%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 36 0 R 56 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818063801+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818063801+01'00') /Title (History and National Life) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4156 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(History and National Life)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At a time when, particularly in the new universities and colleges of higher education, historians feel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves in danger of being swept away by the advancing tide of vocationalism, any attempt to uphold the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of the subject to the life of the nation is, one might think, to be welcomed. Unfortunately, despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its accessible and vivid style, Peter Mandler?s )] TJ ET BT 257.984 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History and National Life)] TJ ET BT 381.668 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( rather sells the discipline short.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In essence Mandler?s argument is based on the construction of a very simple narrative of the development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History in Britain from the nineteenth century down to the present day. According to this account History )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged, initially, as a tool of national identification. In Britain this process led to the emergence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Whig Interpretation of History'. This was a narrative that described the continual process of improvement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken to mark British society and linked that process to certain supposed national characteristics. In this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, it is claimed History ?held an unprecedented, and perhaps irretrievable high position in national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life?.\(p. 48\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This happy state of affairs, alas, did not endure into the next century. After the First World War, British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians erected the barrier of ?professionalism? between themselves and the wider world. With one or two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptions, like G.M Trevelyan, they withdrew into the fastness of the universities and eschewed the writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of works for popular consumption. By mid-century the subject was in retreat and rapidly losing ground to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the social sciences.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The tide turned, according to Mandler, after 1960 when, with the demise of ?myths of national destiny? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(300)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 30 September, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Mandler)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781861974698)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Profile Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roger Spalding)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7431 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(94\), history again became popular. The recovery, we are led to believe, reached a climax \(which is still with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us\) in the 1990s when, in print and on television, academic history re-connected with popular history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History is the new rock?n?roll, and Simon Schama is its Elvis Presley!)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This unification of academic and popular history has created, we are told, ?unparalleled opportunities?, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians to ?chart a new social purpose for history in the twenty-first century?.\(p. 10\) In his concluding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter Mandler offers his thoughts on what might be the components of such a ?new social purpose?. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that the examination of difficult ethical problems is often easier within an historical context. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process of ethical examination, he continues, can enable one to place one?s own values in a wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective, and, by doing so, fix the elements of one?s individual identity. Put simply, it is possible to ?find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yourself? in the past. One wonders if Mandler has done this himself. The problem with such a procedure is, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as he himself points out, that it would be virtually impossible to determine how far you were merely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applying the values of the present in a supposed historical location. Ultimately, though, the idea that it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible to fix one?s moral position by an act of empathy with, say, the executioner of Charles I seems rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a desperate contrivance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mandler also suggests that those with postgraduate history degrees could find employment writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guidebooks for the National Trust and English Heritage. Indeed this, no doubt agreeable, employment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prospect is of a piece with what appears to be his view of the discipline?s ultimate role:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The more commercial sectors of the knowledge culture ? journalism, the mass media, the heritage industry ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have come increasingly to rely upon academics for raising and policing standards that they cannot sustain on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own.\(p. 163\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Errand-boys and proof-readers for journalism and the entertainment industries, a depressing vision. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, it is not only the end-point of Mandler?s narrative that is questionable, so too are many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points along the way.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When Mandler discusses what he regards as the revival of popular history he overwhelms the reader with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multitude of examples. In the process, though, he conflates an interest in the past and objects from it with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. If he had read his copy of E. H.Carr?s )] TJ ET BT 258.296 380.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History)] TJ ET BT 333.632 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, he might have a clearer idea of the difference.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 364.419 m 48.008 364.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the examples that Mandler cites is the television programme, )] TJ ET BT 365.300 339.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Going for a Song)] TJ ET BT 448.304 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, first screened in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1965. The format of the programme involved the examination of antiques by lay-people, whose conclusions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were promptly shot down by the resident expert, Arthur Negus, whose favourite comment was: ?Now here?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a lovely thing?. The focus of the discussion was always on the )] TJ ET BT 336.308 296.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(objet d?art)] TJ ET BT 389.312 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as an )] TJ ET BT 419.636 296.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(objet d?art)] TJ ET BT 472.640 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In other words, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no attempt was ever made to contextualise the objects displayed. The programme was actually devoid of any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaningful historical content.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mandler also cites the fashion for Edwardian/Victorian clothing in the 1960s as indicative of a broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical interest. As someone who bought the Beatles? album, )] TJ ET BT 342.320 227.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sergeant Pepper?s Lonely Hearts Club Band)] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1966, as a thirteen year-old, I can definitely say that history was the last thing on my mind as I gazed at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Fab Four in their exotic period uniforms. Neither do I believe that the mohican-haired punk rockers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late seventies had any interest at all in the Mohawk peoples of upper New York state. It is perfectly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible to plunder the past for striking images, without developing any interest whatsoever in history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On another count, Mandler claims that this interest in the fashions of the past was possible because history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 1960s, no longer acted as a conduit for ?myths of national destiny'. What, then, would he make of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those women?s fashions of the 1930s ? a period during which, he claims, history was unpopular, because of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its link to national myths ? that were based upon an entire genre of popular historical films, like )] TJ ET BT 495.632 101.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life of Henry VIII)] TJ ET BT 120.332 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 125.660 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 125.660 86.067 m 139.652 86.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 139.652 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He could hardly simply dismiss them as the products of the cinema, when he himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cites film and television programmes to support this alleged upsurge in popular history. Among such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programmes cited is the series, )] TJ ET BT 185.324 58.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poldark)] TJ ET BT 223.988 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Many of Mandler?s readers will be too young to remember this )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 364.7335 48.0077 376.6135 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 125.6597 86.3815 139.6517 98.2615 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8464 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series, so it is worth saying that in, it ?The Past? acted principally as a location within which exposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bosoms could heave, untrammelled. It was ?history? of the Daphne du Maurier school. It would tell one little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the eighteenth century in which it was set, but a great deal about the fantasies of its 1970s audience. I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would argue that many of the trends that Mandler identifies represent the development of a particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(category of commodities, which are consumed as commodities of the present, with very limited, if any, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engagement with the past to which they refer.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similar points might be made about some of the television series that Mandler seems so keen on. In the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent notable example, Simon Schama?s )] TJ ET BT 236.648 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 332.324 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the audience is presented with a simple, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linear narrative. No critical engagement with the past is offered, the package is complete and resolved; it is, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as such, profoundly ideological and is also a fairly standard item of television entertainment. Again and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again Mandler tells his readers that historians no longer believe that History offers lessons for the present.\(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(145\) However, Schama?s series was shot through with ?lessons?, as this review notes:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Again Schama asserted that their [Winston Churchill, and George Orwell] correct reading of the present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came from a correct reading of the past. He was also uncharacteristically bitter in his denunciation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeasers ? not least because they lacked a proper sense of British history. Fortunately, he cheered in time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for courageously earnest peroration, which hymned in turn, Britain and even patriotism.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 455.948 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 455.948 557.235 m 469.940 557.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not only does Schama endorse the notion of ?lessons? from history? he also appears to be wedded to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist myth-making, and so completely at odds with Mandler?s vision of a history that has transcended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its ?nationalist origins?.\(p. 10\) The biggest problem with Schama?s series is, though, its completeness. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that sense it conforms to the demands of television for resolution. Consequently the series was no more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an entertaining story, told in a entertaining way, that just happened to be a version of the history of Britain. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schama?s status as an entertainer was confirmed recently by an article in )] TJ ET BT 387.260 461.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian)] TJ ET BT 454.928 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, subtitled ?Simon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schama on how he learned to love the kitchen?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 263.636 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 263.636 445.443 m 277.628 445.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 277.628 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Schama has no particular culinary expertise, and nothing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really interesting to say about food. He is, though a ?celebrity? and consequently all aspects of his life have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become saleable commodities. The process is not new, A. J. P Taylor consciously marketed his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?personality?, crusty, witty, clever, good talk-show fodder. His much-referred-to television lectures were, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reality, ?turns?. Viewers remember that he spoke without notes, and finished bang on time. They do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remember what he said.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antony Beevor?s )] TJ ET BT 120.668 349.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Stalingrad)] TJ ET BT 171.344 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Penguin, 1998\) is also promoted by Mandler as an example of serious popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. Within its limits it is a very impressive work, but its limits are very clear, it is a straightforward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linear narrative. In effect it presents itself as the truth about Stalingrad, and its readers engage with the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on that level as, in the words of Antonia Fraser, a ?superb work of narrative history'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 438.764 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 438.764 305.139 m 452.756 305.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 452.756 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This type of reading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not even consider that narratives are human constructs, and not simply reproductions of reality. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Consequently, the consumption of the book is conditioned by the force of the narration and is similar in kind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to that of a novel. Indeed, in July of 2002 Beevor published an article in )] TJ ET BT 382.304 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Sunday Times)] TJ ET BT 470.300 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with the subtitle: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Antony Beevor on why history is the new novel?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 277.652 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 277.652 248.115 m 291.644 248.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 291.644 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Beevor?s books and Schama?s television programmes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are fine, as far as they go; but, for the reasons I have given above, it seems to be stretching a point to claim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they represent, along with other examples, the development of a new historical consciousness. The great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(majority of these works do not address the issue of conflicting interpretations, and consequently do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engage their consumers in the processes involved in the construction of historical accounts. They are, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately, entertainments. This is highlighted by a forthcoming BBC series called ?Great Britons?, due to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be screened in October, 2002. This is to consist of ten programmes outlining the lives of ten ?Great Britons? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including individuals like, Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, John Lennon. At the end of the series viewers will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be invited to vote for the greatest Briton of all, out of the pre-selected ten. What criteria will they apply? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Will they make informed evaluations? Is it a meaningful historical exercise? Or is simply an historical form )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Big Brother? I tend to favour the latter view.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mandler pays very slight attention to the work of Britain?s marxist historians. He gives over three pages to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. P. Thompson's )] TJ ET BT 121.184 66.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of the English Working Class)] TJ ET BT 322.520 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Victor Gollancz; London, 1963\), and ?history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from below?. The book also contains three references to Eric Hobsbawm, none of which comments on his )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 455.9477 557.5495 469.9397 569.4295 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 263.6357 445.7575 277.6277 457.6375 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 438.7637 305.4535 452.7557 317.3335 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 277.6517 248.4295 291.6437 260.3095 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R 42 0 R 45 0 R 48 0 R 51 0 R 54 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 8230 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political affiliations. His comments on Thompson suggest that ?history from below? emerged as a trend in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early 1960s and was an element in the ?revival? of the subject that, he claims, developed at that time. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact the roots of Thompson?s approach go back to the Popular Front campaigns of the late 1930s. A period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which saw the publication of A. L. Morton?s, )] TJ ET BT 255.656 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A People?s History of England )] TJ ET BT 407.984 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Victor Gollancz; London, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1938\), a work which remained in print for much of the post-war period; and a conscious effort by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Communist Party of Great Britain to utilise history as a political tool.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Communists in this period, set about deliberately fostering a sense of democratic heritage, and in those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?March of History? pageants which the Party organised in 1936, Cromwell?s portrait was borne proudly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aloft along with those of John Ball and Wat Tyler.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 275.324 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 275.324 669.027 m 289.316 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Very similar pageants were also organised by local Labour parties, featuring figures like the Tolpuddle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martyrs, the Rochdale Pioneers and the Chartists. The point is that during the 1930s and even before, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existed a significant minority version of popular history. However, unlike the version of popular history that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mandler describes as existing today, this, earlier form involved the active selection of an historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation by its participants. These communists and labour movement activists knew History was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contested territory. The supporters of Blair?s New Labour ?project? are also aware of the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical justification, and attempted to use Labour?s centenary as an opportunity to use history to underpin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their views.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 90.008 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 90.008 542.979 m 104.000 542.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This tradition of radical/activist history continued to be a significant element of British historical practice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until at least the mid-1980s. Some would, of course, argue that it is still a significant force. They would not, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I think, deny that it is in retreat. Mandler?s work pays scant attention to the tradition, and none at all to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retreat. His account of the discipline?s development is, at the very least incomplete. Mandler calls those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians who write for a mass market 'Thatcher?s children', because of the alacrity with which they move )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to turn a buck. They are indeed Thatcher?s children but not for that reason. One of the consequences of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule of Baroness Thatcher of Finchley was the decline in influence of the Labour movement, socialism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Left in general. Left-wing historians lowered their aspirations. In 1978 Paul Thompson claimed that oral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history would give people a new vision of their past, and a new future ?of their own making?. In 1998, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colleagues in the Oral History Society, Robert Perks and Alistair Thomson claimed that oral history ?has had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a significant impact upon contemporary history'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 266.816 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 266.816 374.163 m 280.808 374.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 280.808 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So, it did not change the world, but it did impact on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline. As the Labour movement declined, so too did the influence of its popular traditions and historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceptions. A generation grew up which, in Hobsbawm?s words saw the break-up of the Beatles as more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant that the success of Scargill?s NUM pickets at the Saltley coking depot, in 1972.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 469.976 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 469.976 331.395 m 489.968 331.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 489.968 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It was this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process that enabled the current crop of ?popular? historians to come forward and push their packaged, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commodified history onto a largely passive market.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If, as has been suggested, Mandler?s account of the development of the discipline is so lacking, and his view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of its future so marked by a paucity of ambition, is it possible to turn to any alternative view? Mandler, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we have seen, is very keen to deny that lessons can be learned from history. It would seem very likely that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most historians would agree with him that direct lessons cannot be learned from History. Hence, it would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foolish to suggest that Tony Blair would fall from office in the event of a war because this is what happened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Asquith in the First World War, and Chamberlain in the Second.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 356.324 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 356.324 205.347 m 376.316 205.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 376.316 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It would not seem unreasonable, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though, to suggest that a depth of historical knowledge would enable a better grasp of social and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues to be developed. This perspective has led some historians to establish the History and Policy Group.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This world of policy makers and think-tanks has a penumbra around ministers, and what we are saying is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it?s not good enough for such a powerful group to rely on [television programmes such as] )] TJ ET BT 493.616 137.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Timewatch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Simon Schama for its view of history.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 236.672 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 236.672 122.067 m 256.664 122.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What goes for ?policy wonks? also goes for the rest of us, those, that is, who are force-fed their slogans, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffer the consequences of their policy initiatives. The current war crisis around Iraq vividly illustrates this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point. For many in the American administration, and possibly for Tony Blair as well, the conflict with Iraq is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a clear-cut case of good people, themselves, versus bad people, Saddam and supporters. To sell this idea they )] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 275.3237 669.3415 289.3157 681.2215 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 90.0077 543.2935 103.9997 555.1735 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 266.8157 374.4775 280.8077 386.3575 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 469.9757 331.7095 489.9677 343.5895 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 356.3237 205.6615 376.3157 217.5415 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 53 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 236.6717 122.3815 256.6637 134.2615 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R 81 0 R 83 0 R 85 0 R 87 0 R 89 0 R 91 0 R 93 0 R 95 0 R ] /Contents 57 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Length 9714 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use a kind of historical shorthand, Saddam becomes Hitler, and George Bush become Churchill. This may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflect the limitations, as Matthew Engel suggests, of their historical knowledge:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, politicians should understand history. Unfortunately, it is not something that either Bush or Blair )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bothered about much when they had more time. All they now have to guide them are fuzzy ideas about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hitler and Churchill they might have picked up from bubblegum cards.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 375.644 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 375.644 726.051 m 395.636 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A politically literate population in a democratic society cannot afford to make decisions on the basis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?fuzzy ideas?. Mandler?s accurate National Trust guidebooks may have a certain value, but they hardly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitute a )] TJ ET BT 92.012 672.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(raison d?tre)] TJ ET BT 156.344 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for an entire discipline. Playing a part in the creation of a politically and socially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literate population, equipped to make real choices in a functioning democracy, just might.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 623.523 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 592.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 592.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mandler makes a point of telling his readers that he bought a copy of Carr, but did not read it: )] TJ ET BT 516.956 592.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History )] TJ ET BT 64.016 578.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and National Life)] TJ ET BT 148.700 578.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 88. See E. H.Carr, )] TJ ET BT 257.348 578.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History)] TJ ET BT 332.684 578.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Penguin; Harmondsworth, 1973\) p. 12.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 527.336 578.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 527.336 577.251 m 554.996 577.251 l S BT 64.016 564.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 562.995 m 90.344 562.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 550.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 550.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Graves and Alan Hodge, )] TJ ET BT 221.312 550.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Long Week-End: A Social History of Great Britain, 1918-1939)] TJ ET BT 64.016 535.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(first published 1940; this edn,.Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1971\) p. 351.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 407.336 535.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 407.336 534.483 m 461.324 534.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 521.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Walton, ?Tale of the Century?, )] TJ ET BT 247.976 521.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Daily Telegraph)] TJ ET BT 347.972 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 19 June 2002.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 420.968 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 420.968 520.227 m 474.956 520.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 507.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Michael Caine inspired me to cook \(and not a lot of people know that\)',)] TJ ET BT 408.956 507.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian)] TJ ET BT 476.624 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 482.624 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19 Sept. 2002.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 491.715 m 118.004 491.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 478.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reproduced on the cover of Anthony Beevor, )] TJ ET BT 285.968 478.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Stalingrad)] TJ ET BT 336.644 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Viking; London, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 457.640 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 457.640 477.459 m 511.628 477.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 464.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday Times, 14 July 2002.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 204.020 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 204.020 463.203 m 258.008 463.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 450.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Raphael Samuel, ?British marxist historians 1880-1980?, )] TJ ET BT 341.336 450.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Left Review)] TJ ET BT 422.000 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 120 \(March-April 1980\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 434.691 m 118.004 434.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 421.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Joe Haines, ?A century of the People?s Party?, )] TJ ET BT 311.624 421.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Inside Labour: The New Labour Magazine)] TJ ET BT 517.292 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Feb. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000. See also Roger Spalding, ?Spinning history: the Labour Party and its centenary?, )] TJ ET BT 485.312 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Politics)] TJ ET BT 546.320 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8:2 \(Winter 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 153.668 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 153.668 391.923 m 207.656 391.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 379.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Thompson, )] TJ ET BT 145.688 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Voice of the Past)] TJ ET BT 248.348 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford University Press; Oxford, 1978\), p. 226; Robert Perks )] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Alistair Thomson, eds, )] TJ ET BT 196.676 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Oral History Reader)] TJ ET BT 317.000 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Routledge; London, 1998\) p. ix.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 478.328 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 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