%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140723233937+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140723233937+01'00') /Title (Governing Pleasures. Pornography and Social Change in England, 1815?1914) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4094 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Governing Pleasures. Pornography and Social Change in England, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1815?1914)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pornography used to be regarded as ephemeral, trivial and unimportant. Insofar as it had a history, it was as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one aspect of the long battle for, and ultimate triumph of, free speech. Histories of literary censorship and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal obscenity by writers like H. Montgomery Hyde which celebrated the gradual destruction of 'Victorian' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controls on expression and the corresponding liberation of D. H. Lawrence, James Joyce and their fellow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernists, had little to say about sexually explicit, mass market pornography. Even for these writers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pornography remained relatively insignificant. The modernist project of distinguishing 'healthy' discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and depiction of sex from low representations of the sexual act remained part of this historiography. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawrence, as for Hyde and even for later writers like Susan Sontag, most mass market pornography was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sign of sexual degeneracy and psychological disturbance in both consumers and producers. This market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would become attenuated and might even disappear when the barriers to sexual knowledge placed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moralisers and prudes could be removed. The feminism of the 1970s and 80s, which attacked pornography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as one more aspect of patriarchal domination and oppression, marginalised it still further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More recently, however, pornography has been reclaimed as one of the characteristic creations of modernity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The word pornography, used to define forms of purely sexual representation, was coined in the 1860s, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented a significant shift in the nature of sexual imagery and in the place of sexuality within modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(314)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 February, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lisa Sigel)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(813530016X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(227pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rutgers University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Brunswick)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harry Cocks)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7741 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture. Lynn Hunt has argued that until the late eighteenth century, sexual imagery was rarely isolated from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other forms of address, which might include satire, philosophy or wider instruction on modes of life and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matters of taste. In the first half of the nineteenth century, however, a new category of representation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged which dispensed with the satirical and focused on the sexual content with the single, narrow intent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of arousal. Sex, in this form, increasingly promised to be about itself, rather than anything else. Hunt, Walter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kendrick, and Lynda Nead all suggest that the rise of mass print culture and the possibility of reproducing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images on a large scale caused new anxiety about the access to obscene material that this culture provided. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Therefore, the obscene was invented as the category that contained such restricted forms. Pornography was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made up of imagery that had to be kept away from the masses and restricted to those of high enough social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status and education to be able to master the inconvenient or deviant passions it aroused. Obscenity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pornography, then, have come to be seen not as ephemeral, but vital to the formation of liberalism, freedom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of speech, mass culture and modernity in general.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lisa Sigel's interesting book continues the trend of placing pornography at the centre of western history, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does so not through an examination of obscenity as a legal or social category, but more originally, through a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(close reading of particular forms of pornographic representation. Such imagery is important, Sigel says, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it provides a glimpse of the social imaginary. It does not describe what people did or do, but what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they can imagine as possible. The stated aim of the book is to link stories of social change with changes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nature and market for pornography. Also, Sigel sets out to explore patterns of change, to show how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British society 'used pornography as a way to communicate' and to explain 'how this communication )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responded to changing cultural and social relationships' \(p. 3\). Sigel recognises that pornography is protean, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and defines it using what she says are nineteenth-century definitions. In practice this includes a very broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(category of literature, drawings and photographs which are united by a 'focus on sexuality' \(p. 4\), as well as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrow and more problematic - not to say circular - definition of works 'that people wrote, published, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printed, legislated, and collected as pornography'.\(p. 4\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first chapter deals with the radical printers and pressmen first examined in Iain McCalman's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Radical Underworld: Prophets, Revolutionaries and Pornographers in London, 1795-1840 )] TJ ET BT 475.676 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press; Cambridge, 1988\), and describes some of their output in detail. Whereas McCalman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presents the career development of these printers - from radical politics to pornography - as a symptom of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radicalism's demise, Sigel suggests that erotica was in fact a method of prolonging the life of radicalism by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other means. Although these men produced prints and books for a restricted upper class market, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to pursue the politics of libertinism in this way. Libertinism, in Sigel's reading, represents a radical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desire to remove the worldly hypocrisies of manners and morals, and return to a more natural and vital form )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of \(male\) passion. The use of the carnivalesque, and of a female voice in works like Cleland's )] TJ ET BT 485.744 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fanny Hill)] TJ ET BT 538.076 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tended towards the inversion of hierarchy, and also placed women at the centre of these erotic narratives. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While women were clearly subordinate to men in libertine erotica, and their desires were obviously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secondary to the revolutionary urges of the natural man, they were nevertheless the subjects, rather than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objects of these stories. Sigel suggests that women were therefore seen in these stories as participating fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the politics of libertinism, if only from a secondary position. However, when this expensive libertine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pornography was summarised and translated for a larger market in magazines like the )] TJ ET BT 448.256 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Exquisite)] TJ ET BT 492.920 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1842-44\) its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex libertine politics was diluted and lost. Mass markets effectively removed the politics from this kind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of literary erotica, leaving a decayed libertinism in which sexual conquest, rather than liberation was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(object of the narrative. Women and racial others, such as the many lustful Turks who inhabit these stories, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were reduced to mere objects of conquest rather than possible or actual protagonists.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sigel interprets the mid-Victorian Cannibal Club, members of which included many eminent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anthropologists, lawyers and writers like Richard Burton, A. C. Swinburne, and Richard Monckton Milnes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as representative of the turn away from the politics of libertinism. Although the Cannibals consumed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pornography and erotica with a passion, they did not present this as a project of liberation, but as personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and private, a function of social and educational superiority. By the mid-Victorian period, therefore, libertine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual freedoms had ossified into one aspect of social and imperial privilege, and this was reflected in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pornographic tastes of the Cannibals. Their interests lay mainly in eroticised forms of domination and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7423 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(submission, from flagellation to erotic anthropology. Sigel argues that the study of priapic cults and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial/sexual difference created a new form of 'empirical' erotic representation that sought the authority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science. Taking the Cannibals as representative of the British ruling class as a whole, Sigel suggests that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their erotic preferences show how anthropology, science, empire and pornography developed together and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how each was implicated in the other.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the final two chapters, Sigel turns to the way in which the form of pornography was affected by changes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in its market. Here, she provides a wealth of information about networks of publishing and distribution, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prices and producers. Articles such as books, prints and photographs were, Sigel argues, still well beyond the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reach of the mass market even in the 1870s, and remained primarily a form of elite consumption. This fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was reflected in the form taken by erotic photography, which concentrated, just as the Cannibal Club had, on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lower races and classes. The objects of pornography - women, children, other races - were however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excluded from its consumption by its high price. These erotic objects therefore became, in these pictures and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives, commodities to be consumed by the rich. Pornography unsurprisingly reproduced social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inequalities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final section of the book deals with the emergence of a mass market in pornographic postcards at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of the nineteenth century. Changing photographic technology put such imagery within the reach of even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those on low incomes, and democratised the market. As long as this market was restricted to the upper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classes, as Sigel says it was for much of the century, the content of pornography reflected their obsessions: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(libertinism, science and anthropology, inequality, domination and submission. With the explosion in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market for postcards, those who had been the objects of pornography now became its consumers. They could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see themselves in the medium for the first time and could use it to ridicule the upper classes and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pretensions. However, in spite of this democratising and even liberating effect, representations of women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and of other races continued to objectify and classify. Sigel argues that the conjunction of a mass market and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing objectification of the other had paradoxical consequences. 'Hegemonic formulations of sexuality' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 154\), which emphasised racial and sexual subordination, were more firmly implanted in western culture, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while at the same time 'the subordinated' \(p. 155\) could gaze on themselves for the first time. They could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(develop the perversities which this pornography described more easily than before, and therefore could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present a far more serious threat to the social order. This latter effect intensified anxieties over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences of pornography, and demanded that it be policed in more effective and rigorous ways.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This suggestive story raises a number of questions. The argument of the book broadly follows Kendrick's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Hunt's view of the changing nature of pornography. Sigel confirms the narrative which states that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political or satirical content of sexual imagery is gradually leached away over the course of the nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century to be replaced by sex in itself, which in turn leads on to concerns about the availability of such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material to a mass audience. However, her definition of pornography lacks rigour, and therefore points )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misleadingly in two directions - to both broad and narrow meanings of the genre. This is an important point, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since it determines what kind of imagery, and what kind of anxieties the book should be about. It is obvious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from reading the book that in practice Sigel's definition of pornography means material which depicts nudity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or the sexual act; but although this might function as a qualified modern definition of pornography, it does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not fulfil her ambition to take her definition from those used 'at the time'. For example, the later sections of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book focus on postcards, some of which depicted simple nudity. Clearly, not all imagery involving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nudity was regarded as 'filth' or pornography by the Victorians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this sense, one of the strengths of the book - that it provides a close reading of particular texts and looks at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pornography 'from the inside' - is also one of its weaknesses. Pornography, as Kendrick has argued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphatically, cannot only be defined by its content or we end up joining the American judge who could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(define it, but knew it when he saw it. Pornography has to be, as Kendrick says, an essentially artificial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(category of representation that contains a variety of heterogenous and not always sexually explicit material. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is also very difficult to come up with an adequate definition of what is pornographic without reference to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal definitions that applied at the time. Ignoring the changes to the laws of libel, obscenity, and sex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offences removes a key element of 'social change' which went towards the separation of the pornographic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the obscene from other kinds of material with a similar content. This omission means that the selection )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6474 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the archive for this book often seems arbitrary and unrelated to the actual meaning of obscenity which, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Victorians, included not only sexual imagery, but also advertisements for abortifacients and birth control, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not to mention a vast array of 'borderline' material. In this respect, the difference between what is obscene )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and what is pornographic - if there is one - would have been a helpful debate to explore with regard to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defining the object of study.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Famously, the Victorians defined )] TJ ET BT 197.000 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(obscenity)] TJ ET BT 242.324 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that is, illegal depictions of sexual and other matters, as material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that had the capacity to 'deprave and corrupt'. This formulation, coined in )] TJ ET BT 388.940 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(R )] TJ ET BT 399.272 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(v)] TJ ET BT 405.272 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Hicklin)] TJ ET BT 443.600 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1868\), is inclusive of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all sorts of material, and complicates the picture that Sigel paints. In particular, a wide definition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obscenity which takes in 'borderline' material defined under the law as illegal, as well as that which is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overtly sexual, correspondingly expands the size of the market and the archive to be explored. One of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(main contentions of the book is that pornography remained the property of the elite until the 1890s, but this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is almost the opposite of Victorian opinion. As Lynda Nead has shown, the availability of obscene material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the masses was thought to be a problem from the 1840s onwards. Also, Sigel's view of this market is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determined by her reading of low literacy rates as an indication of pornography consumption. To the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrary, Nead suggests that obscene material was available in a variety of different forms. Postcards that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depicted anything from pictures of semi-naked dancing girls to women lacing up their boots were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problematic because they were on display in the street or in shop windows. Moreover, the view of obscenity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and pornography that informed the Obscene Publications Act \(1857\) was that such material was pervasive to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the point of ubiquity. Prices in distributors' catalogues - another of Sigel's main sources as to availability - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might also be a misleading source about who saw this material. Mayhew writes about street sellers who sold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sealed packets of prints at 6d a go to customers, although in this case it was mainly a con, and the pictures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turned out to be less explicit than their customers thought. Clearly, reading was not the only way to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounter obscenity, which in the imagination of the Victorians was a public and not a private problem.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book contains many suggestive insights which, owing to its brevity \(163 pages of main text\), are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explored in enough detail to do them justice. In particular, it reiterates the point that pornography emerged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alongside and was complicit with more authoritative forms of representation. Sometimes it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indistinguishable from its scientific cousins like anthropology and sexology. Henry Havelock Ellis' )] TJ ET BT 512.480 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Inversion )] TJ ET BT 82.340 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1897\) was itself judged obscene and there was considerable crossover between sexology, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anthropology and obscenity, a trinity exemplified by the work of French colonial doctor Jacobus X. A fuller )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment of these ambiguities and sources would have developed some of the interesting arguments made in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The strength of this book lies in its close examination of particular texts, what they mean, and how they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structured, and it is less strong on their relation to 'social change' and on what counted as pornographic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obscene. Nevertheless, there is plenty of interesting material on the publication and distribution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pornography in the 1880s and 1890s. However, the book works much better as a reading of particular kinds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of pornography than it does as an account of British society seen through that medium.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author thanks Dr Cocks for his review and does not wish to commenbt further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 190.015 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 172.235 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 172.235 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/314)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 170.841 m 322.316 170.841 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 145.864 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 131.464 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1553)] TJ ET BT 34.016 117.064 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 171.1555 322.3157 183.0355 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/314) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000575 00000 n 0000000657 00000 n 0000004803 00000 n 0000004912 00000 n 0000005022 00000 n 0000005131 00000 n 0000008692 00000 n 0000008820 00000 n 0000008904 00000 n 0000008969 00000 n 0000016763 00000 n 0000016828 00000 n 0000024304 00000 n 0000024388 00000 n 0000030915 00000 n 0000031043 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31138 %%EOF