%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930034356+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930034356+01'00') /Title (Homosexual Desire in Revolutionary Russia. The Regulation of Sexual and Gender Dissent) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4343 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Homosexual Desire in Revolutionary Russia. The Regulation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Sexual and Gender Dissent)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dan Healey's study of same-sex love in revolutionary Russia is an impressively argued, well documented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of one of the most 'obscure' 'blank spots' in Russian history. A radical revision of the 'myth of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universal, natural, and timeless Russian or Soviet heterosexuality' \(p. 9\), )] TJ ET BT 384.140 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Homosexual Desire in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revolutionary Russia)] TJ ET BT 137.012 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( recovers the informal and negotiable plurality of different forms of sexual experience, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice and identity in the late Imperial and early Soviet eras. Healey demonstrates that, until the repression )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of homosexuality was undertaken in earnest in the mid-1930s, sexuality was considerably less regulated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia than elsewhere in Europe. The comparative weakness of the medical sciences in Russia, combined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the reluctance of the tsarist state to deploy significant police resources to entrap and prosecute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homosexuals afforded the latter greater freedom to explore and develop a complex and shifting range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual identities. In a field all too often impoverished by a lack of comparative analysis with developments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in other European countries, Healey shows a sensitive and imaginative approach to the intellectual and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural traffic that linked discussions of sexuality in Russia with those in other West European countries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notably Germany. Healey's study is temporal as well as spatial in its sweep, covering the period from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1870s through the 1930s. He belongs to the new cohort of historians of Russia who see the real Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution in the cataclysmic changes that rocked the country in the first five-year plans and identifies a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much greater continuity in attitudes towards homosexuality across the 1917 revolution than across the Stalin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution from above.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(307)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 January, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dan Healey)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780226322335)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(376pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Chicago Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chicago)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daniel Beer)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7378 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Healey initially examines the relative freedom of the late Imperial city, and how the emergence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('sexualised streetscapes, its rituals of contact and socialisation, its signals and gestures, and its own fraternal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language' facilitated the formation of an identifiable male homosexual subculture in the late Imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian city from 'indigenous patterns of a traditional mutual masculine sexuality' \(p. 48\). This subculture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flourished under the market conditions which obtained in the bath houses, where same-sex male practices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were commodified and prostitution became established as an integral component of relations between men. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other men took advantage of the privacy of their domestic spheres to 'forge emotional relationships, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(develop a poetics and a historiography of homosexuality, and to celebrate a culture of gender and sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissent' \(p. 30\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although he devotes surprisingly little space to the elaboration of female homosexuality before 1917, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Healey does identify brothels as one of the only forums in which female same-sex relationships 'could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sheltered and even tolerated' \(p. 72\). Just as the gradual erosion of the autonomy of the bath house under the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bolsheviks had forced men to seek same-sex eros elsewhere, the prohibition on brothels marked the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suppression of 'this form of commodified private space in the early Soviet era [and] broke up an arena for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women's mutual sexuality' \(p. 72\). Whilst in contrast to men, Russian women seem not to have taken 'control )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of public space in order to express same sex desire through the definition of sexualised territories', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutionalised spaces, like the army and the Cheka, emerged after 1917, which sanctioned a code of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('"masculinised" dress and manners [which] enabled urban women who sought mutual erotic relations to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognise each other' \(p. 73\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Healey argues that 'the tsarist policing of sodomy and tribadism operated in an atmosphere of hypocrisy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indulgence accompanied by a weak and overstretched medical profession' \(p. 18\). Indeed, it is in this context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the repeated use \(in the subtitle and throughout the text\) of 'dissent' and 'dissident' to characterise the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon and practitioners of same-sex love in the period appears problematic. This is more than a mere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terminological quibble. While it is true that the status of homosexuals did become deeply politicised in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age when the head of the NKVD, G. Iagoda, explicitly linked their activities with espionage and counter-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution and their persecution formed part of the campaign against anti-Soviet elements in general, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point does not hold good for the whole period Healey is covering. Dissent must be a consequence of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conscious rejection of prevailing societal norms and some readiness to encounter disciplinary measures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intended to enforce them. There were those, like the British Communist and Moscow resident, Harry Whyte, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who asserted their right to same-sex eros in a letter to Stalin and consciously challenged the legitimacy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the re-criminalisation of sodomy \(p. 190\). Yet as Healey points out, pre-revolutionary Russia was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterised by a relatively indulgent attitude towards same-sex practices. Jealous of its own normative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prerogatives, the tsarist state was 'unreceptive to disciplinary discourses developed in bourgeois and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally liberal societies' \(p. 92\). The active pursuit of homosexuals was not a priority for the Tsarist police )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in contrast to their French and German counterparts who employed techniques of active surveillance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even entrapment to secure convictions. Moreover, the relations of patronage and an aversion to scandal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among the Russian elite combined to ensure that 'society was habituated to the observance of discretion and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concealment' in matters of male homosexuality \(p. 93\). In this context, the undifferentiated application of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term 'dissent' to all and any individuals engaged in same-sex love seems to empty the term of its sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agency and confer a politicisation upon the actions of individuals who at times seemed to operate with little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or no intervention from the state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his discussion of decriminalisation of sodomy in 1922, Healey challenges the orthodox view, pioneered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the literary historian Simon Karlinsky, that the abrogation of the law was inadvertent. Healey contends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, on the contrary, the influence of early Soviet libertarianism impelled first the Left Socialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolutionaries and then the Bolsheviks to eliminate a ban on acts of male homosexuality which had already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been questioned in influential quarters before the revolution. Whilst the Bolshevik regime had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decriminalised homosexuality in 1922, throughout the New Economic Policy it showed itself consistently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prepared to instrumentalise the issue of sexual deviance in order to discredit institutions like the Orthodox )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church with which it found itself in competition. Charges of pederasty were also levelled at individuals from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('class-alien backgrounds', in an intensification of the practice of class discrimination which had ensured that )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7513 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tsarist prosecutions of same-sex practices had rarely impinged upon the lives of the elite.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most intriguing chapters address the complex and unstable relationship between the Bolshevik regime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the medical and social sciences which sought to identify, categorise and analyse the phenomenon of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same-sex love during years between the 1917 and Stalin revolutions. The vacillations between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authoritarianism and libertarianism, which marked much of the early years of cultural and scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production in the Soviet Union, afforded the scientific community a reasonable degree of latitude in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealings with the question of homosexuality: 'The silence in the penal code on same-sex relations offered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new opportunities for medicine in an area formerly dominated by police approaches' \(p. 148\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Endocrinologists sought to generate a hormonal etiology of same-sex desire thereby offering 'a potential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avenue for psychiatrists to contribute to revolutionary ambitions to master nature' \(p. 148\). Experimentation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even extended to an attempt at sex gland transplantation involving the implantation of 'sheep and pig ovary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sections' under the breast of a twenty-eight-year-old female patient' \(p. 135\). The operation was a 'dismal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure'. Indeed, while endrocrinological accounts of homosexuality did 'attract attention for their novelty and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promise', they seem to have ceded explanatory power to bio-social understandings of sexuality. Whilst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claiming homosexual sex was 'abnormal', the eminent psychiatrist V. M. Bekhterev divided homosexuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into those whose same-sex desire represented a curable 'deviation' and those 'whose inverted desires "had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken root" ? [and] ? were "pathological"' \(p. 140\). Such views would always harbour an emancipatory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impulse, as they came close to acknowledging homosexuality as an inevitable \(and therefore legitimate\) part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the human sexual spectrum under the social conditions that then obtained in Soviet Russia. Such a view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human agency circumscribed by biological and social factors would become decidedly unpopular in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frenzied atmosphere of the Great Breakthrough, with its shrill insistence on the motive force of the human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will. Deviants of all kinds swiftly became solely responsible for any actions which conflicted with the values )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Stalinist regime.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his introduction, Healey cites Laura Engelstein's work to the effect that 'Bolshevism "harnessed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional disciplines to its own repressive ends"' \(p. 10\). Yet his own analysis indicates that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship in this particular power/knowledge dyad was a good deal more complicated. The attempted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cleansing of the Soviet body social of forms of sexual deviance was clearly part of a broader concern with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collective ideological and moral health, which witnessed campaigns against, among others, criminals, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prostitutes, alcoholics and the homeless: 'These deviant personalities were, like the criminal psychopath, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be removed from medical custody \(and any suggestion that biology caused their deviance\), and handed over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to agencies of social intervention' \(p. 176\). The language of these campaigns was formulated in terms of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bio-social prophylaxis intended to combat the spread of ideas and behavioural practices deemed pernicious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the wellbeing of the Party-State and society. Intriguingly, the medicalised theories that sought to account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the spread of homosexual sex drew upon notions of imitation and suggestibility which still enjoyed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable currency across Europe and had been popularised in Russia by eminent physicians such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bekhterev. Anxieties were concentrated on the institution of the army where 'the Expert Medical Council )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was quick to agree [with psychiatric opinion] that "mental infection" )] TJ ET BT 366.428 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(among males)] TJ ET BT 430.088 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( led to undesirable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences for military recruitment' \(p. 167\).)] TJ ET BT 265.460 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Healey observes, 'what homosexual sociability )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threatened was a crisis of mental or sexual hygiene ?' \(p. 187\). It was then the very medicalisation of sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deviance in the 1920s that framed the understanding of its persecution by the authorities in the 1930s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Healey's account of the motives behind the re-criminalisation of sodomy in 1934 remains a little obscure. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges that 'the reasons for the state's sudden interest in male homosexuals in 1933 ? remain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shadowy' \(p. 14\) yet makes little effort to illuminate them in the context of prevailing societal attitudes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homosexuality between the repeal of the anti-sodomy law in 1922 and its reinstatement in 1934. Indeed, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular understanding of homosexuality and the significance of homophobia throughout the period is kept at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the margins of the discussion. This is a pity because the constructivist approach to gender formation which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Healey espouses should have demanded a closer examination of the popular attitudes, prejudices and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumptions which framed the production of medical and legal knowledge to which he devotes such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meticulous attention.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The absence of a discussion of popular attitudes to homosexuality perhaps leads Healey to overstate the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 3627 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(normative value of the re-criminalisation of male same-sex practices in 1934. Arguing that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('reconfiguration of male heterosexuality was to a significant degree conducted in courts where men where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tried for sodomy' \(p. 223\), he nevertheless acknowledges that such trials 'were not edifying spectacles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mounted to demonstrate Bolshevik values to a wide audience' \(p. 227\). Nor, despite the politicisation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homosexuality, epitomised by Gorky's famous statement of 1934, 'Destroy the homosexuals ? Fascism will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappear', 'were they meant to proclaim to the capitalist world the moral purity of Stalin's socialism' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(227\). Given the lack of publicity attached to trials of homosexuals, might they not have been more marginal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the production of a 'Stalinist compulsory heterosexuality' than Healey suggests?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Healey's scholarship is impressive; the text combines a voluminous bibliography of primary sources ranging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across penology, the medical sciences, diaries, memoirs and the writings of Bolshevik leaders. Frank about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the limitations imposed by the continuing inaccessibility of the archives of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Federal Security Service and the Presidential Archive which he assumes to contain the most detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information on the enactment of the 1933?34 anti-sodomy statute, Healey has nevertheless unearthed some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating material in his extensive archival research. Drawing on the holdings of the archives of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(People's Commissariat of Health and of the USSR Procuracy, and upon court cases from the Moscow City )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Courts held in the Central State Historical Archive of Moscow and the Central Municipal Archive of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moscow, to name but a few, he has constructed a extremely well-documented analysis of the complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interplay between medical and legal bodies operating in the political flux that was Russia throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary period. With this richly textured monograph, Healey has undoubtedly established himself as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the leading historians of gender in Russia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 468.367 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 450.587 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 450.587 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/307)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 449.193 m 322.316 449.193 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 424.216 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 409.816 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1537)] TJ ET BT 34.016 395.416 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 449.5075 322.3157 461.3875 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/307) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000589 00000 n 0000000671 00000 n 0000005066 00000 n 0000005175 00000 n 0000005285 00000 n 0000005394 00000 n 0000008955 00000 n 0000009083 00000 n 0000009167 00000 n 0000009232 00000 n 0000016663 00000 n 0000016728 00000 n 0000024294 00000 n 0000024378 00000 n 0000028058 00000 n 0000028186 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28281 %%EOF