%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141021110847+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141021110847+01'00') /Title (Review Article: Narratives of Folk England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3562 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Review Article: Narratives of Folk England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We have never been less interested in the details of history than we are today, and we have never been more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committed to a weak and often reductive view of a romanticized past. In different ways, both these books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(address the fading of historical specificity from consciousness and its consequences, and in different ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both seek to assert the importance of specificity in a world increasingly committed to affective generalities. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet while Ronald Hutton patiently dismantles the historical narrative which endorsed the creation of the past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a field of pleasurable play, Paul Heelas as carefully shows just how extraordinarily influential those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives have been in creating lifestyles and attitudes. If Heelas is right, Hutton may be too late to alter this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular historical record. In the minds of many, Deep England is so central that there is now no hope of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uprooting it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Social historians before the great epiphanies of the 1970s used to spend a good deal of time overlapping with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 June, 1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ronald Hutton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(549pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Heelas)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(275pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blackwell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diane Purkiss)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7489 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(folklorists, studying and celebrating the oddities of Folk Custom in order to cry up the glories of Deep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England. Maypoles and wassail were indispensable to comprehension of the English Folk, and detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descriptions of these rituals and their significance was substituted for more mundane knowledges of what the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris dancers ate for dinner or thought about as they danced. Leaning heavily on literary sources, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially Shakespeare, Jonson, Herrick and that old trickster John Aubrey, this school of thought made few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowances for the specificity of point of view. Oddly, a lot of people were attracted to the study of early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern culture in general \(and, before the war, Shakespeare in particular\) by these often beautiful lies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thickly coated with the sugar of idealization. This spectacularisation of the People, always looking nervously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over its shoulder at the less tractable People of the twentieth century, differed radically from its successor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social histories of the 1970s, eager to get to grips with the grim and gritty details of birth, copulation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death while leaving merely decorative dances to the folklorists.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The only problem with their salutary reaction was that it left Morris dancers pretty much where they had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always been; vehicles for a rickety ideology of folk continuity. In the final volume of his immensely erudite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and important trilogy, Ronald Hutton sets out to tackle calendrical custom, long the linchpin of romantic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leavisite faith in ?organic culture?. All three books in the now-complete series are judicious and remarkably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide-ranging, drawing on a wealth of evidence in order to rethink the complexities of ritual and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investments people make in it. While The Pagan Religions of Ancient Britain assessed the claims made by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romantics for prehistory and The Rise and Fall of Merry England examined the historical particularity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the calendar and its invention and reinvention, the last volume, Stations of the Sun extends the work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Merry England forward to look at the process by which supposedly immemorial customs are constantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(updated, reinvented, re-created and reinterpreted by their practitioners, but also by the small and formidable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army of folklorists who are often the causes of the events they purport to describe. Hutton has some hilarious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tales o folklorists who urged villagers to incorporate some ?crucial? element into a ritual.. When the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obedient villagers complied, the folklorists, nodded, satisfied; now the ritual was ?typical?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What makes Hutton?s book so rewarding is the marvelous stories he has to tell, stories rich in the kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail which allow us to understand ritual not as a series of archetypal structures, but as a series of diverse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inventions by individuals and communities rather than by the vlk or the geist. Hutton?s lucid, elegant prose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the ideal vehicle for the unlikeliness of such stories, bringing them close to the reader by establishing just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the right amount of distance from them. There is the Norfolk dragon, ?Old Snap?, who survived the abolition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of St George?s Day only because he had somehow sneaked into the mayoral procession; ?Snap? remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lively until 1835, but even then was resurrected by imitators; one such impersonation is in the Castle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Museum, a lone survivor of the saint?s feasts of medieval England. There is the midsummer wheel, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cartwheel swathed in straw which must contrive to keep alight till it reaches the bottom of the hill, or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harvest will be poor; Hutton himself cautiously concedes that this ritual at least may have some links to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pagan past. There is the long historical story of the transmutation of the sombre Day of the Dead into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern masquerade of Halloween: where kings and their trains once dressed in purple and black, children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now dress as their fears, as ghosts, witches and monsters. As Hutton rightly shows, the opening of the season )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of darkness and cold is and remains an opportunity to confront fear and death, though the mode of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confrontation has changed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some of Hutton?s stories themselves strongly militate against any nostalgia for the ?organic? society of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past, and indeed refute any notion that it was ?organic? in the sense of being inclusive: there is the intelligent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substitution of a daffodil for a leek on St David?s Day by Welshmen tired of being beaten up and burned in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effigy on 1 March by the xenophobic English, for instance. Shrovetide and Halloween were times when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gangs roamed the streets, entertaining themselves with cockfights, violent football matches or by begging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(money or food with menaces. The wakes, too, were increasingly deplored -and ultimately ended - by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disapproval generated by the feasters? commitment to cruelty. Marveling at the youthful violence Hutton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncovers, one cannot help wanting to relate these calendrical outbursts to the current sporting calendar, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equally tyrannical, and equally prodigal of nearly-licensed disorder. Complainants, too, have been with us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since the Reformation at least, and attempts to control such disorders using force majeure as likely to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(backfire then as now. Revellers in Somerset chased away a man bringing the justices? ruling on their )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7517 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities with cries of ?we will keep revel despite all such tithing calves as thou art?. Ritual could divide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities as well as uniting them, and reinterpretation is not always a seamless and even historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process; sometimes it was imposed from above on an unwilling populace.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By analogy, too, one wonders how far wakes and shrovings were rites of passage for the young men who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took part in them, as football violence can be today. Hutton says little about gender, but it is all too evident )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the most bloodthirsty and violent rites were almost exclusively male affairs. Thinking of Ladurie?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carnival at Romans, with its violent rape, one wonders whether the rougher, rawer portrayal of medieval and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early modern festival that Hutton offers might lead us to rethink the current knee-jerk tendency to follow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bakhtin in endorsing carnival in as a positive image of liberation for all, a dissolution of identity. Rather, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems that identity goes with us to the party, and inflects what happens there. Hutton?s mass of evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might over time be sifted to this end. We might want to begin to task what the costs of liberation are, just as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we might want to ask whether inclusiveness and cohesion can ever really be comprehensive, or must always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take as their object that which is not included. Does successful ritual depend on the weary notions of same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other, after all, and is it in that sense no different to the middling sort rituals of today, the dinner in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smart restaurant, the foreign holiday to the ?unspoilt? area devoid of ?package tourists?, Modern Times?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racist diners? The New Age movement described by Heelas, sprung from a particular set of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misapprehensions about the ritual past, certainly depends very strongly on its difference from what it posits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the norm, on it supposedly of being above it all, on a higher plane. As Paul Heelas knows, this pose can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easily translate into elitism and outright fascism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To resolve these doubts, or at least to begin profitable speculation, one sometimes wants to know more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hutton tells. Wonderful as these stories are, one might sometimes welcome what Clifford Geertz called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?thick? descriptions of these our English equivalents of Balinese cockfights. It may merely be my own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignorance that leads me to ask that an already compendious book look for God in the details; moreover, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(details are not always available, especially for medieval and early modern rites. Hutton has chosen however )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to tell the reader about events rather than, as it were, to invite the reader to join him at the hobby horse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dances, and occasionally one wonders whether a more immediate and elaborate sense of ritual is required.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, while disputatious and concurrent views of particular rituals are recorded meticulously for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past, little comparable recording is offered for the modern descendants of those rituals. We hear about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian dislike of waits, but not about modern Guardian readers? dislike of Christmas, about the terror of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Buzz Lightyear who stalks the nightmares of parents, about the morbid middle-class loathing of festivals of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indulgence \(even as we indulge\). On Halloween, rather surprisingly, we hear little about either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamentalist Christian objections, or about moral panics over drugs in Halloween candy, which has in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(US led to the relocation of trick or treating to guaranteed safety in that modern shrine, the mall. \(When you )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can?t trust your neighbours, you can at least pin your faith to J. C. Penney.\) Perhaps the mall is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriate place to represent the public sphere nowadays, rather than the neighbourhood. Hutton?s focus on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rituals that descend from early modern equivalents sometimes leads him to neglect rites important in modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain: the most obvious is the Notting Hill Carnival, which uncannily reproduces many of the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anxieties which used to be produced about Bartholomew Fair, with the added twist of racial otherness.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reluctance to think about how customs work and who they work for is another problem here; a reluctance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synthesise, to ask why on earth people bothered and in some cases still bother to get dressed up as horses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and go clop-clopping through the streets. A chance to play a starring role? A sense of what Heelas would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(call perenniality? Nothing good on television? While Hutton reasonably announces that this book is more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative than analysis, one sometimes feels that the narrative would make more sense, would be less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reducible to anecdote, if some analysis were embedded in it. While it?s good to see the flawed syntheses of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frazer and the folklorists jettisoned with such exemplary tact and lan, it?s occasionally worrying that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nothing takes their place. Resistance to Heelas?s perenniality sometimes seems to threaten to drown all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure in an avalanche of particularity; while some rituals are allowed their share of continuity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning, there is no sustained attempt to talk about ritual itself. Neither psychoanalysis nor economics are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invoked, and nor is the kind of empathetic anthropology with which we might approach the rituals of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nuer or the Trobrianders. In part this may be historical caginess: there is not much of the kind of evidence )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7473 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which would allow such ruminations to rise above speculation, and perhaps the effort of restoring what was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once folklore to respectability imposes undue caution. At times, however, one wonders whether the caution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not overdone. Hutton?s prose style is not that of an unimaginative man, but at times one might mistake )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him for one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are actually some big and daring ideas here, quite apart from the thorough and painstaking correction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of errors, but Hutton seems reluctant to do much with them; they are apologetically stuffed away in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning and ending remarks. For this reader, the most striking were Hutton?s depiction of a general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tendency for festivals that were once public, social or communal to become private, familial, and child-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oriented, especially clearly documented in the cases of Christmas and Easter. I don?t know how he resisted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the temptation to relate these notions to grand theories of the decline of the public sphere, the loss of public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity, and the dereliction of public life. Perhaps he had faith in the reader?s ability to do so, but it looks as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though he is a little reluctant to spend time trying to account for the alteration of social ritual with reference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to social context. \(This is the more surprising because The Rise and Fall of Merry England is much richer in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contextual observation.\) Hutton has another wonderful idea, which has all the surprise value and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explosiveness of a pinat at a Mexican funfair, but he slyly buries it in the conclusion, and refuses it the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space it needs to dominate our thinking as it should. Responding to the widely-shared sense that England is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country which lost a crucial explanatory story about itself at some point, Hutton suggest s that this story is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not paganism, as many now suppose, but medieval Catholicism, which knitted together a ritual year, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including its surviving pagan elements, holding its individual pieces in liquid suspension. Not only does this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make miraculous sense of much of Hutton?s own material, it means his work dovetails with other, earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts to recover that ritual past: Eamon Duffy?s, Christopher Haigh?s, and even Keith Thomas?s. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perfectly fits many witch-trials, too, where that buried Catholic \(not recusant\) knowledge was sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(awkwardly excavated by people already unable to understand or interpret it. It might even explain the sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a few of our more eccentric poets have had reading Shakespeare that he is somehow both a Catholic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pagan author. Dazzling as the idea is, it remains undeveloped here; one can only hope that Hutton?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marvelous compendium of stories encourages others to evaluate it, and much else, more fully.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Heelas?s work will also encourage some urgent re-evaluation of where we are to go for meaning these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(days, though historians might well find his work hard going at first. It is stiff with a mixture of New Age and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sociological terminology, and the result is to deflate much possibility of storytelling or listening pleasure, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as much chance that he book will be read by many of its ostensible subjects. Nonetheless, it is worth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persevering, because Heelas offers the first full academic study of the New Age movement as a whole. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem is, as Heelas acknowledges, that the New Age movement is not really a whole at all, but a wide and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost insanely diverse series of practices, preachers and precepts, often in violent disagreement with each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other. Frustratingly, the unifying pressure that it is necessary to exert in order to create something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resembling a work of scholarship falsifies the picture, or at any rate involves a departure from the way New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Agers themselves would represent what they are doing, and Heelas is acutely aware of the problems of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(answering questions about a movement typified by its diversity and fluidity. If particularity is a problem, so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is generality. Some of the features of the New Agers defined in Heelas?s introduction - self-actualisation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the self-ethic, for example - are widespread among the undergraduate population at large, including those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who intend to go into management consultancy. Others - magical power, for example - arouse less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widespread assent. This matters because one question provoked but not answered by Heelas?s book is just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how influential the ideas he describes are or are likely to become; do we need to concern ourselves with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them? Are New Agers heading for the mainstream?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heelas evidently thinks that they may be; at times he almost hopes so, but his central theme is the tension )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the spiritualisation of the self and the self as hedonistic consumer and he is anxious that the latter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may oust the former. ?Love children of the New Age/Just a hippie with a weekly wage?, said Tim Finn. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unlike Hutton, Heelas is a painstaking contextualiser and theoriser of the movements he describes, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sees the New Age as a response to the legitimation crises besetting traditional politics and lifestyles. About )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the latter, Heelas draws heavily on Eugen Weber?s theory of modernity as an iron cage, a cage which pins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down and controls the individual in ways which make him or her long for escape. The problem with this as )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7550 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an explanation for New Age practices is that New Age beliefs do not necessarily involve giving up the day )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(job. Among the community of modern Pagans, for example, there are many with highly orthodox careers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and lifestyles, often in such techno-dominated industries as computing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This fits perfectly with the much more persuasive thesis of Marvin Harris that the New Age is primarily a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response to the financial insecurities of what was at one point optimistically termed late capitalism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Heelas is right to assert that Harris overstates his case, ignoring the transformative aspects of est, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heelas in turn neglects the possibility that spiritual transformativity is just as much an attempt to deal with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic uncertainty as cruder attempts to win friends and influence people through TM. Downsizing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expectations creates a hole in the ego which can be filled by replacing material with spiritual progress. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis is still on progress, and New Age ?therapies? often involve a reassuring structure of movements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through ?levels?; the very notion of self-improvement is shares its vocabulary with the yuppiest of yuppie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-actualisation though Bang and Olufson, as Heelas knows and fears. Similarly, Heelas rightly says that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many are drawn to New Age practices through alternative medicine because of the perceived failures of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allopathic medicine, but he says little about why allopathic medicine has suddenly been seen as such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure by so many, or how this might connect with the movement?s rejection of every Enlightenment value )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(except individualism. As old ways of coping with uncertainty are discarded, it seems important for both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hutton and Heelas to ask why, to ask how it is that what was once central is shifted to the margins.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The New Age is not concerned with this kind of question, and that is its weakness; it has no idea how it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came into being, which makes self-criticism or self-awareness an uphill task. Its forgetting of the past is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly manifested in the brilliant and disturbing invented past of new Paganisms, which trace their ancestry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a non-existent tradition of witchcraft and through that to ancient Paganisms. This is a pity, because there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are many other more convincing reasons for a revival of paganism, even in its current rather ersatz form. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heelas rightly grants Pagans centrality in New Age thought, writing that they are the ?key resource? for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who have counter-cultural concerns. Documenting this, far too briefly, Heelas gives little attention to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its whys, wherefores or functions, and although the knows a little about the bewildering variety of paganisms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on offer, he has little to say about their diverse appeals. Yet it is these paganisms which spring from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precisely the kind of history Hutton is out to undo, the kind which elevates popular ritual into pereniallty,a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locaus of reliable permanence in a changing world, and hence an index of spiritual value which also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possesses all the charisma of the outsider. Heelas says little about how new Pagans might react to challenges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to their views; it will be extremely interesting to see how they react to Hutton. My own limited experience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that they are currently reacting with a characteristic mixture of open-minded curiosity and anxious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scepticism about the debunking of whatever myths are most important to them, mixed with what Michel de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certeau calls ?poaching?, impertinent reading via the reader?s agenda and not the author?s; no doubt some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stories from Hutton?s book will find their way into new rituals, and perhaps Snap might get a few more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visitors. But the solipsism on which much New Age thought is based is not soluble in reason, even reason as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seductive and judicious as Hutton?s, because it is produced by the general discourses of society as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ineluctably as greenhouse gases are produced by burning fossil fuels. What might help to alter things are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Age involvement in politics - the roadbuilding protests, for instance - which necessarily involve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of collectivity, even community, in collective action. Eventually this might create a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(willingly disciplined, less hedonistic political subject; there is some sign of this in the martyr-cult of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Swampy, who at least had to subordinate his body to severe constraint.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It seems important to invoke these ?real? New Agers here, because their voices are hard to hear in Heelas?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book and they get surprisingly little attention from Hutton either, in keeping with his occasional inattention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the modern. Both these books raise important historiographical questions about how to deal with popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural forms in historical work, questions which interrogate not only the reliability of evidence, but also the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent to which history, like anthropology, can become the dissection of an object of observation carefully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and even ritually distanced from the historian-observer. Though neither Hutton nor Heelas is at all hostile to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what they describe, neither brings us very close to it either, preferring an analytic framework and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controlling narrative voice respectively to the fragments of microhistory to which we have of late become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more accustomed. Heelas in particular offers little in the way of narrative at all, contenting himself with )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 1488 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abstract observation. Though narrative has its risks, Hutton demonstrates how vital it is in drawing readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closer to an alien subject. though wildly different in tone and style, both books share a concern with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography of the popular, but Hutton approaches a solution much more nearly than Heelas by using the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best of traditional methods; the final elegant irony in a book which seeks to overturn so much of what we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought we knew about the past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 694.207 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 676.427 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 676.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/30a)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 675.033 m 321.644 675.033 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 650.056 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 635.656 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4358)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.256 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4359)] TJ ET BT 34.016 606.856 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 675.3475 321.6437 687.2275 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/30a) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000559 00000 n 0000000641 00000 n 0000004255 00000 n 0000004364 00000 n 0000004474 00000 n 0000004583 00000 n 0000008144 00000 n 0000008272 00000 n 0000008356 00000 n 0000008421 00000 n 0000015963 00000 n 0000016028 00000 n 0000023598 00000 n 0000023663 00000 n 0000031189 00000 n 0000031254 00000 n 0000038857 00000 n 0000038941 00000 n 0000040482 00000 n 0000040610 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40705 %%EOF