%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 56 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141221034918+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141221034918+00'00') /Title (Women at the Gates Gender and Industry in Stalin?s Russia) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4578 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Women at the Gates Gender and Industry in Stalin?s Russia)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the first densely researched and vividly argued social history of Soviet women workers in the 1930s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goldman?s monograph fills a long-standing gap in the existing historiography. Until the early 1990s, due to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the lack of access to archives in the former Soviet Union, researchers were completely dependent on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published sources, such as journals, newspapers, memoirs, and monographs. In these circumstances, too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often researchers reiterated the Soviet image of themselves as the creators of the first planned economy in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. The totalitarian school of history credited the Stalinist state with possessing an uncanny degree of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efficiency, as well the power to enforce compliance from every level of party and state organizations. Thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet scholarship claimed that by the 1930s the state had solved the 'woman problem', by instituting wide-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranging affirmative action policies. As a result Soviet women were highly educated, fully employed, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enjoyed unprecedented professional success in every field of human endeavour.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 417.248 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 417.248 157.881 m 431.240 157.881 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 431.240 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Western scholarship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued to the contrary that when the Bolsheviks abolished the Zhenotdel in 1930, it signaled the repudiation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of all feminism whether of the Marxist or liberal variety. While women were employed in industry and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agriculture in unprecedented numbers, they were relegated to inferior positions, and rarely advanced to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positions of power in either the Soviet government or the Party. At the same time retrograde social policies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were instituted such as the ban on abortions, and the valorization of the role of woman as the mainstay of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuclear family. They were responsible for both the professional success of the husband and the socialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upbringing of the children. Soviet women were yoked to a double shift that spelled the end to all feminist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(315)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 February, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wendy Goldman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(521780640X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(47.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(294pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Choi Chatterjee)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 417.2477 158.1955 431.2397 170.0755 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R 35 0 R 38 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8492 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dreams and utopias.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 129.668 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 129.668 795.075 m 143.660 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Naturally, there were exceptions to this line of argument and both Sheila Fitzpatrick and Roberta Manning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have argued that during the 1930s the Stalinist state attempted to promote women to administrative positions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the collective farms, and encouraged them to pursue professional rather than matrimonial success.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 516.920 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 516.920 740.307 m 530.912 740.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 530.912 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Stites, in his work, asserted that after the death of Stalin, a commitment to women?s emancipation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resurfaced as component of the Soviet ideology.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 265.640 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 265.640 711.795 m 279.632 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 279.632 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But by and large, very few scholars have undertaken any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed investigations into the social history of women in the 1930s. Most of the recent scholarship is more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in evaluating the symbolic importance of the 'New Soviet Women', than in exploring the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions that she actually inhabited.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.672 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.672 669.027 m 229.664 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 229.664 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Finally, historians of Soviet industry and labour have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overwhelmingly ignored the gendered dimension of Stalinist industrialization and the subsequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminization of the workforce as an important historical phenomenon.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 370.292 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 370.292 640.515 m 384.284 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 384.284 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( To date very few detailed works )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been published that have utilized archival documents to analyze the recruitment of women during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First Five-Year Plan.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 135.008 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 135.008 612.003 m 149.000 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 149.000 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( And far from seeing this as epiphenomenal, Goldman argues that the mobilization )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of women to industry was a crucial factor that facilitated both the accumulation of capital, as well as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creation of the infamous coercive labour legislation of the 1930s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The strength of the volume lies in the fact that instead of positing two undifferentiated and unitary subjects ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that is, the Soviet state and Soviet women ? Goldman explores the politics of local and central organizations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that played a role in formulating policies towards women. At same time she marshals a variety of women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voices including those of workers, feminist activists, economists, and other policy makers, and in the process )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breaks down the polarized image of the Soviet state and society. Goldman?s monograph forms a natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corollary to her earlier pioneering work, in which she argued that the failure of the Bolsheviks to recreate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patriarchal family along democratic lines was due as much to the conservatism of Russian women, as it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the traditional values that the state espoused.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 260.660 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 260.660 457.443 m 274.652 457.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 274.652 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While the Party was rapidly coming to the conclusion that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the traditional family structure, based as it was on unpaid female labour, provided the cheapest way to raise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet children, the lack of institutional support forced proletarian and peasant women to rely on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions of husbands and fathers. The material reality of the 1920s led to a revision of the Bolshevik )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy of liberating women from the patriarchal family.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goldman shows that during the NEP era, as demobilized soldiers returned from the war front, they replaced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women workers in various trades and industries. Female joblessness was further exacerbated by the fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factories and state agencies radically decreased spending on childcare institutions and communal dining halls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus making it harder for women to obtain gainful employment. Women workers were concentrated in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lowest paid jobs requiring the least skills, and these were usually clustered in the textile and other light )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry. Labour exchanges routinely discriminated against them, and women were paid less than men for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fulfilling the same labour quotas. While trade unions explained the wage differential by referring to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s lack of skills and training, they were rarely sent for advanced training or even hired as apprentices. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unions sought to protect the existing unequal gender status quo on the factory floor. Despite the entreaties of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Zhenotdel, the Party refused to champion the women?s cause in industry, as it struggled to maintain the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purity of an all-male urban proletarian base.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With the onset of the First Five-Year Plan, the Party continued to underestimate the value of female labour. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goldman explains that the Party policy of excluding women and non-proletarian workers from the work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(force slowed the rapid mobilization of labour required for the successful fulfillment of the First Five-Year )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Plan. In January of 1930, in the face of bitter protests from female activists, the Party eliminated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zhenotdel, arguing that the rapid improvement of women?s status under communism eliminated the need for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(special attention. While the Party sought to channel women?s activism to fulfilling the new goals of rapid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialization, it destroyed the very organization that might have facilitated its production goals. During )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this period, soviets, trade unions and factory management proved incapable of mobilizing and utilizing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women in a planned and effective manner.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But if in 1928 women held 28.6 percent of industrial jobs, with the onset of First Five-Year Plan women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers flooded Soviet industry in unprecedented numbers and by 1935, women constituted 42 percent of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 129.6677 795.3895 143.6597 807.2695 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 516.9197 740.6215 530.9117 752.5015 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 265.6397 712.1095 279.6317 723.9895 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 215.6717 669.3415 229.6637 681.2215 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 370.2917 640.8295 384.2837 652.7095 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 135.0077 612.3175 148.9997 624.1975 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 260.6597 457.7575 274.6517 469.6375 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 41 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Length 7414 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all industrial workers. Goldman?s book explores the key reasons for the unprecedented influx of women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers to industry and details the complex interactions of the Party, VTsSPS \(All-Union Central Council of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trade Unions\), and the Commissariat of Labour \(NKT\), as they tried to integrate the new workers. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the collectivization of agriculture was intended to produce a steady supply of cheap food for the industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worker, the actual process led to disastrous harvests and food shortages. As the state was unable to control )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rising prices, it was forced to institute rationing and socialize the retail trade. Government efforts in these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas served to accentuate rather than ameliorate the situation, as cooperatives failed to adequately service )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumer demands. Similarly, planned purges of wreckers in the food trade did little to lessen the scarcity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(food supplies and consumer goods. As wages fell and prices rose, working class women from urban areas, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as peasant recruits, streamed into heavy industry and found jobs in socialized dining, education, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(healthcare and administration in order to sustain their families. From the Party?s point of view, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment of urban women compensated for the falling wages of male workers and obviated the need to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(build new housing, and invest in the development of urban services that the additional in-migration of labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have required. According to Goldman 'Women due to their strategic placement within the working-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class family, made an enormous contribution to capital accumulation and investment in industrialization.' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(105\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the same time that the real wages fell, the Soviet economy, in the throes of the First Five-Year Plan, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed an enormous appetite for labour that could not be filled by the existing cadres of skilled male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers. As demands for new workers poured in from every branch of industry, NKT was unsuccessful in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formulating a coherent policy to recruit women to industry or train them for new jobs. Instead, the flow of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women workers to various industries was unplanned, chaotic, and proceeded on an ad hoc basis. As the NKT )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed to provide clear guidelines, individual enterprises and trades bypassed the incompetent labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exchanges and hired the wives, widows, and teenage children of workers in a desperate attempt to reach their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quotas. Workers brought female family members to work, and more frequently women themselves appeared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at factory gates and construction sites. By late 1930, even though the Party and the NKT had begun to realize )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that women were a valuable labour resource that was politically more reliable than disgruntled recruits from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the countryside, it failed to draft a comprehensive plan that would address the issues of female employment, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(training and education, and the socialization of household labour in an equitable manner.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ignoring the suggestions of feminist activists from the KUTB \(Committee to Improve the Labour and Life of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Working Women\) that were located in local soviets, the central planners divided the economy by gender and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established -dominated sectors in the service industries where the pay was low. In branches of heavy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry such as metallurgy, machine building, and construction, while women made rapid gains, they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equally segregated. This central policy of creating blocs of exclusively female workers had an adverse effect. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In areas, where skilled male workers were replaced by women these policies exacerbated existing deep-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seated male prejudices against women workers. Despite Party injunctions to hire more women in heavy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry, factory management continued to hire women for the jobs requiring fewest skills, often in areas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely unrelated to production, such as haulage, repair, and cleaning. Managers did not want to train )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women to take on skilled work, and promotions were far and few. On the factory floor, male co-workers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harassed female employees, both physically and sexually, creating hostile and threatening work situations. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And with the abolition of the Zhenotdel, there was no other institution that could take up the issue of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inequality in the workplace.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By 1932-33, during the inception of the Second Five-Year Plan, women comprised almost 100 percent of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incoming workers and by 1936, 75 percent of the new workers were women. According to Goldman, during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this period the authorities were able to institute a draconian system of labour legislation because of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(availability of women workers. She argues that the Party was able to create the punitive passport system, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slow down rural migration to the cities, and purge the working class of undesirable non-proletarian elements, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it could rely on the existing reserves of female labour. As a result, urban women were recruited in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly larger numbers, both in traditionally female-dominated industries such as textiles, as well as in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heavy industry such as lumber, metal and machine production. According to Goldman, while women were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over-represented in poorly paid and unskilled positions, they were also to be found in well-paid skilled )] TJ ET endstream endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R ] /Contents 43 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Length 8630 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positions in various branches of industry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In conclusion Goldman argues that both socialist development in the Soviet Union, and capitalism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western Europe, resulted in a similar sexual division of labour where women were overwhelmingly to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found in positions that were low-waged. While this finding does not surprise us, Goldman in an interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twist makes a counter argument: that the Party in the 1930s, contrary to received wisdom, did function as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(champion for women?s issues:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a brief period, the Party?s campaign to involve women, the growing need for skilled labour, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminism of the women?s activists came together to create new and vast opportunities for hundreds and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thousands of women workers. \(p. 282\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Party made efforts to enroll women in technical training programs, and institutes of higher education. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Party replaced men with blocs of skilled women workers, and even facilitated women?s entry into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(management position. Finally, in an effort to control and revitalize factory management, women workers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were encouraged to speak publicly about problems in the workplace.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goldman?s competent analysis of women?s testimonies about their horrendous work experiences forms the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most fascinating section of the book. The Party?s efforts were neither sustained, nor were they disinterested, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but nonetheless, they resulted in the creation of affirmative action policies that helped publicly renegotiate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the status of a hitherto disadvantaged minority. One wishes that Goldman had gone further in analyzing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradoxical goals and policies of the Party that simultaneously improved the status of women even as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forestalled the establishment of gender equity in the workplace. Her nuanced paradigm will provide new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insight into the history of women under Stalinism. This volume will be of great interest to students of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian history as well as women?s studies, and the archival references will be an invaluable starting point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for future scholars. One wishes that the author had included a complete bibliography in the text.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 414.195 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 383.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 383.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chirkov, P. M. )] TJ ET BT 138.692 383.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reshenie zhenskogo voprosa v SSSR 1917-1937gg)] TJ ET BT 380.324 383.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Mysl; Moscow, 1978\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 496.652 383.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 496.652 382.179 m 550.640 382.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 369.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 369.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example, Janet Evans, 'The Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the women?s question: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 355.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the case of the 1936 Decree 'In Defense of Mother and Child'', )] TJ ET BT 366.080 355.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Contemporary History)] TJ ET BT 527.744 355.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 16:4 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 340.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1981\), 757-75; Mary Buckley, )] TJ ET BT 217.328 340.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women and Ideology in the Soviet Union)] TJ ET BT 414.632 340.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(University of Michigan )] TJ ET BT 64.016 326.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Press; Ann Arbor, MI, 1989\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 205.664 326.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 205.664 325.155 m 259.652 325.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 312.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 312.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sheila Fitzpatrick, 'Middle-class values and Soviet life in the 1930s', in Terry Thompson and Richard )] TJ ET BT 64.016 298.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sheldon eds, )] TJ ET BT 128.348 298.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soviet Society and Culture)] TJ ET BT 256.004 298.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Westview Press; Boulder, CO, 1988\), pp. 20-38; Roberta )] TJ ET BT 64.016 283.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manning, 'Women in the Soviet countryside on the eve of World War II, 1935-1940', in Beatrice )] TJ ET BT 64.016 269.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Farnsworth and Lynne Viola, eds, )] TJ ET BT 230.324 269.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russian Peasant Women)] TJ ET BT 348.980 269.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Oxford University Press; Oxford & New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York, 1992\), pp. 206-35.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 183.668 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 183.668 253.875 m 237.656 253.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 241.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Stites, )] TJ ET BT 137.684 241.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Women?s Liberation Movement in Russia: Feminism, Bolshevism and Nihilism, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 226.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1860-1930)] TJ ET BT 116.012 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton University Press; Princeton, 1978\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 340.328 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 340.328 225.363 m 394.316 225.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 212.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victoria Bonnell)] TJ ET BT 144.344 212.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, Iconography of Power)] TJ ET BT 258.332 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(University of California Press; Berkeley, 1997\); Lynne )] TJ ET BT 64.016 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Attwood, )] TJ ET BT 112.016 198.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Creating the New Soviet Woman: Women?s Magazines as Engineers of Female Identity, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1922-1953)] TJ ET BT 116.012 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(St. Martin?s Press; New York, 1999\); Susan Reid, 'All Stalin?s women: gender and power )] TJ ET BT 64.016 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Soviet Art of the 1930s', )] TJ ET BT 214.172 169.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Slavic Review)] TJ ET BT 281.156 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 57:1 \(1998\), 133-73, on 172; Choi Chatterjee, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 155.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Celebrating Women: Gender, Festival Culture, and Bolshevik Ideology. 1919-1939)] TJ ET BT 464.300 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(University of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pittsburgh Press; Pittsburgh, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 234.368 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 234.368 139.827 m 288.356 139.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 126.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lewis Siegelbaum and Ron Suny, eds, )] TJ ET BT 252.008 126.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making Workers Soviet: Power, Class, Identity)] TJ ET BT 478.316 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cornell )] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press; Ithaca, 1994\); Stephen Kotkin, )] TJ ET BT 299.996 112.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Magnetic Mountain: Stalinism as Civilization)] TJ ET BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(University of California Press; Berkeley, 1995\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 298.316 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 298.316 97.059 m 352.304 97.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 84.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Gregory Schrand, 'Industrialization and the Stalinist Gender System: Women Workers in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet Economy, 1928-1941' \(Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan, 1994\); Melanie Ilic, )] TJ ET BT 486.152 69.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women )] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Workers in the Soviet Interwar Economy. From 'Protection' to 'Equality')] TJ ET BT 412.256 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(St. Martin?s Press; New )] TJ ET endstream endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 496.6517 382.4935 550.6397 394.3735 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 205.6637 325.4695 259.6517 337.3495 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 183.6677 254.1895 237.6557 266.0695 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 340.3277 225.6775 394.3157 237.5575 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 234.3677 140.1415 288.3557 152.0215 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 298.3157 97.3735 352.3037 109.2535 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R ] /Contents 57 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Length 1485 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 125.672 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 125.672 795.075 m 179.660 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wendy Z. Goldman, )] TJ ET BT 165.668 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women, the State and Revolution: Soviet Family Policy and Social Life, 1917-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1936)] TJ ET BT 88.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge University Press; Cambridge, 1993\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 326.996 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 326.996 766.563 m 380.984 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 722.719 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 704.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 704.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/315)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 703.545 m 322.316 703.545 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 678.568 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 664.168 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1555)] TJ ET BT 34.016 649.768 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 125.6717 795.3895 179.6597 807.2695 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 34 0 R >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 326.9957 766.8775 380.9837 778.7575 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 37 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 703.8595 322.3157 715.7395 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/315) >> endobj xref 0 64 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000567 00000 n 0000000656 00000 n 0000005286 00000 n 0000005395 00000 n 0000005505 00000 n 0000005614 00000 n 0000009175 00000 n 0000009303 00000 n 0000009387 00000 n 0000009416 00000 n 0000009544 00000 n 0000009580 00000 n 0000009706 00000 n 0000018251 00000 n 0000018281 00000 n 0000018409 00000 n 0000018445 00000 n 0000018475 00000 n 0000018603 00000 n 0000018639 00000 n 0000018669 00000 n 0000018797 00000 n 0000018833 00000 n 0000018863 00000 n 0000018991 00000 n 0000019027 00000 n 0000019057 00000 n 0000019185 00000 n 0000019221 00000 n 0000019251 00000 n 0000019379 00000 n 0000019415 00000 n 0000019445 00000 n 0000019573 00000 n 0000019609 00000 n 0000019674 00000 n 0000027141 00000 n 0000027260 00000 n 0000035943 00000 n 0000036071 00000 n 0000036126 00000 n 0000036254 00000 n 0000036309 00000 n 0000036437 00000 n 0000036492 00000 n 0000036620 00000 n 0000036675 00000 n 0000036803 00000 n 0000036858 00000 n 0000036985 00000 n 0000037040 00000 n 0000037138 00000 n 0000038676 00000 n 0000038804 00000 n 0000038859 00000 n 0000038987 00000 n 0000039042 00000 n 0000039170 00000 n trailer << /Size 64 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39265 %%EOF