%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 36 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728182705+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728182705+01'00') /Title (Recent Books in Holocaust Studies) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2812 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Recent Books in Holocaust Studies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(306)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 31 December, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Albert S. Lindemann)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(582369649X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(144pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Longman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harlow)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yehuda Bauer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300082568)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(335pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jan Gross)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.995 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780691086672)] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.483 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.227 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 42.971 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7173 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The near-simultaneous appearance of the three works under review reveals much about the present state of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publications devoted to Antisemitism and the Nazi persecution and mass-murder of European Jewry. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virtually any serious bookstore now boasts a whole section devoted to the Holocaust, filled with books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(targeting almost any type of reader. For better or for worse, genocide sells. The audience for these three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books includes students in secondary school and university history survey classes \(Lindemann\), those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wish a summary of the life?s work of a leading scholar of the Shoah \(Bauer\) and a general audience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in recent research and controversy on the question of local collaboration in the implementation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Holocaust \(Gross\). Taken together, they also reveal the difficult task awaiting scholars who navigate this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular field of academia where it has become increasingly impossible to operate )] TJ ET BT 437.924 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sine ira)] TJ ET BT 474.260 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. All three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors have been targets of scholarly ill-will, both of their own and of others' making. This situation can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrated by considering the works in chronological order: the history of Antisemitism, the Holocaust itself, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the legacy and resonance of wartime Antisemitism in contemporary Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Albert Lindemann, in a series of books \()] TJ ET BT 227.984 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Jew Accused. Three Anti-Semitic Affairs, 1894-1915)] TJ ET BT 500.624 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press; Cambridge, 1991; )] TJ ET BT 265.340 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Esau's Tears: Modern Anti-Semitism and the Rise of the Jews)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Cambridge University Press; Cambridge, 1997\) has put forward an eminently defensible proposition ? that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there were objective aspects of Judaism, as well as Jewish activities and culture, which gave rise to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manifestations of the phenomenon known as Antisemitism. It has been Lindemann?s folly to elevate this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea to the status of an )] TJ ET BT 144.668 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ide fixe)] TJ ET BT 184.988 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, almost as powerful as the concept of 'Eternal Antisemitism' which he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(energetically \(and correctly\) rejects. Lindemann's primary claim is that the 'rise of the Jews' in the nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and twentieth centuries helps to explain \(although not justify\) the development of modern Antisemitism. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been unable, unfortunately, to resist the temptation to read this hypothesis back into the whole history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish/non-Jewish relations. His scholarly leitmotif, which gives the title to his most recent study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antisemitism, is the biblical story of Isaac \(who becomes Israel, the prototype Jew\) and his brother Esau, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who represents the gentile nations. The cause of their dispute is Isaac's theft of Esau's birthright from their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(father Jacob. For Lindemann this tale, which he admits was strange and problematical even for the rabbis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides the general framework for his study of Antisemitism through the ages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lindemann has done little original research in the sources of Antisemitism, and so his major books have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been works of synthesis, with generalisations based on a reading of the secondary literature. In areas where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing literature is thin, this often has unfortunate consequences. His treatment of Antisemitism in Tsarist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia \(which constitutes a major portion of )] TJ ET BT 249.668 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Jew Accused)] TJ ET BT 332.312 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) is replete with factual errors great and small, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and dubious over-generalisations. Hopefully it will not be judged as special pleading if I direct Lindemann )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to my own )] TJ ET BT 88.352 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imperial Russia?s Jewish Question, 1855-1881)] TJ ET BT 315.344 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge University Press; Cambridge, 1996\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially since we share a common publisher.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Still, an author can be wrong ? and even bloody-minded ? and not be malevolent or dishonest. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately, a number of Lindemann?s academic critics, especially Robert Wistrich of Hebrew University, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been unwilling to concede Lindemann?s scholarly integrity. In the course of an ill-tempered campaign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against his work, Lindemann has, perhaps inevitably, been accused of Antisemitism.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 439.964 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 439.964 105.555 m 453.956 105.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 453.956 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Given this situation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lindemann might be viewed as both the best and the worst possible contributor to a series that seeks to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide ?new information and interpretations?: his work does represent a new interpretation, even while it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been impugned by leading scholars in the field.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(261pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton, NJ)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Klier)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 439.9637 105.8695 453.9557 117.7495 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7652 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This particular work appears in the Longman Seminar Series in History, intended, as already noted, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students. Besides offering new information, it also provides ?a selection of documents to illustrate major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes and provoke discussion?, as well as a guide to further reading. The reviewer thus faces a triple task )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of evaluation: how well does the author fulfil his informational task; how effective for the stated purpose is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the selection of documents; and what is the merit of the reading list?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It must be admitted at the outset that it is an impossible task to encapsulate the entire history of Antisemitism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from its origins \(whatever they might be perceived to be\) up to the year 1939 in 109 pages, with 17 pages for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documents, and seven pages for a 189-item bibliography. We must reconcile ourselves in advance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oversimplifications, omissions and sweeping generalisations. That said, Lindemann writes the book we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might have expected him to write. He juxtaposes two well-established interpretational antipodes. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon of ?Eternal Antisemitism? locates all the basis for hatred of the Jews in their ?peculiar kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separatism, itself related to their sense of superiority to others? and to ?the themes of their religion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly those that denigrate other beliefs and customs? \(pp. 4-5\). At the other extreme is the claim that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?eternal antisemitism? is ?blaming the victim?, and that Antisemitism is ?uniquely a non-Jewish problem? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 5\). Lindemann offers his own brand of compromise: ?Antisemitism is most usefully conceptualised as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hatred/fear of Jews that includes a key element of irrationality or emotionally fraught fantasy. But that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fantasy is typically intertwined with elements of more accurate or concrete perceptions.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 459.248 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 459.248 542.979 m 473.240 542.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 473.240 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separated these strands, the task for the historian is to demonstrate and explain their inter-action. Lindemann )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promises to do this in regard to his more general theme: ?I have tried to understand the way that fantasy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(ideologies, myths and other less formal productions of the mind\) and reality \(developments in the material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world\) interact? \(p. 11\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is, regretfully, what Lindemann often fails to do. This is particularly apparent in his discussion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucial period in the early Christian Middle Ages, when the Jews were effectively ?demonised?, a process )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through which bizarre charges, such as ritual murder and desecration of the sacramental host, were attributed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to them. This was also the era of the first mass violence against the Jews, in the form of the Crusades. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite citing the rich and suggestive work of Gavin Langmuir in the reading list, Lindemann does little to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integrate it into his text, perhaps because it largely locates the sources of violent Jew-hatred in the collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind and religious insecurities of Christians, rather than some objective characteristic of the Jews, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their wealth and identification with oppressive rulers \(p. 29\). He simply fails to demonstrate his claim that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?fantasies about Jews continued to be fed by realities, in a complex and nearly impenetrable interplay? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30\). It is strange that, given their significance for the development of Catholic and Protestant attitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards the Jews, the Reformation and Catholic Counter-Reformation receive no more than one page of text, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is, it might be noted, twice as much space as that devoted to the expulsion from Spain \(pp. 30-31\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This haste to be rid of the pre-modern period is perhaps explained by Lindemann?s desire to consider more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar territory, and to reassert his claim that a major ingredient of modern Antisemitism is ?the rise of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jews?. Ironically, while this theme bubbles in the background, the later pages of the book are largely an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overview of antisemitic policies \(Tsarist Russia\) and ideologies \(Austria-Hungary and Germany\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lindemann does confront one crucial theme, however: the links between European Antisemitism in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century, and National Socialism in the twentieth. He implicitly rejects the thesis of Daniel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goldhagen, in )] TJ ET BT 105.008 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hitler?s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust)] TJ ET BT 437.984 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Little, Brown; London, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996\), that the rise of ?eliminationist? Antisemitism in Wilhelmine Germany paved the way for the Final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Solution. It would be useful to have Lindemann?s disagreement with Goldhagen \(whose work will certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be encountered by students but is not included in the reading list\) more overtly spelled out.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In summary, this book displays the strengths and weaknesses of Lindemann?s approach to Antisemitism: a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensible and vigorously-argued thesis that relates best to the phenomenon of modern Antisemitism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combined with a surprising number of gaps and omissions that weaken that same thesis for two thousand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years of Jewish/non-Jewish interaction in pre-modern European civilization and culture. The documents add )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very little to the text, in which they are cited, but hardly explicated. I was unable to find much logic in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selectionn ? I wonder if students will do better. A set of four maps are appended ?to help students place )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 459.2477 543.2935 473.2397 555.1735 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7212 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments discussed in the text?. They are, alas, replete with spelling and factual errors, exemplified by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the map illustrating Tsarist Russia: the Pale of Settlement is mis-identified \(it did not include the Kingdom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Poland\), and the confusing lines which are meant to illustrate the territory of the pogroms between 1902 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(sic\) and 1906 are simply wrong. The reading list, with some notable omissions noted above, offers students )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a suitable guide to further reading.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A sure candidate for inclusion in the category of ?scholars behaving badly? is Norman Finkelstein, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic gadfly who condemns and campaigns against what he has branded 'the Holocaust industry'. Small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wonder that he is less than complimentary about what he sarcastically calls Yehuda Bauer's ?crowning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievement of his life's work?, )] TJ ET BT 189.476 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rethinking the Holocaust)] TJ ET BT 311.468 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In Finkelstein's summary,)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bauer manages both to affirm and deny every major thesis on the Nazi extermination of the Jews: it can and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can't be rationally understood; did and didn't spring from the Enlightenment and French Revolution; was and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wasn't comparable to the extermination of the Gypsies ? He bizarrely criticizes 'most of German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography' on the Nazi holocaust because it 'avoids the murder itself and instead agonises over who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decided what and when regarding the murder of the Jews'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 313.436 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 313.436 585.747 m 327.428 585.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So much for Bauer?s stated intention ?to rethink categories and issues that arise out of the contemplation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that watershed event in human history? \(Bauer, p. ix\)!)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This ?rethinking? is the basis for Finkelstein?s condemnation ? to what extent is it warranted? In fact, Bauer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is generally clear and precise in his arguments. Early on he defines his terms: the Holocaust was an example )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of genocide that can be compared with other types of this phenomenon. It was ?unique? in the same way that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all historical events are, with special characteristics and unprecedented attributes. Something like the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust could, Bauer believes, happen again. The task of his work is therefore ?political?, in that it seeks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to ensure that the Holocaust serves as ?a warning, not a precedent? \(p. 3\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Holocaust, therefore, is totally explicable, and Bauer?s chapters represent an overview of the diverse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarly attempts to find explanations. If there is an occasional reluctance to come down on the side of one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation or another ? although Bauer is not shy in asserting his critical assessment of fellow scholars ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is because Bauer shares Saul Friedlander?s reluctance to admit ?closure? into Holocaust debates: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumption that historians have found satisfactory answers to the myriad problems that the Holocaust raises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 7-8\). This is a point worth pursuing. I would argue that one of the indicators of the health and validity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the study of the Holocaust is precisely the lack of scholarly consensus. Besides the negative features of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Holocaust industry? that so displease Finkelstein ? especially what he sees as the unseemly scramble for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compensation for survivors and the subsequent direction of such funds into Holocaust scholarship, education )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or memorialisation ? one might note an extremely positive feature: the manner in which the study of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific case of the Holocaust of European Jewry has helped to crystallise the more general field of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Genocide Studies. By providing a model for comparison, and a demand for explication, the Holocaust has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(served as a driving engine for the comparative study of other twentieth-century genocides and their origins.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given Bauer?s emphasis on the historiography of the Holocaust, his book can serve as a solid introduction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for students or the general reader. Bauer shows how the field developed. The first studies, exemplified by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Raul Hilberg?s classic )] TJ ET BT 144.332 196.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Destruction of the European Jews )] TJ ET BT 331.652 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(W.H. Allen; London, 1961\), sought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determine exactly how the German National Socialist state implemented the mass murder of European Jews. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This line of research was followed by explorations of how various groups, such as the Jews themselves, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the various western powers, responded to the Nazi genocide. Only in the last decades of the twentieth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century did a substantial number of scholars begin to ask the ?why? questions, and to attempt to analyse and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explain the Holocaust as a whole.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bauer devotes two chapters to the ?why? question. As Bauer acknowledges early on, he himself assigns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central importance to the role of an elite antisemitic ideology. He is thus critical of more instrumental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations, such as Zygmunt Bauman?s use of the concept of ?modernity?. Bauer?s own stress on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of ideology makes him willing to offer a sympathetic hearing to Daniel Goldhagen?s reliance on the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 313.4357 586.0615 327.4277 597.9415 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 7484 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea of a strong tradition of ?eliminationist? Antisemitism. This was the decisive element that turned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordinary Germans into ?Hitler?s willing executioners?, a monocausal explanation that has been widely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticised by academic scholars. Bauer praises Goldhagen for re-emphasizing the role of ideology, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while ?stumbling badly? in his efforts to apply it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bauer?s selection of problems, or areas of possible investigation, reveal much about his identity as a Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholar, living and working in Israel. His academic address is Yad Vashem, created originally to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memorialise the victims of the Nazi genocide, but lately grown into a major centre for the study of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust. From this perspective, Bauer is especially drawn to the problem of the ?sheep to the slaughter? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(syndrome ? the apparent passive acceptance of Holocaust victims of their fate. This has always been a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contentious issue, first identified and lamented in the very midst of the Warsaw ghetto. Bauer thus devotes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two chapters to the problem of resistance. He correctly raises the question of the extent to which Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resistance has been exaggerated and inflated in response to this implied rebuke. As his survey shows, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of active resistance ? and the actual options available to Jews in Nazi-occupied Europe ? requires )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further research.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More contentious is the issue of unarmed or passive resistance. One of the first chroniclers of the Nazi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genocide, the Soviet-Jewish writer Vasily Grossman, argued that the very act of leading a normal, human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life in the ghettos ? creating libraries, organizing a cultural life, engaging in the provision of welfare ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented a form of ?spiritual resistance?, that was often the only option open to the Jews. This view has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come to be incorporated into a view of resistance that goes under the Hebrew term of )] TJ ET BT 445.916 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(amidah)] TJ ET BT 481.916 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. As Bauer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admits, this term is elastic and imprecise. )] TJ ET BT 235.004 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Amidah)] TJ ET BT 272.336 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, he suggests, ?includes both armed and unarmed actions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and excludes passive resistance, although that term is almost a non sequitur, because one cannot really resist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passively. When one refuses to budge in the face of brutal force, one does not resist passively; one resists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without using force, and that is not the same thing? \(p. 120\). One can almost hear Finkelstein in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background demanding, ?All right, so what doesn?t )] TJ ET BT 284.984 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(amidah)] TJ ET BT 320.984 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( cover?')] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the course of his discussion, Bauer also deals with the enduring controversy of the role of the Nazi-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposed Jewish councils in the ghettoes, the )] TJ ET BT 250.004 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Judenrte)] TJ ET BT 297.992 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Here again terminology is elusive. Did the operation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the )] TJ ET BT 64.676 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Judenrte)] TJ ET BT 112.664 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( represent cooperation or collaboration, or something else? We have gone far beyond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hannah Arendt?s provocative claim, in )] TJ ET BT 225.308 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil)] TJ ET BT 499.616 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Faber and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Faber; London, 1963\), that more Jews would have survived without Jewish participation in these bodies, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much research still remains to be done on the councils, and the concept of )] TJ ET BT 391.616 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(amidah)] TJ ET BT 427.616 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in general.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bauer?s concluding chapters deal with his own area of specialised research, the rescue of Jews from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genocide, while also suggesting areas for future research. He investigates the case of Gisi Fleischmann, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the very few women to participate actively in rescue efforts \(in this case, of Slovakian Jews\). He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considers the extent to which her gender helped or hindered her efforts. This study provides Bauer the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity to note the lack of research on women in the Holocaust, and to suggest that this could be a fertile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(field for specialists in gender studies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bauer also provides a survey of Jewish theological responses to the Holocaust. A substantial literature has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grown up around the topic of Christian religious and philosophical responses, so this chapter may introduce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers to parallel, and often unknown, perspectives. Bauer concludes his study with a brief survey of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship of the Holocaust to the creation of the State of Israel.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jan T. Gross? book is another roadblock on the path through the tangled thicket of Polish-Jewish relations in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the twentieth century. The topic of the book has escalated from a skirmish into a fully-fledged engagement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the website wars that have become the special battlefield of this relationship. The book has spawned so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many spin-off works that we may now even speak of the 'Jedwabne Industry'. Unfortunately, the noisy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polemics have drowned out some of the more interesting propositions that Gross advances in the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The subject of the book is straightforward and tragic: on 10 July 1941, the Catholic Polish inhabitants of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(town of Jedwabne in Lomza county, in the Podlasie region of north-eastern Poland, massacred almost all of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 6737 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their Jewish neighbours. The German role in the affair is disputed; Gross demonstrates that the mass-murder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurred largely through local agents, and that the actual murders ? cruel and vicious ? were carried out by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local inhabitants. The massacre was investigated by the Polish authorities in 1949, and 21 residents of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jedwabne were tried for their role in the massacre. Before that time, in the immediate aftermath of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberation of the region by the Red Army, those few Jedwabne residents who had assisted the few Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survivors were driven out of town by their neighbours. Gross? sources are the protocols generated by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trial, the testimony of Jewish survivors, and a few additional archival documents that cast some light on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity of the leaders of the massacre. While the book has its scholarly foundations, it is clearly meant for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general audience. It has certainly found one in Poland, where a Polish edition appeared in 2000, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generated an outcry that it sought to blacken the name of Poland. On the other hand, it was welcomed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many Jews in the West who welcome any confirmation of their assumption that Poles have always imbibed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jew-hatred with their mother?s milk.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The massacre was led by the mayor of Jebwabne, Marian Karolak, with the participation of members of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(town council and a cross section of the local Polish population. These people can hardly be placed in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(categories of ?scum?, or ?hooligans? who are usually blamed for any Polish mistreatment of the Jews under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nazi rule. The leaders met in advance with the Germans \(who had eleven gendarme officers actually in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(town\), and agreed on the elimination of all Jebwabne?s 1,600 Jews, almost two-thirds of the entire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population. Jews were rounded up on the town square, mocked and abused, and then murdered in a variety )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ways: drowned in a pond, beaten to death, buried alive. The culminating act of the pogrom came when the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surviving Jews were driven into a barn, which was then burned down around them. All of this occurred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtually in the centre of town.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The narrative of the Jebwabne massacre is brief and gruesome. Critics in Poland have responded in a number )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ways. Some have claimed, on the basis of one piece of disputed trial testimony, that there was a large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German presence in Jebwabne on the day. The Germans either carried out the mass-murder, or forced the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Poles to do so. Others have sought to blame the victims, by reasserting the clichd claim that Jews had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eagerly welcomed the Soviet occupation of the region in 1939, and collaborated whole-heartedly with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet administration. \(No proof has emerged, however, that any Jebwabne Jew was such a ?collaborator?.\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nationalists on the political right have characterised the Jebwabne affair as yet another attempt of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?ungrateful Jews? to smear the good name of Poland before the wider world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the main, this response was anticipated by Gross, who takes the time, in this short book, to ponder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jebwabne?s implications for Polish-Jewish relations. He calls for Poles to have the moral courage to face up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the difficult events of their past, as well as the episodes of glory. But, it can be argued, what does this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(massacre, carried out over half a century ago, have to do with the modern citizens of Jedwabne, to say )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nothing of Poland as a whole? Gross has an answer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Can we arbitrarily select from a national heritage what we like, and proclaim it as patrimony to the exclusion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of everything else? Or just the opposite, if people are indeed bonded together by authentic spiritual affinity ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have in mind a kind of national pride rooted in common historical experiences of many generations ? are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they not somehow responsible also for the horrible deeds perpetrated by members of such an 'imagined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community'. Can a young German reflecting today on the meaning of his identity as a German simply ignore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twelve years \(1933-1945\) of his country?s and his ancestors? history? \(135\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is even more the case, because hiding behind the fascade of collective amnesia, Gross demonstrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout his book, the present-day citizenry of Jedwabne well-remember what happened there sixty years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ago. As Gross, and scholars such as Joanna Michlic have argued )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 346.280 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 346.280 136.323 m 360.272 136.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 360.272 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, if Poland is to build a modern, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratic society, and a collective identity that does not rely on xenophobia and Antisemitism as binding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agents, her citizens must confront events from the ?dark past? such as Jebwabne.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 346.2797 136.6375 360.2717 148.5175 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 4497 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The work of the three scholars discussed here, whatever their strengths and weaknesses, will hopefully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate, )] TJ ET BT 98.672 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(contra)] TJ ET BT 130.004 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Finkelstein, that the area of Holocaust-related scholarship is neither an ?industry? nor a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?scandal?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 721.059 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 690.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 690.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Wistrich, ?Blaming the Jews?, )] TJ ET BT 248.996 690.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Commentary)] TJ ET BT 310.988 690.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, February 1998, 60-3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 418.304 690.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 418.304 689.043 m 472.292 689.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 676.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 676.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In my own studies of ?Judeophobia? in Tsarist Russia, I have distinguished between phenomena that I )] TJ ET BT 64.016 661.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term ?objective Antisemitism? \(i.e., based upon observed realities of Jewish life, such as their )] TJ ET BT 64.016 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentration in the trade in spirits or propensity to evade the military draft\) and ?occult )] TJ ET BT 64.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antisemitism? \(i.e., the Blood Libel or the International Jewish Kahal\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 406.316 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 406.316 632.019 m 460.304 632.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 619.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norman Finkelstein, 'Whither the Holocaust industry? Further reflections on a growing scandal', )] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jewish Quarterly)] TJ ET BT 147.008 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 185 \(Spring 2002\), 60-1.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 272.000 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 272.000 603.507 m 325.988 603.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 590.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joanna Michlic, )] TJ ET BT 143.672 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Coming to Terms with the ?Dark Past?: The Polish Debate about the Jebwabne )] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Massacre)] TJ ET BT 110.672 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(The Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism; Jerusalem, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 560.739 m 118.004 560.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 535.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jan T. Gross is happy to accept this review and does not wish to respond further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 509.621 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 495.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net Reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 481.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 479.715 m 240.992 479.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 481.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 466.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Affairs)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 452.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/57143/stanley-hoffmann/rethinking-the-holocaust)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 451.203 m 461.288 451.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 464.288 452.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 447.871 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 430.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 430.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/306)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 428.697 m 322.316 428.697 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 403.720 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.320 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1531)] TJ ET BT 34.016 374.920 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1533)] TJ ET BT 34.016 360.520 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1535)] TJ ET BT 34.016 346.120 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=4109)] TJ ET BT 34.016 331.720 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/57143/stanley-hoffmann/rethinking-the-holocaust)] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 418.3037 689.3575 472.2917 701.2375 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 406.3157 632.3335 460.3037 644.2135 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 271.9997 603.8215 325.9877 615.7015 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 561.0535 118.0037 572.9335 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 480.0295 240.9917 491.9095 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=4109) >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 451.5175 461.2877 463.3975 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/57143/stanley-hoffmann/rethinking-the-holocaust) >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 429.0115 322.3157 440.8915 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/306) >> endobj xref 0 52 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000557 00000 n 0000000639 00000 n 0000003503 00000 n 0000003612 00000 n 0000003722 00000 n 0000003831 00000 n 0000007392 00000 n 0000007520 00000 n 0000007604 00000 n 0000007688 00000 n 0000014914 00000 n 0000014944 00000 n 0000015072 00000 n 0000015108 00000 n 0000015192 00000 n 0000022897 00000 n 0000022927 00000 n 0000023055 00000 n 0000023091 00000 n 0000023175 00000 n 0000030440 00000 n 0000030470 00000 n 0000030598 00000 n 0000030634 00000 n 0000030699 00000 n 0000038236 00000 n 0000038320 00000 n 0000045110 00000 n 0000045140 00000 n 0000045268 00000 n 0000045304 00000 n 0000045430 00000 n 0000049980 00000 n 0000050108 00000 n 0000050163 00000 n 0000050291 00000 n 0000050346 00000 n 0000050474 00000 n 0000050529 00000 n 0000050656 00000 n 0000050692 00000 n 0000050819 00000 n 0000050919 00000 n 0000051046 00000 n 0000051184 00000 n 0000051312 00000 n trailer << /Size 52 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 51407 %%EOF