%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818092801+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818092801+01'00') /Title (Medieval Frontiers: Concepts and Practices) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1824 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Medieval Frontiers: Concepts and Practices)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(310)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 February, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Abulafia)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nora Berend)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(754605221X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(47.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(306pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aldershot)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Naomi Standen)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7582 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Students of medieval frontiers spend much of their time explaining how the ambiguous and multiple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries they study were very different in many important respects from the normative and singular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national borders we live with in the present day. )] TJ ET BT 267.980 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval Frontiers)] TJ ET BT 360.968 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the third recent collection in English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on this subject. Like Robert Bartlett and Angus MacKay, eds, )] TJ ET BT 332.984 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval Frontier Societies)] TJ ET BT 466.964 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Clarendon; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford, 1989\), the focus is on the external frontiers of \(chiefly Latin\) Christendom in the later middle ages, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but here the range is wider, considering encounters with Muslims, pagans, nomads, Orthodox and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unreformed Christians in the Iberian peninsula, Byzantium, the Crusader lands, the Crimea, the Baltic, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German East, the British Isles and the Atlantic Ocean. Like Daniel Power and Naomi Standen, eds, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Frontiers in Question: Eurasian Borderlands 700-1700)] TJ ET BT 301.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Macmillan; Basingstoke, 1999\), the issue is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definitions of the frontier, but here there is a conscious effort to address the question from the point of view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of medieval people themselves. For instance, what did medieval people see as frontiers \(and what not as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frontier\), what did they think frontiers were for, and how did descriptions of frontier interaction compare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the realities? All three collections necessarily end up providing many case studies of ?frontier societies? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in action, even if that is not their explicit intention, and they are almost all militarised frontiers, even if this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstance is not emphasised. Taken together, we are developing a progressively more complex and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sophisticated picture of medieval European frontiers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Abulafia?s extensive and learned introduction to this volume explores several different ways of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaching ? defining ? the frontier, including economic contrasts, language, the question of alien human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bodies, and underlying political concepts. The chief issue for him is to understand the very different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptual framework of the medieval world, with its different assumptions about power relations, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of territorial control, overlordship and sovereignty. The chapters themselves address the ?outer edges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Christian Europe?. This has geographical connotations, but the real issue here is not borderlines but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounters, conceived primarily as confrontations ? always with the potential for violence ? between those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of different religious persuasions. Given the well rehearsed problems with finding linear or ?national? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(borders with any great significance to medieval people, Abulafia is right that it makes a lot more sense to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consider frontiers as sets of relationships. Since this can get extremely confusing, giving primacy to religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here provides an alternative framework of division and a point of orientation derived from the thought-world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of contemporaries. These, then, are frontiers based on differences that were felt at the time, and ideally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abulafia would like to see medieval frontiers not just as sets of relationships in space but also as states of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind, made visible by the focus on how medieval people themselves thought about and responded ? or not ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to challenges to the known. He reminds us that the concept of frontiers exists chiefly for our benefit and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the phenomena analysed under this rubric would often have been categorised very differently by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapters themselves are grouped by region but do not obviously follow any other arrangement. Each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader will notice her own set of themes and connections between the papers, and I follow my own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preoccupations in the organisation of what follows.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Case studies of particular frontier societies and borderlands are essential for comparative purposes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially when they extend the range of our knowledge beyond the ?usual suspects? that received so much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention in )] TJ ET BT 91.352 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval Frontier Societies)] TJ ET BT 225.332 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; that is, the British Isles, the Iberian peninsula, and the German East. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By my count this book provides four such cases, all displaying successful interaction. Jonathan Riley-Smith )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(?Government and the indigenous in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem?, pp. 121-31\) believes Christians and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muslims found highly effective ways to live in peace, while Peter Edbury \(?Latins and Greeks on Crusader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cyprus?, pp. 133-42\), taking a bleaker view of human nature, suggests Latins and Greeks on Cyprus only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mixed because they were so conscious of their frontier position facing the Islamic lands. Edbury does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursue this issue, but it would shed useful light on how Latins and Greeks understood their own situation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the frontier they were on.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Intermixing in the Crimea took place against the similar background of a strongly felt need to defend against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?Tatar onslaught?, but here the boundary is crossed. Michel Balard \(?)] TJ ET BT 385.604 66.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Genuensis civitas in extremo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Europae)] TJ ET BT 75.344 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: Caffa from the fourteenth to the fifteenth century?, pp. 143-51\) shows that Turks and Tatars were )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7722 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly part of the scenery, but were also suspected of adherence to the khans. Unfortunately Balard leaves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(me wondering how intergroup relations worked in this situation, and what brought Turks and Tatars to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reside in Caffa in the first place, as well as puzzling over the meaning of ?the inorganic world of the Mongol )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(steppes? \(p. 143\). Balard?s categories are often insufficiently refined to catch the crucial details of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(borderland. In particular the twofold opposition of ?Latin? and ?Oriental? obscures our vision of what, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any, distinctions were made by the Latins between Greeks, Armenians and ? the third largest group in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city ? Turks and Tatars. By contrast, Rasa Ma?eika \(?Granting power to enemy gods in the chronicles of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baltic crusades?, pp. 153-71\) does try to work out how relationships developed across a frontier of war by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describing a frontier of religion that was not exclusive. Here pagans propitiate Christ and Teutonic Knights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are accused of practising pagan-style divination, even as both sides continue their adherence to their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beliefs. Whereas some cross-border relationships, antagonistic or otherwise, develop into a single society, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here are two separate groups that netherless borrowed from each other. This helps to flesh out the continuum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the nature of frontier relationships, ranging from the single society quite common in the Middle Ages to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the near-universal, hardline, mutual antagonism which this book helps to suggest is a distinctively modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two chapters provide empirically-based surveys of the theoretical issue of centres and spheres of influence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(versus linear borders. Dealing with the Crusader lands, Ronnie Ellenblum \(?Were there borders and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(borderlines in the Middle Ages? The example of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem?, pp. 105-19\) discusses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this question from a topographical viewpoint in which there are ?isolated alien centres in a heterogeneous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space?, defined by points and lines of clear demarcation between Frankish and Muslim worlds that yet all lie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within Muslim territory. Like many frontier medievalists, he feels that centres make much better points of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference than borders, and that conventional maps cannot adequately represent the situations that we so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often find. Although Ellenblum does not map relationships of power and authority onto his spatial analysis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this has been done for other cases, producing networks of interrelation between people that have spatial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effects, in contrast to the modern conception of a set of bounded spaces within and between which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships between people are constrained. From an Asian perspective, I am increasingly struck by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarities between these medieval European networks of power and authority in space ? set out very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly here ? and the idea of )] TJ ET BT 175.628 399.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mandala)] TJ ET BT 217.628 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(s in premodern Southeast Asia.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 367.280 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 367.280 398.163 m 381.272 398.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 381.272 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( We perhaps know enough about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frontiers in medieval Europe now for us to hazard the possibility that the most fruitful avenues of future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enquiry will be attempts to diagram \(rather than map\) European medieval frontiers and to compare European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences with others around the globe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ellenblum?s description has a rather timeless quality, but Grzegorz My?liwski \(?Boundaries and men in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Poland from the twelfth to the sixteenth century: the case of Masovia?, pp. 217-37\) describes a shift at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local level from a conception of boundaries which defined specific points in an amorphous mass ? similar to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ellenblum?s description above ? to more, and more precise, definitions of boundaries around pieces of land. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Masovia something quite like a network or )] TJ ET BT 255.992 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mandala)] TJ ET BT 297.992 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is becoming much more territorial. My?liwski?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution is to detail some of the connections between this localised transformation and a parallel trend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards clearer demarcation of space by those higher up the social and political scale in Poland \(and indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe\) as a whole. The point here is that boundaries are made, not given, and we see several examples of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the importance of boundary markers as places where agreements, disputes and the changing nature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frontier are worked out publicly.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heading away from a strictly material approach, David Abulafia?s chapter \(?Neolithic meets medieval: first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounters in the Canary Islands?, pp. 255-78\) reminds us that medieval frontiers are as much imaginings as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material processes. Petrarch refuses to allow that the Canary Islanders might have chosen their ?solitary? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lifestyle and instead emphasises their ?animal quality?, while Boccaccio essentially sees them as ?noble )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(savages? living in a state of nature. Although Abulafia wants us to understand that Boccaccio?s picture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canarian society fits best with archaeological findings, his real point is that accounts of 'Others' tend to tell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us more about the writer than they do about the subject. We see what we want to see and the cultural frontier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is chiefly in our heads.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A major cultural frontier in medieval Europe was religion, and one distinctive contribution of this volume is )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 367.2797 398.4775 381.2717 410.3575 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 5533 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its sustained emphasis on the specific workings of religious boundaries. Ann Christys \(?Crossing the frontier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ninth-century Hispania?, pp. 35-53\) provides one of several chapters that reinforce the point that many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the religious divides of the medieval world are historiographical constructions which oversimplify the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex realities on the ground. In this case, a ninth-century Muslim frontier crosser is claimed by both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andalusian and Asturian propagandists as the client or vassal of their respective rulers, whereas he really )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintained an autonomous position that made him alternately the enemy of both. For him, religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affiliation did not determine political allegiances, but chronicles from the eleventh century and later add a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new sense of a religious division that reflects the circumstances of their own times. In the same vein, Kurt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Villads Jensen \(?The Blue Baltic border of Denmark in the High Middle Ages: Danes, Wends and Saxo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grammaticus?, pp. 173-93\) argues that around 1200 Saxo Grammaticus portrayed a rigid, uncrossable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frontier between Danes and Wends as having existed for centuries, whereas there is strong evidence for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intermixed settlements of Wends and Danes. Saxo?s writing was a justification of contemporary Danish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kings? expansionism, rather than an accurate reflection of past times.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meanwhile, Nora Berend \(?Hungary, ?the gate of Christendom??, pp. 195-215\) looks more closely at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frontier rhetoric itself. Berend argues persuasively that, following the Mongol invasion of Hungary in 1241-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2, King Bla deliberately exaggerated both the importance of Hungary as the ?gate? of Christendom and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vulnerability to renewed Mongol attack, thereby strengthening his case for increasing royal authority at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church?s expense. Berend points to the parallel with the actions of the Iberian kings, and I would add that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar situations \(though without the religious angle\) arose repeatedly on the northern frontier of medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China. In all these cases those with direct experience of the borderlands knew that raiding was a routine part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of frontier life rather than a major threat, whereas those at the ?centre? were often not aware of this and so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed fears that could be manipulated for local advantage. Berend points out that linear frontiers existed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in conception long before they became realities on the ground, and that kings could make ?conscious use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frontier rhetoric in the service of building royal power?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christys, Jensen and Berend all reinforce the point that highly selective interpretations regarding the nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of particular boundaries have been a standard feature of rulers? ideologies since long before nineteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century nationalism was invented, but Berend presents the issue most clearly when she suggests that it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those at political centres who played a crucial role in creating the idea of the frontier, rather than \(as Turner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claimed\) the playing out of the frontier process that gave definition to the centre. That historians of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American West are now saying this suggests an important continuity in uses of the frontier idea, but we must )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also remain aware of the differences. If the medieval period in Europe was one in which powerful claims to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universal authority were increasingly challenged by localised rulers, then students of medieval European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frontiers must keep in mind the relationships not just between frontiers and local centres, but also between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both of these and the universal claims of the leaders of Christendom as a whole. Although medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchs could readily deploy linear or territorial notions of their own frontiers, the most important concept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained that set of relationships radiating out from suzerains to vassals, rather than anything that laid claim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to all within some geographical limit.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 7274 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The changing relationships between those holding particular powers and those claiming universal authority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the medieval period raises the question of whether imperial frontiers were different from any other kind. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two chapters on Byzantium here suggest that while the practical workings of the empire?s frontiers bore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many similarities to those of any other contemporary polity, conceptions of the frontier were able to be much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more sophisticated and flexible because they rested upon an ideological apparatus that had persisted and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolved over many centuries. Catherine Holmes \(?Byzantium?s eastern frontier in the tenth and eleventh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries?, pp. 83-104\) reconsiders the conventional picture of Byzantine expansion in the light of new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence, and finds that the eastern frontier was nothing like so rigid, linear or militarised as usually thought, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but was instead another ?patchwork of constantly shifting relationships?, with fiscal issues paramount. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, Holmes further suggests that Byzantine administrators always believed it would be possible to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remilitarise the eastern frontier quickly, should the need have arisen, in accordance with theoretical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statements like the )] TJ ET BT 126.344 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Escorial Taktikon)] TJ ET BT 212.012 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? already a venerable document ? or treaty clauses normally honoured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the breach.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This notion that rhetoric might be transformed into reality is given greater force by Jonathan Shepherd?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter \(?Emperors and expansionism: from Rome to middle Byzantium?, pp. 55-82\), which describes a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mid-tenth century shift from a rhetoric of expansion towards actual expansion. In the dark days of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventh to ninth centuries, imperial rhetoric emphasised claims to universal hegemony that connected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantium with the heyday of the Roman Empire. But as circumstances improved during the ninth and tenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries the empire ?dusted off? its rhetorical claims and began to put them into action, reasserting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority and building its military power. From the mid-tenth century expansionist rhetoric became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly territorial, perhaps because a large standing army sought activity for the troops and the rewards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of campaigning. Possession of a pre-existing rhetoric, focused on the absence of frontiers, provided both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goal of expansion and its justification when the time was ripe. By contrast, those seeking to escape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subordination to universalistic claims, like King Bla of Hungary, had both to invent justification for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority they sought and define the limits they were willing to place upon it, with little direct precedent to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guide them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Latin Europe the strongest claim to universal authority generally came from the papacy, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accordingly had to face its share of national challenges. Brendan Smith \(?The frontiers of church reform in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British Isles, 1170-1230?, pp. 239-53\) argues that the papacy, in seeking to use reform to assert its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universalist claim to control over the Church in the British Isles, was working against the ideas of national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries that rulers were busily developing in their quest for greater local authority. Smith tries to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrate how this basic conflict was expressed at the frontiers between secular powers, secular and religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities, between and within ecclesiastical institutions, and between different peoples, and takes a rash of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bishop murders to have been one striking result. Smith thus strays beyond relationships between power and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spatial arrangements into the more abstract realm of cultural space and its divisions. This adds a whole new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level of complexity ? perhaps more than one ? to an already complex subject, and Smith raises many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions to which he cannot do justice in the space of a single chapter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall this book consolidates and extends our understanding of medieval European frontiers, so where do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we go from here? The authors naturally talk much about change, but it is striking that the shifts seem to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all in the same direction, towards clearer definition and greater rigidity. This of course fits the longterm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pattern of increasing central authority at ?national? level, but it also suggests the need to complicate the big )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture by considering cases where European frontiers became more fluid or less well defined. As the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors note more than once, differences are chosen not given, and frontiers only exist because of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workings of human agency. More studies of the dissipation of difference ? and outside the one-sided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analytical framework of acculturation ? would be a welcome and much-needed reminder that humans can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overcome their differences as well as dwelling upon them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The decision here to focus on discussion of frontiers without lines and with military issues de-emphasised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has opened up the subject most effectively. It has allowed the authors to focus on the idea of frontiers as sets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of relationships or states of mind and in so doing to greatly enrich our understanding of how medieval )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7310 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frontiers worked and what they were. There is much food for thought here. Nevertheless it is striking how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much the spatial and military issues still impinge. Ultimately all these relationships had to be conducted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some place or other, and the possibility of violence was ever-present. Accordingly, to me one way forward is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicated by those discussions that address directly the relationship between the ?hard? frontiers of defence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and war, politics and spatial organisation on the one hand and the boundaries defined by religion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography, and everyday life on the other; those trying to trace the relationships between military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances and cultural interaction, between political and religious allegiances, and of course between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spatial arrangements and everyday negotiations of perceived difference.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It may be that broader comparison is what is needed now. As a medieval Europeanist-turned-Asianist, I am )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struck by how much this is frontiers from the inside out; the same thing happens with China. Europe here is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implicitly a cultural whole in contact with something ? or several somethings ? that are considered ultimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and fundamentally distinct from \(Latin\) Christendom, but the focus is almost entirely on the Christian side. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is understandable in many ways. The idea that Europe had Turnerian frontiers of expansion in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle ages is a powerful organising principle of immense utility, and any volume that concentrates on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary views is bound to run into the problem that the two sides of the frontier are often the province )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of different academic disciplines requiring different sets of language skills. Nevertheless, it remains a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem that, for the most part, non-Latin 'Others' still largely lack definition. What we need to balance this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is a volume that collects the views of the immense variety of people on the other side of Christendom?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frontiers. Did Muslims, pagans, nomads and Orthodox Christians regard the frontiers they shared with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western Christendom in the same way\(s\) that Latins did? There are hints of such concerns here, for instance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the pagans who propitiated Christ, but we need to flesh out our picture of what the people on the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(side of these frontiers thought about them, and we need to do so at the same level of detail achieved in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters like My?liwski?s on one region of Poland. Neighbouring groups of pagans presumably differed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from each other as much as neighbouring Latins did, and certainly nomadic groups were not all the same. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Islamic world, like Christendom, experienced tensions between universalistic claims and bids for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regional autonomy. The obstacle to exploring such issues in a sustained and systematic manner is, of course, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those same disciplinary boundaries that have helped to frame one set of questions rather than another, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which frontier historians frequently complain about. So perhaps the only answer is a major rethink of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way historical study is organised in Britain!)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The richness of the book?s contents unfortunately does not protect it from some technical gripes. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognising that frontiers are not just about maps, nevertheless they are often helpful ? and it is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compulsory to draw borderlines on them! I would have liked at least one map per chapter. Unfortunately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very few publishers ? as here ? seem willing to redraw, so while the maps themselves are generally good, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reproductions are only just acceptable. In the same vein, the absence of analytical entries in the index )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reduces the utility of a very good book for the serious reader, and a bibliography would have helped. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also a pity that the editors did not insist that English translations be provided for all quoted texts. This is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious book on the world of medieval Europe, but that need not mean that non-specialists ? and particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the comparative audience ? should be excluded. Another irritation is the use of the generic ?men?. It is easy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough to write ?people?, and surely no-one now is insensitive to issues of gender? Finally, I am not quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sure what prompted the outburst on p. 6 \(n. 12\) regarding the romanisation of the name of China?s modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capital. While some writers in English may prefer to remain with ?Peking? because it is familiar \(at least to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(older readers\), there is nothing bizarre about replacing a colonial imposition with a more acceptable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(romanisation. As this book is at pains to show, it is important to take account of how people think about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves, and since those who do not use Latin script to write their languages continue to romanise them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely for our benefit \(in airports, for instance\), it is, if nothing else, simple courtesy to use the spellings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they suggest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, these points should not detract from the overall value of the book: it is timely, full of ideas, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moving us beyond a predominantly national framework for the study of frontiers it reveals a wealth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships between different kinds of boundary that will keep us busy for some time to come.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 1909 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 775.827 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 745.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The literature on this topic includes O.W. Wolters, )] TJ ET BT 310.316 745.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History, Culture, and Region in Southeast Asian )] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Perspectives)] TJ ET BT 124.664 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(revised edn, Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University; Ithaca, 1999\), esp. pp. 27-40, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and two comparative volumes: Henri Claessen and Peter Skalnik, eds, )] TJ ET BT 403.304 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Study of the State)] TJ ET BT 507.968 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Mouton; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Hague, 1981\) and Henri Claessen and Pieter van der Velde, eds, )] TJ ET BT 396.932 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Early State Dynamics)] TJ ET BT 501.584 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Brill; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leiden, 1987\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 134.336 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 134.336 686.787 m 188.324 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 661.925 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 642.943 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 625.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 625.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/310)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 623.769 m 322.316 623.769 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 598.792 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.392 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1544)] TJ ET BT 34.016 569.992 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 134.3357 687.1015 188.3237 698.9815 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 624.0835 322.3157 635.9635 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/310) >> endobj xref 0 33 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000566 00000 n 0000000648 00000 n 0000002524 00000 n 0000002633 00000 n 0000002743 00000 n 0000002852 00000 n 0000006413 00000 n 0000006541 00000 n 0000006625 00000 n 0000006690 00000 n 0000014325 00000 n 0000014409 00000 n 0000022184 00000 n 0000022214 00000 n 0000022342 00000 n 0000022378 00000 n 0000022443 00000 n 0000028029 00000 n 0000028094 00000 n 0000035421 00000 n 0000035486 00000 n 0000042849 00000 n 0000042940 00000 n 0000044902 00000 n 0000045030 00000 n 0000045085 00000 n 0000045213 00000 n trailer << /Size 33 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 45308 %%EOF