%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140920082453+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140920082453+01'00') /Title (A Taste for Empire and Glory: Studies in British Overseas Expansion, 1660-1800) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2853 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Taste for Empire and Glory: Studies in British Overseas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Expansion, 1660-1800)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip Lawson died in October 1995 at the comparatively young age of 46. Most of the contents of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume, which he helped prepare for publication before his death, have been published elsewhere as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periodical articles, and a good number will be well known to eighteenth-century scholars. There are two new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays, however, both on the subject of tea and tea drinking in Britain and the colonies in the eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. These essays allow us a brief glimpse of the project which Lawson was working on towards the end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(31)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 July, 1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip Lawson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780860786368)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(70.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(314pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Variorum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.ashgate.com/default.aspx?page=637&calcTitle=1&title_id=2907&edition_id=3372)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aldershot and Vermont)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Harris)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7479 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Inevitably there are dangers of incoherence and repetition in a collection such as this. Yet the essays and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articles do possess a strong coherence - the theme of empire and its diverse manifestations and repercussions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides the common thread - and they gain significantly by being printed and read together. Indeed, those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in empire and in particular the domestic faces of empire will find much to think on here, as will all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth-century scholars. There is only one decision about content that I would quibble with, which is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclusion of several review articles. While these contain some interesting remarks, they are of limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest compared to the articles and essays.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The view offered by this volume of the impact of empire on British politics, perceptions and society in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two decades or so after the Peace of Paris \(1763\) is wide-ranging. Lawson's intellectual journey around the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early British empire took him from an examination, basically Namierite in inspiration, of the career of that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easily underestimated politician, George Grenville, to consideration of the challenge of integrating Canada )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the British empire after the Seven Years' War, investigation of the murky and frequently fierce politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrounding the East India Company, and finally to tea and its important impact on eighteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society. There is also a strong challenge to other historians implicit throughout this work, and explicitly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stated in several places - to integrate more fully than has been the case hitherto empire and imperial themes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into general accounts of the development of eighteenth-century Britain. The impact of the periphery on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(core of the early British empire was profound and far-reaching, as Lawson as well as others - Huw Bowen, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linda Colley, David Hancock, P J Marshall, Allan MacInnes and Kathleen Wilson, to name just a few - have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shown in recent years. But what is perhaps equally important about this perception is how far, as Lawson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(starts to show, it holds out the possibility of connecting together in fruitful and novel ways so many different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(features of eighteenth-century social, cultural and economic life. Through a new or re-fashioned history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire, the traditional boundaries of eighteenth-century history can be and are being collapsed. The new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of empire is a history of representation as well as of administration, politics, trade and war. It is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a history that forces the historian to cross boundaries between countries within as well as beyond the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Isles. Moreover, for political historians, like the growing study of the legislative output of the eighteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century House of Commons, it provides a way of moving beyond the conceptualization of eighteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century political life as being divided between so-called `high politics' and `low politics' which has shaped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so much writing and research on eighteenth-century British politics since the 1960s. Such developments are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in themselves exciting; it is also possible to detect in them the outlines of new perspectives on the continuing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate about what sort of society eighteenth-century Britain was.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Several articles in this volume touch on issues that have long concerned eighteenth-century historians. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is much on the background to the American Revolution, including a rigorous dissection of Grenville's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes towards relations with the colonies, which reveals him as much more constructive than his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputation allows. Lawson's close study of Grenville appears to have provided him with a strong sense of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realities of eighteenth-century political life, and the dangers of imposing overly schematic interpretations on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it. In one of the review articles, he has interesting things to say about the complex relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary politicians and extra-parliamentary politics, a relationship that has tended to be pushed to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background of discussion in several recent books on popular politics. It is study of Grenville's political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(career which also appears to have laid the basis for another of the important features of Lawson's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship - his ability to look to the East as well as to the Atlantic world in examining empire and imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes. There are two articles on the entanglement of the East India Company in politics in the two decades )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after 1760s; in both Grenville makes a prominent appearance, very much as the practical politician and adept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fixer.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Three of the articles are on Canada and the Quebec Act \(1774\). These bring out very clearly the formidable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems successive British ministers faced after 1763 in integrating the French Catholic population of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quebec into the British empire. Intolerance and suspicion of Catholicism was rife on both sides of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic; it also did not help that for many Britain's Atlantic empire had a spiritual purpose - to nurture and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protect Protestantism. The episode also has a further significance, however, one that, as Lawson suggests, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has great importance when it comes to portraying the later eighteenth-century British state and its ruling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elites. Through the passage of the Quebec Act, an important blow was struck against the traditional )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7193 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perception that political stability and security depended on Anglican hegemony and limited toleration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orthodox Protestant Dissent. It was Lord North's Solicitor General, Alexander Wedderburn who summed up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the new view most succinctly when he observed that `there is no instance of any state that has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overturned by toleration'. The only limits to toleration were to be set by the security of the state and this was, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at bottom, an issue to be decided on pragmatic grounds. The later eighteenth century ruling order was one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which felt secure and confident enough to defend its rule in increasingly secular and utilitarian terms. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refurbished its appeal by presenting a rational modernizing face, or, as Elijah Gould has recently put it, `an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearance of Enlightenment' \(`American Independence and Britain's Counter-Revolution', Past and Present, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(154 \(1997\), p 138\). In the successful defence of their policy towards Canada, we can also see ministers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their supporters reaching towards a doctrine of imperial responsibility that was to become much more clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressed a few years later and in relation to India. The full story of the emergence of this doctrine remains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be told, although Lawson provides plenty of helpful hints.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If there is one dominant theme that runs throughout this volume it is both how pervasive and at the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time how complex a presence empire was in Hanoverian Britain. Those looking for easy characterizations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire's significance for Britons in the eighteenth century will not find them. Lawson emphasizes in several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places that there was no `unitary vision of empire' in eighteenth-century Britain. The imaginative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engagement with empire took place on different levels, and empire possessed a range of overlapping and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifting meanings. Nor was there any great stability about reactions to empire; the emotions and attitudes it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gave rise to were inherently unstable and often contradictory. Nor does he provide any support for portrayals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of empire in this period which seek to emphasize the primacy of economic motivations. If I read him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correctly, he is not denying that imperial expansion depended on the energies, imagination and skills of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merchants, traders, manufacturers and investors. And he certainly is not arguing that economic themes did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not feature significantly in discussions of empire. What he is emphasizing, however, is how far they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usually subordinated to other factors. As he writes in one place \(III, p. 140\):)] TJ ET BT 64.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was ... a brave person who praised the economic motive alone when discussing overseas trade )] TJ ET BT 64.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and imperial development. Anyone willing to say that personal or national glory rested solely on )] TJ ET BT 64.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obliterating opponents and exploiting settlers in pursuit of profit would not be commentating in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a language readily understood by an eighteenth century readership.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawson suggests that where commercial themes did tend to predominate was in `informal' press coverage of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire, in the reports contemporary newspapers carried of, for example, the exploitation of new colonies. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kathleen Wilson has recently talked about the press creating an image of Britain's empire being an `empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of goods', an empire bound together by multiplying flows of trade and products \(Kathleen Wilson, The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sense of the People: Politics, Culture and Imperialism in England, 1715-1785 \(Cambridge, 1995\), p 40\). Yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what Lawson shows is that this was only one of the images of empire which the press helped to fashion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To draw too stark a division between commercial issues and other issues that featured in debates about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire, for example, strategic questions and, closely related to these, nationalistic themes would be wrong, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Lawson certainly does not do this. Britain's colonies, particularly in the Caribbean and North America, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were usually seen principally in terms of international rivalry. Visions of accumulation and prosperity were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secondary to visions of security. This emerges in several places in this volume, especially in a detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of the debates which surrounded the peace settlement at the end of the Seven Year's War. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something which can be explained very largely in terms of the persistence and intensity of traditional fears )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about French power and international aims, another factor which underlines the continuities in the ways in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which eighteenth-century Britons debated foreign policy and empire. What is perhaps remarkable \(and easily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overlooked\) is how far these fears continued in the years even after 1763 and the amazing military successes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the latter part of the Seven Year's War. Lawson refers in one place to a `press war of attrition' \(IV, p 585\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against French activity and intentions in North America in the decade or so after 1763. There are close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parallels here with developments in the later 1740s and early 1750s, when the press conducted a similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaign against French activities and intentions after the Peace of Aix-La-Chapelle. As one commentator )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6982 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued in 1756 \(Critical Review, xiv \(1756\), pp. 265-6\):)] TJ ET BT 64.016 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Every Briton ought to be acquainted with the ambitious views of France, her eternal thirst after )] TJ ET BT 64.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universal dominion, and her continual encroachments on the properties of her neighbours ... )] TJ ET BT 64.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nothing but a war, vigorously carried on against her, and continued 'till she be utterly )] TJ ET BT 64.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incapacitated for putting her wicked schemes into execution. And till this be done, it is most )] TJ ET BT 64.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain, that our trade, our liberties, our country, nay all the rest of Europe, will be in a continual )] TJ ET BT 64.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(danger of falling prey to the common Enemy, the universal Cormorant, that would, if possible, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(swallow up the whole globe itself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Lawson points out, ministers such as Grenville, the earl of Egremont and the earl of Halifax were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercised by the spectre of this threat during discussions about the peace settlement at the end of the Seven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Year's War. They believed that Britain should hang on to all her conquests as a guarantee against a revival of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French power and influence. For many, the shadow of a war of revanche by the French never lifted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significantly after 1763, as an examination of press discussions of the breakdown in relations with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American colonists in 1775 would indicate very strongly. Wars for empire were also wars for strategic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests in Europe; in the minds of Britons in the eighteenth century it was impossible to disentangle the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theatres.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If strategic questions closely influenced attitudes towards empire and expansion overseas, what also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterised these was a high measure of uncertainty, anxiety and restraint. There are important differences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here between Lawson's portrayal of attitudes towards empire and Kathleen Wilson's recent work on the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topic. But Lawson is able to provide an impressive amount of evidence to support his view. It is also a view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that my own research on a slightly earlier period would support \(for some preliminary thoughts, see my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(`"American Idols": War, Empire and Middling Ranks in Mid Eighteenth Century Britain', Past and Present, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(150 \(1996\), pp. 111-41\). Lawson's starting point in many of the articles reprinted here is the mood of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(optimism and expectation which existed in the early 1760s and the story he is telling in different ways is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about how this mood dissipated. It would be possible to characterize this process slightly differently, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although this does not weaken Lawson's main point. So far as empire and Britain's role overseas is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned, the mood of the early 1760s was intrinsically unstable, the product of short-term factors, namely, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a series of largely unanticipated and stunning military victories across the globe. It also masked the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristics and contradictions which were to become ever more clearly exposed in the years after 1763. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, attitudes towards imperial expansion were throughout the central decades of the eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century uncertain and often ambiguous. There were also always potential tensions between wars of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansion and commercial needs and interests, in so far as the latter had any unity. It was Walpole who in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1730s had argued very strongly that it was peace which brought prosperity and, given events in the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against Spain which broke out in October 1739, and as many of his opponents recognised in later years, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was an argument that was difficult to refute, at least for long.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the early 1760s, it was India's role, as Lawson demonstrates with great clarity in an article written in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collaboration with Jim Philips and first published in Albion in 1984, to provide a very visible stage for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exposing tensions, contradictions and anxieties surrounding empire. Because of the rapacity and greed of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servants of the East India Company, British activities in India also provided a very powerful focus for deep-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rooted concerns about the impact of expansion abroad on the health of British society and the British polity - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about, in short, the corrupting effects of empire. As with many aspects of contemporary debate about empire, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is easily possible to feel that there was a great deal of displacement behaviour going on here; attacks on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(`nabobs' and `nabobbery' reflected unease about developments in British society as well as anxiety and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern about the activities of Britons abroad. In their greed, their bartering of money for position and status )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in society, the nabobs exemplified pressures and trends that were felt to be all too widespread in society. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This was a society in which many were struggling to re-draw old boundaries in the face of increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence of social mutability and change and deepening fears in some quarters about the erosion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional patterns of deference and social control. Many looked to traditional languages and images for re-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7200 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assurance in this context, which helps to explain why vocabularies of established interests and traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(values - hospitality, paternalism and charity - retained their prominence in much social and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentary in the later eighteenth century. It was also perhaps partly for this reason that discussions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain's advance overseas had, as Lawson puts it in one place, to be tempered with `nobler concerns' than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade and material gain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is also possible to see behind this a tenacious and deep-rooted ambiguity about the relationship of trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and merchants to the `national interest' or `public good'. It was not just Adam Smith who thought that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial interests were `always in some respects different from, and even opposite to that of the public'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British expansion overseas in the eighteenth century was very publicly and visibly debated, not surprisingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given the range of interests, emotions and issues which were involved. But it was the products of empire - its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material bounty - which perhaps had the most tangible effects on eighteenth-century society. The previously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unpublished essays in this volume - on tea and tea drinking - offer powerful reminders of this fact. It was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just a matter of the startling rapidity and scale with which tea drinking exerted its hold on all levels of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and indeed colonial American society from the late seventeenth century, although this is so striking as to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserve underlining as Lawson does. It also reflects the close relationship between, on the one hand, changes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the manners and codes of eighteenth-century society and, on the other, the spread of new habits and rituals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrounding tea drinking. This is not necessarily a new perception, but it is developed here in very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting ways and in a manner which is impressively interdicisplinary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the essays examines the forces and factors through which the state became so closely involved in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tea trade, and with such ultimately alarming consequences for the integrity of the empire. \(It is perhaps one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of history's neater ironies that it was one of the foremost products of empire - tea - that should have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precipitated the final stages of the breach between Britain and the American colonies.\) In the other essay, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawson uses primarily pictorial and literary evidence to emphasize how far tea drinking helped to alter the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choreography and pattern of many domestic and social lives in the eighteenth century. He raises in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context the important issue of how we perceive changes in the role and status of women in eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Britain, adding his voice to several others which have been critical recently of accounts of gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations which appear to project backwards patterns and ideas which may have much greater applicability to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nineteenth century. He refers gently at one point to `errors of omission' in the way historians have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented the way women lived in the eighteenth century \(XV, p 18\). Many contemporaries were deeply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worried about the feminization of much cultural life and leisure in the eighteenth century. The mania for tea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drinking, and women's mastery of the rituals surrounding tea drinking, which crossed the boundaries of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public and private, can be seen as a powerful symbol and facet of this development. Unlike historians of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth-century France or North America, British historians have been comparatively slow in pursuing in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail the ways in which the developing public sphere or spheres in eighteenth-century Britain were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gendered. Yet it is an area of investigation that holds much promise; future research is also likely to disrupt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loose generalizations about a hardening of divisions between private and public spheres in this period and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the increasing exclusion of women from the latter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is appropriate that this review should end with a few words about Philip Lawson. I never met him, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading this volume it was something I increasingly regretted. It is a fitting testament to his many qualities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strongly conveying the breadth and subtlety of his scholarship, as well as his technical skills as a historian. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Several personal qualities also shine through, notably a powerful intellectual honesty and a deep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitment to a progressive and positive vision of his subject. By bringing together many of Lawson's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articles and essays, this volume serves a very useful purpose. It is an important book and deserves a broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readership.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Society for the History of Discoveries)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.sochistdisc.org/2003_book_reviews/lawson.htm)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 79.299 m 323.012 79.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 326.012 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 75.967 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 58.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 58.187 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/31)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 56.793 m 316.316 56.793 l S endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 79.6135 323.0117 91.4935 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.sochistdisc.org/2003_book_reviews/lawson.htm) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 57.1075 316.3157 68.9875 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/31) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 328 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/309)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.sochistdisc.org/2003_book_reviews/lawson.htm)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000595 00000 n 0000000677 00000 n 0000003582 00000 n 0000003691 00000 n 0000003801 00000 n 0000003910 00000 n 0000007471 00000 n 0000007599 00000 n 0000007683 00000 n 0000007748 00000 n 0000015280 00000 n 0000015345 00000 n 0000022591 00000 n 0000022656 00000 n 0000029691 00000 n 0000029782 00000 n 0000037035 00000 n 0000037160 00000 n 0000037267 00000 n 0000037393 00000 n 0000037487 00000 n 0000037552 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37932 %%EOF