%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150228195108+00'00') /ModDate (D:20150228195108+00'00') /Title (Guilds, Society & Economy in London 1450-1800) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4040 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Guilds, Society & Economy in London 1450-1800)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This collection of essays arises from a conference hosted by the Centre for Metropolitan History at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Institute of Historical Research on 13 April 2000 entitled ?Revisiting the Livery Companies?. \(1\) With its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promise to explore the history of London livery companies from a variety of perspectives, employing both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical and interdisciplinary approaches, and the diverse affiliations of its twelve authors, it holds out a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very tempting prospect indeed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The introductory chapter by Gadd and Wallis sets up the volume admirably. London?s companies were the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject of contrasting opinions during the seventeenth century and, if the terms have mellowed since, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate continues through to the present. New interest in the companies has been generated by academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London historians in recent years, but these essays and the conference from which they are drawn also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflect a much broader interest in the companies and their history: an interest that began with John Stow's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study in 1598, and which has mushroomed in the last 150 years to produce a 'small mountain' of publications )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the subject. All economic historians will be familiar with the seminal work of Cunningham and Unwin, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which set up both the debate over whether the London gilds and companies were exploitative forcing houses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of capitalism or beneficent social regulators, and the characterization of their history in terms of their ?rise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and fall?. But the more fundamental question posed here is how, in the face of successive crises, did they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(313)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 February, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Anders Gadd)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick Wallis)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(187134865X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(204pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Centre for Metropolitan History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nigel Goose)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7268 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manage to endure at all? Recent academic work has added political and social angles to the economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis of earlier histories of these institutions, as well as offering comparative perspectives, but single-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(company studies have tended \(with the notable exceptions of those by Thrupp, Archer and Berlin\) to be what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are described as ?house? histories, deliberately limited in focus.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the early fourteenth century the freedom of London was equated with membership of one of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(companies, which in turn also conferred political right. From this date they grew in number and importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until there were as many as 70 by the later sixteenth century, perhaps encompassing as many as three-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quarters of the adult male population, a proportion that remained as high as one half even at the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth century. Their forms and procedures were endlessly reshaped and recreated; they were ?in a real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense social structures in motion? \(p. 5\), and their pomp and ceremony was at least partly a veneer over an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlying sense of insecurity. Nor was there necessarily a consistent relationship between company and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(craft. They were anything but monolithic, differing significantly one from another in terms of wealth, status )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ambition, exhibiting discord as well as harmony, their history being as much about exclusion as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclusion. The excluded numbered among them servants, lodgers, transients, journeymen and labourers \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we might add aliens\), but above all women, who scarcely feature in the company records unless they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the widows of freemen. Hence a study of the London companies needs to be read as only one of many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible histories of London.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a particularly incisive essay, Ian Archer turns on its head the old orthodoxy concerning the companies? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transition from an economic to a philanthropic role as the seventeenth century progressed. The period 1560-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1640 is identified as the golden age of the London livery companies, as both their membership and wealth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increased, and alongside their continuing importance as economic regulators their welfare role expanded too. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Measurement of this expansion is, however, quite difficult. The figures available for the Merchant Taylors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Goldsmiths in the sixteenth century do not convincingly make the case once inflation is allowed for, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while the tabulated data presented for the Merchant Taylors, Clothworkers and Grocers for the 1590s, 1630s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1670s suggest that it was in the early seventeenth century that the growth of expenditure was primarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(located.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the same time the companies took new responsibility for managing endowments as trustees, expanded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their range of provision to encompass loan stocks and exhibitions to the universities and provided often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generous pensions and almshouse places for their members \(at least 200 almspeople backed by pensions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amounting to 600 per annum by the 1590s\). Testamentary evidence from the early 1570s and mid-1630s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that the companies were less central to the charitable impulses of Londoners than were the parishes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet a tentative global comparison for the 1590s indicates that they may have provided almost 60 per cent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the parish total, and the early seventeenth-century expansion could have boosted this even further, while per )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capita comparisons for the 1630s suggest that they may have been able to compete with the poorer parishes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if not the wealthier ones. Whatever the balance, the later seventeenth century saw dramatic falls in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expenditure, as the burden of debt arising from the civil war years was capped by the Great Fire, causing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crisis in company finances that necessitated retrenchment, and which effectively blunted a tool that for so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long had sustained loyalty, patronage and religious purpose.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Gadd?s paper on the printed histories of the livery companies is frustrating for both author and reader, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the evidence is sparse and its implications obscure. Does the publication of Stow?s brief survey in 1598, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elaborated by Munday in 1633, and the production of the first )] TJ ET BT 333.308 178.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(printed)] TJ ET BT 367.976 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( collection of coats of arms in 1596, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really indicate ?increasing public interest in the companies from the 1590s onwards?? \(p. 44\). Gadd is duly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumspect in his interpretation, particularly as printed broadsheets were so ephemeral and the books so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expensive. The apparent lack of concern on the part of the companies themselves to promote themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through these media is interesting, especially in view of the importance attached to antiquity in general and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heraldry in particular before the late seventeenth century. But the fact that such works \(albeit often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(derivative\) multiply in number in the later seventeenth century, at the same time as company finances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became precarious, is perhaps even more significant, a conjunction that escapes notice here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In an elegantly written contribution, James Robertson reviews the tensions between the expectations and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7396 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences of aspirant Londoners through the glass of the Dick Whittington myth that was widely diffused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the late Elizabethan period. The importance of obtaining the freedom of the city through service, in order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to reap the full privileges of citizenship, is emphasized as a feature singular to the capital. Poor Dick?s initial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unhappiness and flight before the bells encouraged him to ?turn again? also sits well with what we know of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the failure of such a high proportion of apprenticeships. Having obtained the mayoralty, Whittington?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gesture of cancelling the debts of Henry V and his prominent presence at important royal ceremonies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underscores the civic pride of the capital, while his generous benefactions ? manipulated in the telling to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(render them acceptable to a protestant city ? emphasize an inclusivity that sits uneasily with the local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyalties of most Londoners.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Every urban historian will be familiar with the formal ordinances published by early modern companies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guilds, and equally familiar with the problem of deciding between image and reality. Matthew Davies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumvents this problem for the Merchant Taylors? Company in the fifteenth century by using less formal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscript records in conjunction with accounts and court minutes. The formal structures of the craft ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admission to the livery, freedom and apprenticeship ? emerge as central concerns, as do attempts to regulate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the activities of English and alien foreigners. In this sphere, a relatively flexible policy was overtaken by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stronger regulation and even opposition towards the end of the century, as London began to grow once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again. In the realm of quality control, however, the company played a much more limited role, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps testifies to the sophistication of the market and the effectiveness of consumer choice by this period. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We are, of course, still left unclear as to how effective the company?s measures were, for if repeated levying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of fines gives a firm indication of intent, it could also reflect a continuing failure to remedy the problem once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and for all.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Company regulation is similarly the topic of Patrick Wallis?s essay, which examines the process of search in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wider context of contemporary approaches to law and order. The emphasis, he finds, is upon submission )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and apology, rather than upon punitive measures, and a process of negotiation and compromise reflected a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pragmatic approach to the realities of the companies? powers, as well as an emphasis upon reintegration and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fraternity. This refreshingly sophisticated analysis is followed by detailed examination of transgressions in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Apothecaries and Stationers? Companies in the early seventeenth century. These are perhaps unfortunate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choices because \(as the author accepts\) both had special reasons to be more concerned with uncovering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abuses than other companies, and may have been more socially cohesive than some larger organizations. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wallis finds that roughly 30 per cent of the members of each were guilty of breaking ordinances at one time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or another, while offences were almost equally common throughout the company hierarchies. We are left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with two paradoxes. If at least the short-term, moderated costs of offending could be quite substantial, why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were offences so common? And if the principle of regulation was so clearly accepted, then why were even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(senior members of these companies able to transgress without serious damage to their long-term reputation?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ronald Homer?s discussion of the searches and regulation of prices by the Pewterer?s Company is largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factual. Only the Goldsmiths and the Pewterers gained the right of search nationwide, through a royal charter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(granted in 1474 in the case of the Pewterers. The evidence available for the late fifteenth century and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period 1636-1702 indicates that these searches were impressive in their coverage, even national by the later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period. Additional local searches by JPs were authorized by an act of parliament of 1503 and these must )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have helped to fill the gaps between the London searchers? relatively infrequent visits. The main explanation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered for these efforts is financial, though the company may also have been concerned to prevent its prices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being undercut by poor quality provincial goods. Prices were closely regulated too, and the Pewterers even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gained control over the quality and price of its raw materials. Such regulation drew increasing resentment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards the end of the seventeenth century; by the end of the eighteenth the company had been completely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bypassed and its influence was at an end.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Forbes examines the regulatory practices of the other company that came to have national rights of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(search ? the Goldsmiths ? granted by a series of royal charters between 1327 and 1505. The extensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records of searches conducted and goods seized is taken to indicate that ?the company carried out its duties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conscientiously during these centuries? \(p. 116\), but no threshold for a clear definition of what might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitute conscientious behaviour is offered. Challenges to the company?s authority came earlier than for )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7393 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Pewterers, for it was being questioned in both London and the provinces by the early seventeenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, which encouraged the company to wage a long and frustrating campaign to seek endorsement of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powers via an act of parliament. Uncertainty increased as the century progressed, with evident disharmony )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the company, and the last recorded search took place in 1723. During the sixteenth century alien )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goldsmiths had been required to take an oath of obedience to the company, but here too regulation proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more difficult with time. Despite the wave of complaints against aliens from company members in the later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth century, an act of 1700 and subsequent legal decisions further undermined their power. Only its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control over hallmarking was retained, which at least provided it with an active role in the government of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(craft that few other corporate bodies sought or achieved.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perry Gauci, like Archer, turns conventional wisdom on its head by emphasizing the continued relevance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the livery companies to London?s mercantile elite during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite the decline in their regulatory powers in the face of suburban expansion and their well-attested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financial difficulties. For if historians have long recognized their political importance in qualifying their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members for the parliamentary franchise, they also retained a socio-political role as one of the various city )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forums for informal association between members of the mercantile elite. While in general companies were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggling to attract members from the mid-seventeenth century, a clear majority of a sample of 850 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merchants active in the 1690s took up the freedom, and at least 38 per cent became liverymen, figures that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rise yet higher if only native-born merchants are counted. They were to be found in 27 companies, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heavily concentrated in the most prestigious, with some exhibiting a familial or ethnic bias, or attracting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traders with a particular geographical interest. If the companies did not play an overt role in the politics of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overseas commerce, it is likely that they provided informal forums for discussion of these issues, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providing opportunities for networking and conviviality. It would be interesting to examine further samples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the eighteenth century to determine how long this association between merchants and the companies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final essay, by Giorgio Riello, analyses the relationship between trade, guild and family in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth-century Cordwainers? Company. The weakness of the company as a political force by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century is striking, while suburban growth and the costs of prosecuting unfree craftsmen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diminished its ability effectively to regulate the trade. Apprenticeship declined too, but only from 1710, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decadal enrolments falling from their peak of almost 800 in the late seventeenth century and settling down at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around 170-190 by the 1740s. But, it is argued, there is a qualitative aspect to the question of apprenticeship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too. While increasing numbers of apprentices were drawn from London itself or the immediate locality, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was also a high degree of continuity within the trade as well as a pronounced familial dimension, its unusual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degree of occupational homogeneity being explained by the trade?s relatively lowly status. Nevertheless, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cordwaining as in other trades, redemption and patrimony became increasingly common means of entry, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite some attempts to come to terms with changing realities via the institution of special licences and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certificates of the right to trade, by the 1770s a dissociation between membership of the company and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice of the trade had become evident. With fewer apprentices completing their terms, the shortage of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skilled labour in an expanding market was filled by permanent journeymen. Women, always formally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marginal to the company, disappear completely from its records, their continuing contribution taking place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the domestic rather than the public context. These symptoms of and responses to the challenge to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regulatory powers of the Cordwainers add some nuances to the conventional story of decline without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subverting it, while in the long term neither the regulatory nor the familial framework could contain the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(burgeoning English shoe industry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The essays are followed by three ?responses? from discussants at the conference upon which the volume is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based. Mark Jenner quite correctly notes that there is no firm agreement between the various authors on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either the timing or even the notion of the ?decline? of the companies. This is in part explicable in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their very diversity, although patronage and political favour need to be taken on board too. The need for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combined social and intellectual history is well made, for in so many spheres ? such as attitudes to foreigners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? these two branches of the discipline have long been strangers to each other. Derek Keene emphasizes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of the livery companies as institutions which express aspects of that uniquely dominant organism )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5268 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that was the City of London, and rehearses the various ways in which their tentacles reached out to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation at large, through regulation, patronage, charity, education, migration and cultural example. As a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medievalist, he is also concerned to emphasize the depth of their roots. This, and their multi-faceted and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flexible roles as craft, neighbourhood, religious and charitable concerns, is perhaps the secret of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longevity. Finally, Joe Ward similarly re-emphasizes the national, indeed international, significance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London companies and their role within a cosmopolitan city that reached out to the nation at large and which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituted the hub of international commerce: features that sit somewhat paradoxically with periodic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts to restrict competition from foreigners, both English and alien.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This compact volume conjures a clear impression of what was undoubtedly a most successful and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimulating conference, the proceedings of which fully deserve publication. Perhaps with one exception, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each essay focuses squarely upon the central subject matter of the London companies, and additional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coherence is produced by the excellent introduction, stimulating responses and an appropriate degree of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cross-referencing. There are no weak links here, and even if some contributions are more empirical than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analytical, others more interpretative and firmly situated within an evolving historiography, each makes a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant contribution on its own terms. It is particularly pleasing to see such a successful manifestation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cross-fertilization between university-based historians and historians operating in very different professional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contexts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These essays have added considerably to our understanding of the development of the London companies in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early modern period, adding new layers of sophistication to nuance, and occasionally subvert, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional wisdom. And if the detailed research on which they are based occasionally raises the question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of typicality, and the broad claims made for their wider significance occasionally exceed the bounds of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence and belief, they will still have established a framework, or set of frameworks, for future work, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which must now commence from a very different starting point indeed. As for broader historiographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues, this collection reaffirms the crucial importance of the early modern period as one of transition, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quantitative change in the first half evolving into qualitative change in the second. And if the chronologies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered here are a little disparate, it is the later part of the seventeenth century that again emerges as pivotal, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underpinned by demographic and economic developments, but with the civil war years re-staking their claim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a crucial catalyst of change.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors are grateful to Professor Goose for his thorough and generous review: they write 'We are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obviously unable to speak for our individual contributors, but as we feel that his review does not highlight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any general concerns about the collection as a whole or any of the individual chapters, we are happy to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accept his review without further comment'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 273.295 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 255.515 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 255.515 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/313)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 254.121 m 322.316 254.121 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 229.144 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.744 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1551)] TJ ET BT 34.016 200.344 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 254.4355 322.3157 266.3155 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/313) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000555 00000 n 0000000637 00000 n 0000004729 00000 n 0000004838 00000 n 0000004948 00000 n 0000005057 00000 n 0000008618 00000 n 0000008746 00000 n 0000008830 00000 n 0000008895 00000 n 0000016216 00000 n 0000016281 00000 n 0000023730 00000 n 0000023795 00000 n 0000031241 00000 n 0000031325 00000 n 0000036646 00000 n 0000036774 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36869 %%EOF