Britain and the Dutch Republic 1714-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21\(London, 1950\), pp.l74,181,185-87. Hatton, which does not appear in Israel's bibliography, would )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been useful in another respect, in helping to date the first occasion on which Britain broached )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the Republic's leaders the possibility of a marriage between one of the daughters of the later )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George II- he had three- and the Prince of Orange, later William IV. Hatton makes it clear that the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter was broached in 1721, and it is possible that it had been broached earlier in 1718.\(\( Hatton, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p.219 and Hugh Dunthorne, The maritime powers 1721-1740. A study of Anglo-Dutch relations in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age of Walpole.\(New York/London, 1988\),pp.19-20\) In any event, the first occasion on which it was )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broached was not 1728 \(Israel, p.992\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 248.636 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 248.636 666.771 m 302.624 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 653.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M.van der Bijl,'De Franse politieke agent Helvetius over de situatie in de Nederlandse ReRepubliek in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(het jaar 1706, B.M.G.N.,80 \(1966\),186.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 254.660 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 254.660 638.259 m 308.648 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 625.402 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G.H.Kurtz, Willem III en Amsterdam 1683-1685 \(Utrecht, 1928\), pp.67-68.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 428.948 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 428.948 624.003 m 482.936 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 611.146 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(De "Bibliotheque Universelle et Historique" 1686-1693. Een periodiek als trefpunt van geletterd )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europa. by Hans Bots, H.Hillenaar, J.Janssen, J.van der Korst and L.van Lieshout \(Studies van het )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instituut voor intellectuele betrekkingen tussen de Westeuropse Landen in de zeventiende eeuw )] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amsterdam & Maarssen,1981\) vol.7, pp.5, 22, 26, 84, and J.J.V.de Vet, Pieter Rabust \(1660 -1702\) )] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Een wegbereider van de NoordnederlandseVerlichting \(Studies...Amsterdam/Maarssen 1980\), vol. 6, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 205-6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 113.012 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 113.012 538.467 m 167.000 538.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 525.610 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(De Bibliotheque Universelle...,p.90. It may be noted that Rabus Boekzaal was not unknown in France. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1699 Jean Paul Bignon, director of the Academie, ordered a complete series of the periodical from )] TJ ET BT 64.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Rotterdam bookseller, Reinier Leers. Moreover, the Acta Eruditorum, which extracted from the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boekzaal, was we known in England and France, 70 copies of the periodical going to one English )] TJ ET BT 64.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bookseller alone in September 1691. \( de Vet, supra cit,, 144 and A.h.Laeven, De 'Acta Eruditorum'. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Onder Redactie van Otto Mencke. De Geschiedenis van een Internationaal Geleerdenperiodiek tussen )] TJ ET BT 64.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1682 en 1707. \(Studies...Amsterdam & Maarssen, 1986\), The debate about Bekker, therefore, may )] TJ ET BT 64.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been more widely known in England and France than Professor Israel seems to suggest. This )] TJ ET BT 64.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not affect his central point about apparent lack of impact.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 363.620 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 363.620 410.163 m 417.608 410.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 397.306 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G.C.Gibbs,' The Radical Enlightenment', British Journal for the History of Science, xviii\(1984\), 67-79.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 381.651 m 118.004 381.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 368.794 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Israel writes on p.l074 of Rousset de Missy ' being eager to spread the influence of John )] TJ ET BT 64.016 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Locke'. He may have been, but there is no evidence that he was in the letter from Rousset de Missy to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bentinck which is cited in support of the assertion. On my reading of the letter, the only eagerness )] TJ ET BT 64.016 326.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recorded is the initial eagerness of Bentinck to see Locke's Traite du Gouvernement published, and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent eagerness of the book's designated publisher to see published a book long promised and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 297.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already advertised.\(See, J.Rousset de Missy aan Willem Bentinck, Amsterdam, 26 juni 1748\( )] TJ ET BT 64.016 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Briefwisseling en aantekeningen van Willem Bentinck, Heer van Rhoon. deel II. Van de Preliminairen )] TJ ET BT 64.016 268.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(van Aken, 30th April 1748 tot aan de dood van Willem IV, 22 Oktober 1751, uitgegeven door )] TJ ET BT 64.016 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C.Gerretson en P.Geylt 's-Gravenhage, 1976\), 2 vols, ii \(eerste stuk\),71-72.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 425.444 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 425.444 253.347 m 479.432 253.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 240.490 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 240.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have come across a few misprints, miraculously few in a book of this size, and completely trivial. I )] TJ ET BT 64.016 226.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention them in case they have not been picked up, and in order that they can be corrected in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 211.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent re-impressions, editions, and translations: p.75, for Map 5\(a\), Map 6\(a\); p.210, the text of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 197.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the articles of the Union of Utrecht has two references to 'His Majesty', not one; p.252, the reference to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Table 51 seems to be in error- I don't know what the reference should be; p.616, the reference is to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 169.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Table 28, not 27; p. l001, the reference is to Table 45, not 44; p.l021, last paragraph, l.3, should read )] TJ ET BT 64.016 154.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Among the provinces only Holland surpassed Utrecht..', not only Utrecht surpassed Holland', and, on )] TJ ET BT 64.016 140.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same page, for Table 48, read Table 49.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 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