%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 38 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140916025500+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140916025500+01'00') /Title (Ancient China and Its Enemies) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4676 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Ancient China and Its Enemies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 221 BCE the state of Qin eliminated the last of its rivals, putting an end to centuries' long endemic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warfare of the Warring States \()] TJ ET BT 182.960 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Zhanguo)] TJ ET BT 225.632 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 453-221 BCE\) age. The First Emperor \(Qin Shi Huangdi, r. 246-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(221-207 BCE\), proud of his unprecedented achievement, ordered bronze weapons throughout the empire to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be collected and melted down, 'to show that they will no longer be used.')] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 382.628 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 382.628 243.417 m 396.620 243.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 396.620 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Yet only a few years later a huge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Qin army of reportedly 300,000 soldiers was mobilized and dispatched against the 'Hu' people at the north, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(i.e. against the Xiongnu. Few could imagine then that this campaign marked not only the end of the )] TJ ET BT 514.304 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pax )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Qinica)] TJ ET BT 66.680 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( but more broadly, the beginning of a centuries-long struggle between the rulers of Chinese Central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Plain and their northern neighbours. From the Han \(206 BCE-220 CE\) dynasty on, contentious relations with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Northern frontier \(or, more aptly, Northern Zone\) influenced decisively the political, economic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military life of China proper.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This pivotal role of the Northern frontier in Chinese history explains the continuous scholarly interest in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sino-nomadic relations from the Han dynasty onward. In particular, many studies have been dedicated to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Han struggle against the Xiongnu, which was colourfully depicted by two major contemporary historians, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sima Qian \(c. 145-90 BCE\) and Ban Gu \(32-92 CE\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 288.320 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 288.320 88.857 m 302.312 88.857 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 302.312 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Despite this variety of studies many important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions have remained unanswered. One of the largely unresolved mysteries concerns the Xiongnu )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ascendancy: why and how did these people, who were but marginal players during the Warring States )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(312)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 February, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicola Di Cosmo)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(521770645X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(47.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(378pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yuri Pines)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 382.6277 243.7315 396.6197 255.6115 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 288.3197 89.1715 302.3117 101.0515 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7531 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, become the most formidable enemy of the Han and the ultimate Other in the eyes of contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chinese statesmen and thinkers? What were the processes that brought about their rapid entrance on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central stage of Han history?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scholars wishing to answer these questions face a series of tough obstacles. First, the Xiongnu, like other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early inhabitants of the steppes, were illiterate, and no autochthonous accounts of their history exist. Second, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chinese historiography is of little help for those who are interested in pre-Han history of the Xiongnu and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their predecessors. The pre-imperial history of Chinese Central Plain was dominated by the strife between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Chinese' states that shared common ritual and written culture, while the aliens, and particularly the nomads )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the semi-nomads of the Northern Zone, remained marginal players, whose very existence was all but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignored by contemporary historians, statesmen and thinkers. The sketchy and largely idealized accounts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Xiongnu ascendancy in Sima Qian's )] TJ ET BT 228.152 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shiji)] TJ ET BT 250.160 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Ban Gu's )] TJ ET BT 320.312 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Han shu )] TJ ET BT 363.644 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot compensate for the dearth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier materials, as a result of which those scholars who have tried to reconstruct the early history of China's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(northern neighbours have sometimes had either to overstretch their sources, or to rely heavily on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anthropological theories, which could not always be supported by the extant evidence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In recent years a major breakthrough in studies of the early history of the Northern Zone has become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible. Hundreds of archaeological discoveries from various sites within present-day China and beyond its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries have provided scholars with new data about the material life of the Northern Zone dwellers, their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social structure, and their economic interaction with the inhabitants of the Central Plain. Parallel to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development, scholars have developed far greater sensitivity to the ancient Chinese historical texts, their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, agendas and composition. This abundance of the new data and the improved access to the written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources has made possible a new reconstruction of the history of Xiongnu and their predecessors. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstruction has been brilliantly performed by Nicola Di Cosmo in his )] TJ ET BT 384.980 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ancient China and its Enemies)] TJ ET BT 532.976 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study that for years to come will certainly set the tone for the research of the early stages of Sino-nomadic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Di Cosmo has benefited enormously from the rapid increase in archaeologically-obtained materials from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Northern Zone; and in incorporating these materials he has succeeded in accomplishing several formidable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tasks. First, he has integrated diverse excavation reports and archaeological surveys, which were performed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by scholars from different countries at different periods of time, were written in different languages, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employed different techniques and often proposed different, even mutually contradictory interpretations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their data. Second, Di Cosmo has successfully synthesized archaeological materials with textual sources, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taking into account new breakthroughs in textual criticism during the recent decades. Third, Di Cosmo not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only managed to reconstruct the basic dynamics of early Sino-nomadic contacts, but has also proposed novel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanations of Sino-nomadic relations in the age of the Han dynasty and before. These three major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievements turn Di Cosmo?s book into a laudable scholarly model, the impact of which will be felt well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the narrow field of Northern Zone studies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ancient China and its Enemies)] TJ ET BT 182.012 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( combines the clarity and comprehensiveness of a textbook with the novelty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and originality of the specialist-oriented study. Some may dislike the mixture of two genres, but in my eyes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this is an undeniable advantage of Di Cosmo's study. The book is neatly organized into four sections, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprise two chapters each; each chapter and each section serve as a solid foundation for the subsequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion. The narrative is clear and readable, and the author's arguments are based on dependable and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transparent research. Di Cosmo does not hesitate to defy generations-old theories, as he does for instance in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his brilliant and provocative explanation for the construction of the Great Wall \(see below\), but he is careful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not to overstretch his sources and to leave certain questions open for further research. He masterfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synthesizes broad range of archaeological, textual and, to a lesser extent, epigraphic sources, employing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whenever needed an impressive amount of secondary materials, which include, aside from works written in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chinese and Western European languages, also studies in Japanese, Russian and ? at least in one case ? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mongolian.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first two chapters of )] TJ ET BT 154.988 66.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ancient China and its Enemies)] TJ ET BT 302.984 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( deal with the first appearances of nomads in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Inner Asian steppe in general \(Chapter 1\) and in China's Northern Zone in particular \(Chapter 2\). These are )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7772 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the less innovative parts of Di Cosmo's research, and the discussion here is largely based on a synthesis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent archaeological discoveries along China's boundaries and beyond. Di Cosmo briefly surveys major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theories that have tried to explain the rise of the nomadic way of life, concluding that there is no single key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to this crucial question. The emergence of nomadism may be rather explained as a combination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental, technological and social factors. Thus, advances with respect to horse-riding and, probably, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chariots were crucial in allowing a shift from part-time pastoral economy to full-scale nomadic life. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development was apparently paralleled by the appearance of warring aristocrats who learned to utilize the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advantages of their superior mobility and martial abilities. This class in turn played a crucial role in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centralization of nomadic peoples and their further military expansion. Yet Di Cosmo is careful not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impose this model automatically on the early nomadic and semi-nomadic cultures of China's Northern Zone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and he emphasizes that 'one cannot see, in the Northern Zone as whole, a linear evolutional continuum' \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(87-8\). Instead, it is possible that several parallel pastoral societies were emerging in northwestern, north-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central and northeastern sub-zones, inter-acting among themselves and with their semi-pastoral and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sedentary neighbours. Di Cosmo?s cautious discussion shows that at the current stage of our knowledge an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to locate the Xiongnu back in history may be not only premature but generally untenable. What is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible is to outline, as Di Cosmo does, basic trends of developments in the steppe region to the north of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China proper; but much more archaeological research is required before we can restore with sufficient clarity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sociopolitical dynamics in this area prior to the entrance of the steppe region into the orbit of Chinese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In analyzing the rise of the nomadic way of life, Di Cosmo laudably avoids simplistic linear schemes, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his caution invites the reader to consider further possible explanations for the advent of nomadism. Among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them one could expect more emphasis to be given to climatic factors, which are mentioned only in passing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 23\). This is regrettable, because the field of paleo-climatic studies has developed dramatically in recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years and much relevant data is now available.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 257.960 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 257.960 455.187 m 271.952 455.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the second section of his book Di Cosmo shifts from archaeological to textual evidence. The third chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses on the intriguing issue of early Chinese attitudes toward the aliens. Heretofore this topic has never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been systematically explored in Western research, resulting in sketchy and often highly misleading accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the origins of the 'Sino-Barbarian' dichotomy. Scholars often cite selected passages from pre-imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts out of their context, to prove that the Chinese viewed the aliens as inferior, marginal and insufficiently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human. This simplistic approach, which was partly influenced by the Han period discourse, failed to do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justice to the complexity of ancient Chinese relations with their neighbours, allowing for a highly skewed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture of alleged Chinese 'racism', as presented recently by Frank Dikkter.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 400.256 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 400.256 329.139 m 414.248 329.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 414.248 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Di Cosmo breaks away from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the tradition of simplistic selected citations, and presents a novel and refreshing picture of Chinese views of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Other.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Di Cosmo's careful reading of the received texts and especially his contextualization of their accounts allows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him not only to undermine the monochromatic picture of putative Chinese 'racism' as presented by Dikkter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and others, but also to restore the complex dynamics of Chinese relations with the Rong, Di and other tribes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Different, and at times contradictory, doctrines co-existed among ancient Chinese statesmen with regard to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the proper treatment of the aliens: proponents of aggressive conquest and incorporation of the 'barbarians' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were opposed by supporters of a peaceful policy, while harsh statements about the aliens' 'bestiality' did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevent Xia \('Chinese'\) states from trading, allying and intermarrying with their neighbours. This diversity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches reflects not only a complex political situation, but also a deeper cultural reality. Di Cosmo's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observation that the 'boundaries between presumed cultural communities in the Eastern Zhou \(770-256 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(BCE\) period appear to have been drawn ad hoc, according to ever-changing political circumstances' \(p. 104\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is an important reminder to the readers that the retroactive imposition of imperial cultural definitions on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pre-imperial world is methodologically untenable. Indeed, )] TJ ET BT 316.640 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pace )] TJ ET BT 342.296 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Han dynasty thinkers, Chinese statesmen of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chunqiu \('Springs and Autumns', 772-453 BCE\) and Zhanguo periods were much more preoccupied with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the struggle against their 'brethren' who shared a similar written and ritual culture, than with repulsion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('uncultivated' aliens.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Di Cosmo's contextualization of Chinese views of the aliens in contemporary political dynamics could have )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 257.9597 455.5015 271.9517 467.3815 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 400.2557 329.4535 414.2477 341.3335 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7410 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been even more insightful, had the author not confined himself exclusively to the relations of the Xia with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their northern neighbours. This limited perspective derives primarily from the author's desire to reach and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discuss topics which became relevant in the Han period, when thinkers and statesmen were debating the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proper policy toward the Xiongnu. This teleological selection, however, comes at the expense of an in-depth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the other flank of Chinese world, which was by far more important, politically and militarily, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout most of the Chunqiu period, namely the Southern and Southeastern frontier. The brief hegemony )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of two 'semi-barbarian' southeastern superpowers, Wu and Yue, at the end of the Chunqiu period was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shocking experience for ritual purists, but in the long term it supplied the Chinese with a model of cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interaction with militarily superior but culturally inferior powers ? a model that was to remain highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevant for future Chinese history. Diplomatic and military needs encouraged the rulers of Wu and Yue to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopt aspects of Zhou ritual culture, and even forge a favourable pedigree that would further legitimize their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hegemony. Large-scale use of advisors of Xia origin further facilitated the erstwhile barbarians' adaptation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zhou ways; and eventually southeasterners were adopted, even if reluctantly, into the Zhou world despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their preservation of significant traits of non-Zhou indigenous customs. This example of acculturation from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position of power and not of weakness may be largely irrelevant to the Xiongnu of Han times, but it became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly important in later centuries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fourth chapter, which deals with the first contacts between the Chinese and the 'real' nomads, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancestors of the Xiongnu, is one of the most novel and daring parts of the whole book. Di Cosmo tries to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resolve the riddle of the sudden appearance of the nomadic menace after centuries of limited and largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peaceful relations across the \(then still indistinct\) Northern frontier. Conventional wisdom, based on Han )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period stereotypes, holds that the nomads' inherent belligerence encouraged them to invade and plunder their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southern neighbours, who in response built protective 'long walls'. Di Cosmo completely refutes this thesis. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His careful reading of historic records, and combining them with archaeological evidence brings him to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radically different conclusion: namely, the walls were not built to 'protect the sedentary civilization', but, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather, to protect the recently conquered nomadic territories. The nomads were not the belligerents; it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'cultivated' Chinese who invaded nomadic pastures as a part of the process of territorial expansion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristic of the Warring States era. Zhanguo walls, just like their heir, the Qin Great Wall, did not mark )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an ecological boundary between the steppe and the sedentary realm, but rather were built deep inside the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original nomadic territory. Far from being beast-like war-mongers, the nomads were victims of Chinese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansionism, which came as a direct consequence of the previous occupation and incorporation of the lands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inhabited by the Rong and the Di tribes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Di Cosmo's convincing reconstruction of the early stage of the Sino-nomadic encounter raises the question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the reasons for the sudden Chinese expansion into the fringes of the steppe in the late Zhanguo period. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One possible answer may be the advent of iron technology, which allowed lands that were previously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsuitable for agriculture to be turned into arable fields. All major Zhanguo states were preoccupied with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reclaiming the wasteland, both within and beyond their boundaries. The northward expansion of the states of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Qin, Zhao and Yan was part of this process; and the conquest of new territories was usually accompanied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with settlement activities. It might have taken some time before the Chinese learned that most \(although not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all\) of the Northern Zone is largely unsuitable for agriculture and gave up the idea of incorporating it fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into farmland; in the Zhanguo period. However, the hopes of establishing a viable agricultural base in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southern part of the steppe belt might still have been high, which explains the aggressive policy of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chinese states. This policy culminated with Qin incursions against the Xiongnu in the Ordos area in 215-214 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(BCE, which resulted in the erection of a large section of the Great Wall, which became the hallmark of Qin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military achievements.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Qin massive aggression against the Xiongnu had unexpected consequences for Sino-nomadic relations. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Xiongnu reorganized and used the opportunity of the collapse of Qin in 207 BCE to renew military pressure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on China's boundaries; subsequently, Han military setbacks changed once and for all the nature of China's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations with the peoples of the Northern Zone. These events are discussed in the fifth chapter. Scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have long been fascinated by the almost simultaneous rise of two unified empires ? Qin-Han and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Xiongnu ? on both sides of the Great Wall, and have proposed numerous explanations for the connection )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 8125 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Chinese empire-building and the consolidation of the nomads' power. Di Cosmo observes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of the past theories cannot be adequately supported by historical evidence, and suggests an alternative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model; the nomadic organization was a response to the crisis engendered by Qin incursions deep into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Xiongnu territory. The resultant militarization of nomadic society brought about the emergence of a military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocracy, which sought to maximize its power through limited political centralization on the supra-tribal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level, and continuous extortion of Chinese goods. This model, which turns both Chinese and nomads into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(active players and takes into account dynamic changes in Sino-nomadic relations, fits not only the Xiongnu )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case, but also many of the later establishments of nomadic empires, by Qidans and Mongols among others.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The sixth chapter of )] TJ ET BT 133.328 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ancient China and its Enemies)] TJ ET BT 281.324 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( deals with the well-known narrative of the collapse of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Chinese policy of peaceful coexistence with the nomads \(the so-called 'kin harmony' policy, )] TJ ET BT 496.592 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(he qin)] TJ ET BT 526.256 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Why did the accommodation policy collapse? Di Cosmo suggests that it was impossible in the long run to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintain peace with nomads due to the incompatibility of the political structures of the Han empire and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Xiongnu confederation. While the Han generals strictly observed the peace terms, the unmanageable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Xiongnu chieftains frequently defied the agreement terms and invaded Chinese territory, emptying )] TJ ET BT 510.932 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(he qin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy of value. This novel observation adds an interesting dimension to our understanding of the reasons of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the breach of the agreements by the Xiongnu: actually, their leader, the )] TJ ET BT 377.936 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(chanyu )] TJ ET BT 415.592 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(or )] TJ ET BT 432.584 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(shanyu)] TJ ET BT 466.580 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 473.576 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not impose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his will with the same efficiency as a Chinese emperor could. The explanation is ultimately valid, even if it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slightly exaggerates the degree of Chinese imperial authority in the border areas. It was the Chinese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the impracticality of peaceful coexistence with the Xiongnu that led to the implementation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of an assertive military policy in the age of Han Wudi \(r. 141-87 BCE\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having explained the reason for the Han?s abandonment of conciliatory policy, Di Cosmo tries to explain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reasons for the unprecedented scope of Wudi's megalomaniac military campaigns, which brought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chinese armies deep into central Asia, into the Gobi desert, and into the remote areas to the south and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southwest. The explanation is entirely functional; namely, the campaigns were undertaken due to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improvement in Han military technology, particularly the increasing use of cavalry. This in turn demanded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupying arid areas in the North that could be turned into pastures; simultaneously, invading Central Asian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oases was aimed at severing Xiongnu's political and economic ties with the inhabitants of the Tarim basin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and with the Qiang people further to the south. While these explanations are certainly plausible, it may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observed that Di Cosmo does not pay sufficient attention to the ideological factors behind Han Wudi's new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course. In particular one could expect more discussion about the impact of the ideas presented in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gongyang zhuan)] TJ ET BT 115.676 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a text which was elevated in Wudi's time almost to the status of an official state ideology. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 55.676 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gongyang )] TJ ET BT 108.668 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on the universal supremacy of the Son of Heaven, and on 'leaving nothing external' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the true king, provided Wudi with ideological legitimacy for his campaigns, the ultimate aim of which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was to promote imperial grandeur to the levels previously attained only by the Qin First Emperor. In light of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the general trend for activism during Wudi's reign, an ideological explanatory framework cannot be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglected.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final two chapters deal with the cultural re-conceptualization of the Xiongnu as the fearsome 'Other'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here Di Cosmo shifts decisively from archaeological to textual sources, analyzing in great detail the way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sima Qian depicted the Xiongnu. In this discussion the author displays laudable sensitivity to his major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source, the )] TJ ET BT 89.000 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shiji)] TJ ET BT 111.008 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. On the one hand he demonstrates how the accumulation of geographic and anthropological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge in the early Han period served Sima Qian, and how the historian synthesized his diverse sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to present a detailed account of Xiongnu history and life, and of the impact of the wars with Xiongnu on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chinese economy. Yet aside from presenting an account of the adversary's habits and political life, Sima )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Qian sought to provide an ideological explanation for the Xiongnu menace by incorporating them into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensive cosmological-philosophical system. By inventing the Xiongnu's genealogy, by allocating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them space in the larger cosmological scheme, and by projecting the Sino-nomadic confrontation back into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the past, the Han historian rationalized the conflict, thereby providing a useful model for later historians who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to employ similar clichs when dealing with Sino-nomadic relations. So powerful was this model, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that its impact is observable not only in traditional accounts of the nomads, but even in the modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography of ancient China. It is Di Cosmo's achievement that he has succeeded in going beyond )] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 7674 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepted narratives to present us with novel and refreshing observations about the early stages of Sino-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nomadic relations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Di Cosmo's comprehensiveness, intellectual boldness and remarkable ability to synthesize diverse sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will doubtless make his book a most welcome addition to the Sinological library, and its impact will be felt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the narrowly defined limits of the discipline. It would be most desirable therefore, if the Cambridge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press were to consider the economic constraints of students in the field and provide them with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cheaper paperback edition. Hopefully, the new edition will contain at least several illustrations, which are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(badly needed especially when the author discusses the stylistic characteristics of various artifacts. A single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustration on the front cover does not suffice to explain what 'animal style' is or to demonstrate the shape of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bronze vessels discussed extensively in the first two chapters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately, the current edition is not only fairly expensive and lacking in illustrations, but it is also full of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(annoying typos, which are particularly unwelcome due to their predictably negative impact on the student )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audience. To begin with, Di Cosmo's decision to use the Wade-Giles transliteration throughout the book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not helpful. This awkward and fairly obsolete system of transliteration is now being abandoned even in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taiwan, and it is highly recommendable that academic presses shift to the much more convenient )] TJ ET BT 504.608 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pinyin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system. In Di Cosmo's case, the author's awareness of the inadequacy of the Wade-Giles system has resulted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in numerous idiosyncratic and sometimes fairly awkward transliterations. Thus, the province of Shaanxi is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes referred to \(according to the Chinese Postal Atlas system\) as Shensi \(pp. 13, 48\), and sometimes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idiosyncratically, as Shaansi \(pp. 45, 85\). Di Cosmo furthermore routinely misspells the Wade-Giles syllable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('i' as )] TJ ET BT 57.668 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pinyin)] TJ ET BT 87.668 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 'yi'; hence the same city is referred to on p. 302 as Lo-yi and on the next page ? as Lo-i; another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example of inconsistent transliteration is referring to the same person as either 'Han' or 'Hann' An-kuo \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(210\). In some cases the author suddenly adopts )] TJ ET BT 263.648 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pinyin )] TJ ET BT 296.648 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romanization almost )] TJ ET BT 401.984 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in toto)] TJ ET BT 432.992 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as in the case of Nie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weng-yi \(p. 211; in Wade-Giles it should be Nieh Weng-i\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some typos are fairly disturbing, when they skew understanding of historic events \(in what follows I adopt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Wade-Giles system\): thus on p. 98 one should read 'Ch'i' and not 'Chin'; on p.111 n. 48 'Ch'in' should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emended to 'Ch'u' and on p. 113 'Wei' should be 'Wey' \(twice\). Furthermore, Wey?s house was not 'royal' but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('ducal' \(p. 98\) ? the rulers of this polity never assumed royal title; 'Hsiang-tzu of Chao' \(p. 128\) should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Chao Hsiang-tzu' \(Chao was his lineage name and not his state affiliation\); while 'Chien and Hsiang' \(p.135\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are not personal names but abridged forms of the posthumous titles of 'Chao Chien-tzu' and 'Chao Hsiang-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tzu'. It may be noticed also that the Buriat Republic in Russia is no longer called 'Buriat-Mongol A.S.S.R' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(251, nn. 155-6\) ? this is a Soviet designation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certain problems occur within bibliographic section, which lacks reference to the )] TJ ET BT 427.940 306.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shiji )] TJ ET BT 452.948 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 473.276 306.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Han shu)] TJ ET BT 513.608 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also to Hayashi Minao's study cited on p. 256, n. 2; and the index is inadequate and does not reflect fully the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book's richness. However, the major problem is undoubtedly the Glossary, which contains an unbearable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amount of typos in Chinese characters and/or in transliterations: I have counted no fewer than fifteen typos. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is highly recommended that these typos be emended in the next edition of the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These technical problems, annoying as they are for such an expensive book, are nevertheless marginal to its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overall quality. Nicola Di Cosmo is to be congratulated on an excellent piece of scholarship, which has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significantly raised the bar for subsequent explorations in the field of Sino-nomadic relations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.843 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 129.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 129.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burton Watson, trans., )] TJ ET BT 175.340 129.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Records of the Grand Historian. Vol. 3: Qin Dynasty)] TJ ET BT 429.992 129.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Chinese U. of Hong )] TJ ET BT 64.016 114.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kong Press; Hong Kong, 1993\), p. 184.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 254.672 114.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 254.672 113.571 m 308.660 113.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 100.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 100.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, Thomas Barfield, )] TJ ET BT 217.328 100.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Perilous Frontier: Nomadic Empires and China)] TJ ET BT 469.328 100.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Blackwell; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 86.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford, 1989\); Sechin Jagchid and Van Jay Symons, )] TJ ET BT 321.320 86.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Peace, War and Trade along the Great Wall)] TJ ET BT 64.016 72.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Indiana University Press; Bloomington, 1989\); Y Ying-shih, )] TJ ET BT 367.676 72.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Trade and Expansion in Han China: A )] TJ ET BT 64.016 57.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Study in the Structure of Sino-Barbarian Economic Relations)] TJ ET BT 358.340 57.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(University of California Press; )] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 254.6717 113.8855 308.6597 125.7655 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 4586 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berkeley, 1967\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 144.332 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 144.332 795.075 m 198.320 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example, Hong, Y. T. )] TJ ET BT 208.652 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al)] TJ ET BT 229.652 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 'A 6000-year record of changes in drought and precipitation in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(northeastern China based on a 13C time series from peat cellulose,' )] TJ ET BT 389.456 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Earth and Planetary Science )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Letters)] TJ ET BT 97.352 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 185 \(2001\), 111-19; Kong Zhaochen )] TJ ET BT 282.656 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al)] TJ ET BT 303.656 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 'Neimenggu zizhiqu Chifengshi jujin 8000 ? 2400 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nian jian huanjing kaoguxue de chubu yanjiu' ['Preliminary environmental archaeology research on the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period between 8000 - 2400 BP in Chifeng, the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region'], )] TJ ET BT 483.812 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Huanjing )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kaogu yanjiu)] TJ ET BT 126.344 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1 \(Beijing, 1991\), 112-19; Qiu Shanwen )] TJ ET BT 329.000 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al)] TJ ET BT 350.000 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 'Dongbei xibu shadi gu turang yu )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quanxinshi huanjing' ['Ancient desert soils and the environment of the western area of northeast China )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the Pleistocene'], in )] TJ ET BT 195.164 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Zhongguo quanxinshi danuanqi qihou yu huanjing)] TJ ET BT 438.176 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Beijing, 1992\), pp. 153-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60; M. G. Winkler and P. K. Wang, 'The late-quaternary vegetation and climate of China,' in H. E. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wright, )] TJ ET BT 104.012 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al)] TJ ET BT 125.012 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, eds, )] TJ ET BT 153.008 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Global Climates since the Last Glacial Maximum)] TJ ET BT 391.004 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Minneapolis and London, 1993\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 221-64; Yang Zhirong and Suo Xiufen, 'Zhongguo beifang nongmu jiaocuodai dongnan bu )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hunajin kaogu yanjiu' ['Research of environmental archaeology of the southeastern part of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agriculture-pastoralism interaction zone of north China'], )] TJ ET BT 340.460 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Huanjing kaogu yanjiu)] TJ ET BT 451.124 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2 \(Beijing, 2000\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(81-8. I am grateful to Gideon Shelach for introducing me to these studies.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 417.968 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 417.968 595.491 m 471.956 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 582.634 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(F. Dikkter)] TJ ET BT 119.348 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, The Discourse of Race in Modern China)] TJ ET BT 320.000 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Stanford University Press; Stanford, 1992\), pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1-30 ff.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 100.004 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 100.004 566.979 m 153.992 566.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 64.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 484.879 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 467.099 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 467.099 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/312)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 465.705 m 322.316 465.705 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 440.728 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 426.328 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1549)] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.928 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 144.3317 795.3895 198.3197 807.2695 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 417.9677 595.8055 471.9557 607.6855 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 100.0037 567.2935 153.9917 579.1735 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 466.0195 322.3157 477.8995 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/312) >> endobj xref 0 48 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000553 00000 n 0000000649 00000 n 0000005377 00000 n 0000005486 00000 n 0000005596 00000 n 0000005705 00000 n 0000009266 00000 n 0000009394 00000 n 0000009478 00000 n 0000009507 00000 n 0000009635 00000 n 0000009671 00000 n 0000009700 00000 n 0000009827 00000 n 0000009863 00000 n 0000009928 00000 n 0000017512 00000 n 0000017603 00000 n 0000025428 00000 n 0000025458 00000 n 0000025586 00000 n 0000025622 00000 n 0000025652 00000 n 0000025780 00000 n 0000025816 00000 n 0000025881 00000 n 0000033344 00000 n 0000033409 00000 n 0000041587 00000 n 0000041671 00000 n 0000049398 00000 n 0000049526 00000 n 0000049581 00000 n 0000049686 00000 n 0000054325 00000 n 0000054453 00000 n 0000054508 00000 n 0000054636 00000 n 0000054691 00000 n 0000054819 00000 n 0000054874 00000 n 0000055002 00000 n trailer << /Size 48 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 55097 %%EOF