%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818103639+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818103639+01'00') /Title (A Protestant Vision: William Harrison and the Reformation of Elizabethan England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4348 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Protestant Vision: William Harrison and the Reformation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Elizabethan England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Harrison was a prominent Elizabethan intellectual, best known for his ?Description of Britain?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included in the second edition of Holinshed?s )] TJ ET BT 256.328 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chronicles)] TJ ET BT 308.996 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1587\). He was also the author of a ?Chronology? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of world history outlining the apocalyptic battle between the true, spiritual Protestant Church and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corrupt, worldly Catholic Church. Histories of such figures can be dry and dutiful affairs that only warrant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fleeting attention of the dedicated specialist. However, Dr Parry?s rigorous and historically engaged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of the writings of his subject and his ability to contextualise Harrison?s work within the Protestant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture of late Elizabethan England, distinguishes his monograph from run-of-the-mill studies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge are to be congratulated for reprinting this work fifteen years after its publication. )] TJ ET BT 480.260 166.403 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Protestant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vision)] TJ ET BT 64.688 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( demands to be read, even if one is not specifically interested in Harrison or in the progress of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English Reformation after John Bale. Parry shows how any account of Tudor intellectual culture must take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into account the close relationship between religion, politics and historical writing, indicating that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasising any one at the expense of the others will result in a distorted and partial picture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Protestant Vision)] TJ ET BT 128.024 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( consists of seven lengthy chapters and is divided into two parts, the first dealing with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harrison?s view of history, the second with his vision of England. Chapter one, ?The Two Churches?, shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how the enthusiastic young Protestant convert came to feel that if history was studied closely and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(302)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 December, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. J. R. Parry)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521522188)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(358pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Hadfield)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7593 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scrupulously enough he would be able to establish a means of judging the successes and failures of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabethan Church ?as part of the prophetic continuum of history? \(p. 9\). In this way Harrison was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following in the footsteps of John Bale, who read the )] TJ ET BT 291.656 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revelation)] TJ ET BT 342.980 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as a direct historical allegory of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progress of the evil Catholic Church and the saintly but persecuted True Church, which had only just been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(able to re-establish itself after centuries of domination of the kingdoms of darkness. The implication was that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Satanic elements were still lurking within the church: the problem was to identify exactly what they were.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harrison was confident of his ability to achieve this monumental task. After all, his religion granted him an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?unchanging godly insight? that ?could resurrect the full experience of the earliest moments of time? \(p. 20\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideal qualities for a historian. Historical analysis was also made straightforward by the continuum assumed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here whereby ?the past and present had the same meaning? \(p. 29\), as history moved towards its final goal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christ?s return. On the one hand, Harrison?s faith made him optimistic that everything pointed in the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(direction and he could afford to ignore messy or stubbornly inconvenient evidence. On the other, his sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the inadequacies of Elizabeth?s church settlement and the compromises that she was prepared to make to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserve her position and protect the legacy of the Reformation, led to a certain amount of frustration and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despair.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters two and three provide a careful analysis of Harrison?s ?Chronology?, a work which attempted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elaborate the nature and design of God?s will alongside the foolish and catastrophic errors of human society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempting to implement or thwart their maker. Harrison ?remained within the mainstream of apocalyptic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation which had been popularised in England by Bale? \(p. 70\). Rome had become generally known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the second Babylon by 961 AD, and Satan had been loosed into the world by 1001 AD. When the Lateran )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decree of 1215 gave the papacy power over secular rulers, Harrison argued that Satan had truly begun to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominate the world until properly resisted by the forces of the Reformation. Mainstream such interpretation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may have been but Harrison was independent enough to take issue with the well-known view of John Foxe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the number of the beast, 666, referred to a specific year. Harrison, rather more sensibly, argued that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number signified a ?measuring rod? \(p. 72\) which would reveal how bad any particular event or action might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be. Dr Parry also points out that Harrison made extensive use of Jean Bodin?s )] TJ ET BT 410.960 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Methodis ad Facilem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historiarum Cognitionem)] TJ ET BT 158.360 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(first published in 1566\) to expound theories of numerology and cosmic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance. That Harrison was able to ignore Bodin?s absolutist political theories, conceived in the wake of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the bloody French wars of religion and formulated in direct opposition to the Huguenot monarchomach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writings which clearly did influence Harrison?s thought, further indicates that Harrison was capable of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ploughing his own furrow. Dr Parry makes this point but perhaps does not fully emphasise its importance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second section shows how Harrison applied his ideas to the state of Elizabethan England in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published work. Chapter four explains how he envisaged his ideal church, beliefs which marked Harrison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out as a puritan within the church who felt that reforms had not gone far enough. In general Harrison was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less content to accept that much church practice fell under the heading of ?things indifferent? than more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moderate Protestants and he was keen to purge the church of grievous errors and other popish ?trash?. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(felt that any remaining elements of the Church of Cain should be scrupulously removed and took a hard line )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the vestments controversy, arguing that plain garments that did not separate pastor and flock too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drastically were best fitted for worship in God?s house. Nevertheless, Harrison was enough of a pragmatist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to accept that opposition to Rome could not be built in a day and he accepted the use of the surplice in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short term. He was also prepared to tolerate the existence of bishops, although he clearly would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preferred to see the church less hierarchically governed \(Dr Parry suggests that Harrison was confused and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncertain about this point, but is it not more likely that he felt the need not to isolate himself from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainstream by arguing too idealistically and aggressively?\). Harrison enthusiastically endorsed rites such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(churching, believing that it was the duty of good Christians to multiply and so increase God?s kingdom, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whatever false emphasis might be placed on the holy nature of virginity as a Satanic trick to fool the devout. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, Harrison placed greatest emphasis on the word rather than the institution, a familiar enough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant preference.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Probably the most interesting chapters in the book are 5 and 6 which deal with Harrison?s blueprint for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformed prince and a reformed commonwealth. Although Harrison placed great emphasis on the law of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7759 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature in his discussions of numerology and prophecy ? chapter 7 outlines his interest in Hermetic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophy ? he made a distinct separation between the natural world and the human world of politics and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions. Revelation was the key and such direct insight into the mind of God enabled the true believer to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disregard ordinary observations and rules. Harrison?s sense of value links him to Thomas More, a thinker he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resembles, even though many of the Protestant philosophers and polemicists who influenced Harrison tried )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their hardest to dismiss More as a false martyr obsessed with worldly rather than spiritual gain. Like More, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harrison seems to have feared compromise less than isolation in his attempts to argue for reform, and he also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly felt that Christian revelation could and should override more mundane perspectives of the world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, this Christian rejection of the natural world paradoxically secularises political thought, or, at least, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opens the way for a clear separation between politics and religion. The point that Dr Parry carefully makes is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that admitting that human values and means of interpretation can determine political behaviour, rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the natural world, means that political discussions do not have to be determined by religion alone. Rational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument can take place as a means of settling religious disputes about politics. As Quentin Skinner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observed, ?the godly necessity of revolution? did not bind Calvinists to ?specifically Calvinist arguments? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 209\) but enabled them to advance defences of their actions based on arguments derived from natural law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theorists. Political behaviour could be separated from ?what the Scriptures revealed as essential for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revelation? \(p. 211\). While John Ponet and Christopher Goodman, English Calvinists writing during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reign of Mary Tudor, had claimed that true believers should resist and overthrow the queen because of her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostility to Protestantism, Harrison had to make the rather less spectacular argument that he might be able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence Elizabeth through the use of religious argument and turn her back to the true path. This is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central reason, one suspects, why Harrison?s political significance has been overlooked.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harrison was an undoubted radical, as Dr Parry observes: ?he )] TJ ET BT 332.936 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(went further than the radical Calvinists on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(certain decisive issues)] TJ ET BT 141.332 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of historical interpretation, particularly the kind of magistracy sanctioned by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example of the True Church, and the relationship between imperial rule and true religion epitomised in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour of Constantine? [my emphasis] \(p. 200\). To go further than radical Calvinists was indeed to go a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long way and adopt a position that few monarchs would be happy to support especially if, in Dr Parry?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words, his political position ?implicitly questioned the possibility of any harmonious relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuous worldly monarchy and those who sought to foster true religion?. Such a position explicitly places )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereignty as the prerogative of the \(godly\) people, not that of the monarch. It resembles the arguments of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Scottish reformers such as John Knox, George Buchanan and David Hume of Godscroft, who felt it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their right and duty to curb and control their sovereign if he or she strayed from the straight and narrow. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most influential Huguenot treatise, )] TJ ET BT 203.672 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vindiciae Contra Tyrannos)] TJ ET BT 335.012 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1579\), explicitly linked tyrannicide to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland through its \(false\) colophon, when the anonymous author claimed that the work had been published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Edinburgh \(it was actually published in Basle\) by Stephanus Junius Brutus, the Celt. A clearer link )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the Protestant politics of early modern Scotland and Roman republicanism would be hard to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagine, the key idea being that opposition to the godless ruler resembled efforts to found the republic. And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both, of course, necessitated the defeat of Roman tyranny. Buchanan, it might be worth noting, went further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than anyone in arguing that the tyrant could be overthrown by a godly private citizen. Most monarchomachs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued that the designated magistrate had such powers and rights but not someone who did not even hold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political office. Buchanan also felt that the Scots had made a cardinal error when they made their monarchy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hereditary rather than elective. Harrison may have gone even further, because he ?believed that Israel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committed a grave sin in demanding a king? \(p. 217\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Harrison, the key event was the elevation of Saul to the monarchy. While other commentators saw this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(act providing a Biblical justification of kingship ? often one without restraints - Harrison concentrated on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developing a pointed contrast between Saul the king and Samuel the prophet. Harrison sought to contrast the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worldly ruler to ?the minatory prophet who enjoyed an intimate relationship with God? \(p. 218\), and who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejected tyranny. Israel started to look more like gentile nations when her people elected a king not ordained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by God. In doing so Harrison came close to arguing that all government that was not directly inspired by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(God was evil and should be opposed \(mirroring his position on the ?things indifferent? in church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversies\), and that Israel?s position as god?s chosen nation resulted from the actions of her prophets )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7141 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and not her kings. Even Goodman and Ponet did not go so far as to suggest that monarchy itself might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inherently evil. Dr Parry suggests that Harrison?s thoughts may well have been turned to the England he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inhabited when he complained of Israel?s elite ?defending ill-gotten "tenures"? through ?ungodly "policie"?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 223\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, Harrison did not, unsurprisingly, establish a clear plan of action in case his hopes of reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed to materialise. He did conclude that tyrants and ungodly monarchs richly deserved whatever gruesome )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fate they brought upon themselves, but he also argued that England could escape its nemesis ?by accepting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the preaching which would reconstruct the godly commonwealth? \(pp. 252-3\). Even so, Harrison seems to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have regarded political intervention as an onerous duty and his writings praise those prophets who chose to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?leade a private life farre from the court than to be nere the king and plaie the flattering hypocrite? \(p. 263\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Protestant Vision)] TJ ET BT 128.024 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is not, of course, without some flaws. There are times when Dr Parry relies too heavily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the past conditional beloved by biographers \(for example, ?Harrison must have been struck by the great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal relevance of Paul?s life? \(p. 5\)\), passing off reasonable speculations as though they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established fact. There are other times when obvious comparisons are neglected in favour of more striking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(links, a case in point being the attempt to place great emphasis on the relationship between Harrison?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the Two Churches and that of John Hooker \(in Chapter one\). The analogy is not mistaken, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the passage reads as though the author were desperately trying not to relate Harrison to the much better-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known figures, John Bale and John Foxe, whose writings on the tradition of the Two Churches have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysed in exhaustive detail.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The major quibble I would have with the book is really a compliment to a cautious and diligent historian. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are times when Dr Parry seems to me to be rather too modest in the claims he makes for Harrison?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance and the radical nature of his work. Dr Parry opens his chapter on the political vision of William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harrison by castigating his subject and making an excuse for his apparent incoherence:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite his low opinion of princes in general, Harrison had dutifully to suspend his disbelief about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth?s commitment to further reformation. This tension can be partly resolved by an examination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harrison?s views about England?s relationship to the ideal godly commonwealth, but an element of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incoherence must always be allowed for in his thought, since he belonged to that historical majority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals whose less than rigorous thinking allowed them to accept simultaneously a number of logically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradictory propositions. \(p. 244\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would be interesting to know whether Dr Parry would argue this case now. It has become an almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(axiomatic assumption that Elizabeth was distrusted and criticised by virtually all of her articulate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligent subjects from the 1580s onwards. John Guy?s edited collection, )] TJ ET BT 394.652 294.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Reign of Elizabeth: Court )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Culture in the Last Decade)] TJ ET BT 185.012 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge University Press, in association with the Folger Shakespeare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Institute; Cambridge, 1995\), which outlined the sharp division between her successful early reign and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disastrous later one, has come to be accepted as a current orthodoxy. It may be the case that William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harrison was a more consistent thinker than Dr Parry has given him credit for and that he was one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many writers who did not really place his faith in any monarch. If so, then further questions need to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asked. How typical or isolated was Harrison? Dr Parry notes that he was rather more excitable in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations of events than many of his fellow historians and that he envisaged momentous happenings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulting from ?the most mundane happenings? \(p. 121\). It would be useful to know whether he stands out as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an oddity in this or belongs to a wider tradition of historical exegesis. Dr Parry suggests that Harrison was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?eccentric? in his arguments and beliefs, and that he was unlike the humanists who sought to advise princes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than to require them ?to vacate their thrones and reverently listen to the preachers of the Word? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(248\). It may be the case that our conception of humanism and its possible manifestations has changed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerably since 1987, enabling a wider interpretation of its political spectrum as well as a breaking-down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the rigid separation between humanist and Protestant beliefs and practices.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And what of Harrison?s politics examined in a wider context? Should we be adopting a British approach to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the question of religious division and not just an English or European one? Was Harrison yet another figure )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 4067 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who was more critical of female rule than he made clear? If so, did he want a strong male monarch on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throne to enforce God?s will, or was he of a more republican cast, wanting the people to control the prince? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some historians cannot tolerate the ?r? word and cry ?anachronism? if anyone uses it to describe words or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events before 1640. But a strong case can be made that George Buchanan, whose writings Harrison would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have known \(even though he does not feature in Dr Parry?s book\), was a republican because he used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classical and Christian examples to argue that the people should have control over the monarch whose duty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was to administer the laws that they had established wisely and properly. Harrison?s writings, so carefully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and intelligently outlined by Dr Parry, suggest that he made similar connections, using his knowledge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Biblical history to argue that the godly rather than the monarchy should control the tenor of English life. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elsewhere Dr Parry argues that Harrison?s ?eagerness to find some evidence of godliness in Elizabeth?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions also reflects his reluctance to face the logical consequences of his general assumptions about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problematical relationship between worldly princes and true religion? \(p. 233\). It is just as likely that it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fear and caution that enforced this uneasy compromise, as well as a pragmatic desire to play some part in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inaugurating the godly kingdom in an imperfect world. That Harrison?s manuscript writings contain much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harsher criticisms of contemporary society and its religious failures ? notably the self-aggrandising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour of the nobility ? than his published works should surely come as no surprise.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Protestant Vision)] TJ ET BT 128.024 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a fine work that makes important contributions to intellectual, religious and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. Indeed, its singular achievement is to link these often disparate subjects together making it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impossible to study the Reformation in isolation from early modern science or any debates on early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political formations \(to give one example, Thomas Smith, in his )] TJ ET BT 344.012 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De Republica Anglorum)] TJ ET BT 460.664 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, used Harrison?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas alongside discussions of classical political forms\). It is now up to other scholars to follow Dr Parry?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lead and insights.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 439.855 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 422.075 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 422.075 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/302)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 420.681 m 322.316 420.681 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 395.704 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 381.304 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1520)] TJ ET BT 34.016 366.904 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 420.9955 322.3157 432.8755 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/302) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000590 00000 n 0000000672 00000 n 0000005072 00000 n 0000005181 00000 n 0000005291 00000 n 0000005400 00000 n 0000008961 00000 n 0000009089 00000 n 0000009173 00000 n 0000009238 00000 n 0000016884 00000 n 0000016949 00000 n 0000024761 00000 n 0000024826 00000 n 0000032020 00000 n 0000032104 00000 n 0000036224 00000 n 0000036352 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36447 %%EOF