%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 30 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818121248+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818121248+01'00') /Title (Warrior Nation Images of War in British Popular Culture 1850-2000) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4642 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Warrior Nation Images of War in British Popular Culture 1850-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Writing in the weekly journal the )] TJ ET BT 196.664 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Statesman)] TJ ET BT 270.332 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on 17 March 2003, the columnist Cristina Odone praised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British troops in the Gulf for enduring the privations of active service without complaint. Quoting Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Newbolt?s invocation of British chivalry in )] TJ ET BT 245.336 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vitai Lampada)] TJ ET BT 317.012 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in which British soldiers remember their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schoolboy selves and resolve to 'Play up! Play up! And play the game', Odone comments that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary soldiers 'have unearthed a mould we thought had been lost and broken for ever: the stiff-upper-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lipped Brit'. However, as Paris shows in this interesting and well-researched book, the image of the brave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and chivalrous British soldier has long been a familiar characteristic of popular culture. Despite a small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of ?dissenting texts?, such as the films )] TJ ET BT 260.996 166.403 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tumbledown)] TJ ET BT 323.000 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1989\) and )] TJ ET BT 381.320 166.403 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Resurrected)] TJ ET BT 439.304 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1989\), both of which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus on the infantry experience of the 1982 Falklands/Malvinas War and the difficulties of re-integrating ex-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combatants back into civil society, the heroic, brave and daring British soldier is an easily recognizable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure in many popular representations of war. From the poetry of the First World War, in which valiant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(troops are undermined by a gung ho public and ineffectual leadership, through to the plucky civilian soldier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Second World War films and the macho, fearless special forces of Andy McNab's )] TJ ET BT 443.072 95.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bravo Two Zero)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London; Bantam, 1993\) in the popular fiction of the 1991 Gulf War, the 'stiff-upper-lipped Brit' has been an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enduring feature of British popular culture. Tracing images of war in popular culture between 1850-2000, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a particular emphasis on that produced for, and primarily consumed by, boys, Paris argues that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(317)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 31 March, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Paris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1861890788)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(312pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reaktion Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lucy Noakes)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7966 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ongoing representation of war as an exciting adventure has helped both to legitimate war as a means of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settling international disputes; and to ensure the longevity of a militarised masculinity as an important model )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of British masculine identity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Warrior Nation)] TJ ET BT 109.028 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( sets out its arguments chronologically, tracing the development of what Graham Dawson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has identified as a ?pleasure culture of war? in British popular culture between 1850 and 2000.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 488.588 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 488.588 726.051 m 502.580 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 502.580 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Drawing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a wide range of sources, ranging from adventure stories to comic books, novels and films, Paris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates the emergence and ongoing popularity of this pleasure culture of war as a feature of mass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entertainment from at least the mid nineteenth century onwards. The book argues that British popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture, particularly that produced for boys, has a long history of glamorising and romanticising warfare, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeatedly representing war as a chivalric, heroic and exciting alternative to the mundanity of everyday )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilian life.Arguing Declaring that ?in much of the popular entertainment created for the nation?s youth, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over-riding national image is of an aggressively militant warrior nation? \(p. 11\), this richly illustrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monograph examines the privileged position of representations of war in British popular culture. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('pleasure culture of war', it appears, has a longevity and popularity undimmed by the repeated experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actual warfare: wars which, Paris argues, wereensured assured of both willing combatants and a supportive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public at home by the dominance of these exciting and romantic narratives of war in the popular imagination.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A central feature of Paris? book is his contention that a ?jingoistic patriotism? was in place in Britain by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1850. Following the earlier work of Anne Summers and Hugh Cunningham ? both of whom have examined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the growth of a popular patriotism during the nineteenth century ? Paris argues that the aggressive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warlike mentality which spread throughout Europe in the last years of the century was apparent in Britain by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a much earlier date.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 128.648 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 128.648 485.955 m 142.640 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 142.640 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Tracing the popularity of dramatic reconstructions of distant battles and heroic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(episodes from British history amongst the working and middle classes, together with the numerous reviews, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parades and royal ceremonies in which the armed forces took part, Paris demonstrates that the 'pleasure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture of war' was deeply embedded inthe extent to which war became a widely shared and enjoyed feature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of British popular culture by the middle of the nineteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, despite their appetite for reconstructions of famous battle scenes,the a certain sector of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public retained a curiously ambiguous attitude towards the army, with popular narratives of military heroism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing alongside far more negative beliefs. The radical working class and the radical press of the mid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century frequently expressed misgivings about the potential role of the army as a force to quell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil unrest. Paris shows how this attitude was, in part, a response to the civil nature of British society; a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society in which the army has historically had no formal place in the political life of the nation. It was also a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflection of the separation of the army from the everyday lives of most people.; sSmallpeople. Small in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number and playing little part in public life, the army of the mid-nineteenth century was largely segregated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from civil society, with recruits into the ranks often seen not as potential heroes but as unlucky, desperate or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foolish individuals unable to make a living as a civilian. Yet this largely negative attitude towards the army )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not reflected more widely in popular narratives of war which focussed upon the heroism of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic ?officer class?, the exploits of whom were recorded in numerous paintings, prints, ballads and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poems. Paris argues that the two key military campaigns of the 1850s ? the Crimean War, which was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first military campaign to be covered by war correspondents, and the Indian Mutiny and its aftermath ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helped to extend this image of the heroic soldier to the army as a whole, ensuring that by the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century a popular militarism would be not only a deeply embedded feature of British society,and but a key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facet of a )] TJ ET BT 81.656 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(shared)] TJ ET BT 114.320 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( national culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Central to the cultivation of this more positive image of the army was the growth of a popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evangelicalism in British culture. The evangelical desire for a moral revolution at home was matched by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belief in the British as a ?chosen people?, with a missionary duty to export both Christianity and British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(values to all corners of the world: , a belief which was utilized to support and sanction an imperialist world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view. The British military were at the heart of the imperialist movement, responsible for maintaining the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire, policing its borders and ensuring the safety of British colonialists. Individual soldiers, most notably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry Havelock, came to embody the evangelical ideal of a Christian soldier, in common with General )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gordon of Khartoum, both of whom were frequently represented as warriors who were willing to make the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 488.5877 726.3655 502.5797 738.2455 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 128.6477 486.2695 142.6397 498.1495 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8181 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?ultimate sacrifice? for the interwoven figures of God and Empire. These figures provided powerful models )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(icons of masculinity, representing all that was best in the British, or perhaps more particularly English, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(character. Drawing upon Mark Girouard?s work on the ?rediscovery? of chivalry in nineteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature, Paris demonstrates how the 'pleasure culture of war' which developed during this period not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disguised the horrors of actual warfare behind a set of moral certainties, but provided the outline for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular militarism which was to teach generations of British boys across all social classes that the soldier-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hero was a desirable and achievable model of masculinity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed,One one of the most helpful features of Paris?s research, both for students of gender studies and for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians of British national identity, is the overview that he provides of the enduring nature of what could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be called the ?heroic warrior? narrative in popular cultural representations of war for boys. Paris shows how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the figure of the heroic warrior, originating in the evangelical imperialism of the mid nineteenth century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears again and again in this body of popular culture; and indeed, how little his essential characteristics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been effected by the experience of actual warfare and the changing nature of battle throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period. Biggles, W. E. Johns? popular inter-war airman, retained many of the qualities of the chivalric heroes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of nineteenth-century juvenile fiction, being a sort of ?flying knight errant? whose struggles against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enemyenemy forces, whetherit be Prussianism, Bolshevism or Nazism, always ended in victory for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British empire and its fundamentally altruistic aims of spreading civilization and progress. \()] TJ ET BT 474.308 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Warrior Nation)] TJ ET BT 549.320 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 160\) The same qualities, Paris argues, can be seen in post-1945 fiction for boys in comics such as )] TJ ET BT 517.280 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hotspur)] TJ ET BT 73.352 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 96.680 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eagle)] TJ ET BT 124.676 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, where lantern-jawed young heroes such as Dan Dare heroically battled against enemies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranging from aliens to Nazi commandos. Interestingly, when these texts began to draw on the Second World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War as a site of adventure, from the early 1950s onwards, they mirrored the changing popular cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations of the war from the same period for adults, in which the contemporary wartime picture of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people?s war, where civilians and importantly, women, defended the nation, and fought and suffered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alongside warrior heroes was replaced by a narrative which focused once again on the activities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adventures of the individual, male, soldier.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This monograph demonstrates the enduring appeal of the pleasure culture of warRepresentations of warrior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heroes did, of course, shift slightly across the decades. , fFictional warriors after the First World War for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example were notably more likely to break rules and question authority than their Victorian and Edwardian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterparts, whilst still maintaining their belief in an innate British superiority. However, despite these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slight shifts in representation, popular cultural accounts of war seem to demonstrate the durable nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heroic war narratives; narratives which are notably more absent from elite representations of war, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly the literature of the late 1920s which was produced by disillusioned veterans of the conflict.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unlike Samuel Hynes, whose focus on this literature led him to conclude that British inter-war culture was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated by a largely negative memory of the war, Paris argues that in fact the majority of young readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and viewers of war comics, war novels and war films in this period were surrounded by heroic and exciting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images of warfare.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 123.644 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 123.644 260.115 m 137.636 260.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 137.636 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Indeed, Parisargues contends that , it is the continuing dominance of the pleasure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture of war in popular culture that may help to account for the willingness of so many young men to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voluntarily enlist for military service in 1938-1939. Similar images of warfare and soldiers can be seen in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more recent, tabloid accounts of war, such as the )] TJ ET BT 270.956 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sun?s)] TJ ET BT 299.624 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( collapsing of sexual and military potency in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coverage of the 1982 Falklands/Malvinas War and the 1991 Gulf War.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 372.944 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 372.944 203.091 m 386.936 203.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 386.936 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Paris?s well-researched )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monograph helps to provide a context for such images, demonstrating the long and popular history of heroic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images of warfare in British popular culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whilst the main focus of Paris? research is upon popular novels and comic books for boys, he also examines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the representation of warfare in other sites of popular culture, demonstrating that quasi-military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations such as the Boy?s Brigade and the scouting movement, war toys, war games and war films )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have, again and again, helped to reproduce a sanitised, pleasurable version of war, destined to encourage the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintenance of a martial spirit amongst boys and young men. Although Paris acknowledges the existence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a sizeable body of anti-war literature, he rightly emphasizes the continued existence of popular, pleasurable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations of war, both in romanticized images of past wars and in the fantasy and science fiction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genres, narratives of which continue to generally frequently revolve around war. Although a didactic desire )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 123.6437 260.4295 137.6357 272.3095 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 372.9437 203.4055 386.9357 215.2855 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 6097 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to inculcate military values amongst young men as a means of maintaining the Empire and defending the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home may have waned, the trivialization of war as entertainment may well, as Paris argues, ?help to foster a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society which accepts conflict as normal behaviour?.\(p. 259\) Although total wars, and wars of empire may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be things of the past, war is self-evidently still seen as a valid means of settling differences. Whether the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warrior hero remains a dominant figure in contemporary models of masculinity is perhaps more open to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With the current popularity of figures such as David Beckham, who in some ways transgresses gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries, and the visibility of female combatants in recent conflicts, the naturalised linkage between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militarism and masculinity is perhaps more open to question than at any time in the recent past. Whilst Paris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documents the connection between the warrior hero and masculinity since 1850, and provides examples of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations of the far rarer ?female warrior?, he does not really discuss the alternative images of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculinity which existed contemporaneously, nor the extent to which images of female combatants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenged or disrupted dominant models of masculinity rooted in warfare. Perhaps the very rarity of such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images suggests that they do, in fact, provide a very potent threat, illustrating the underlying fragility of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparently strong, naturalised bond between militarism and masculinity. However, this point is not intended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a criticism of Paris? achievements here. Rather, it highlights the questions that such an illuminating and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well-researched work opens up. This is a publication to be welcomed, not only by scholars of modern British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, but also by anyone interested in the relationship between popular culture, war and gender.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 507.219 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review)] TJ ET BT 48.816 450.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. Dawson, )] TJ ET BT 124.004 450.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soldier Heroes: British Adventure, Empire and the Imagining of Masculinity)] TJ ET BT 492.644 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Routledge; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, 1994\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 138.344 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 138.344 434.691 m 192.332 434.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 421.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Summers, 'Militarism in Britain before the Great War',)] TJ ET BT 341.300 421.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( History Workshop Journal)] TJ ET BT 472.292 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2 \(1976\), 104-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(23; H. Cunningham, )] TJ ET BT 165.020 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Volunteer Force. A Social and Political History 1859-1908)] TJ ET BT 470.672 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Croom Helm; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, 1975\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 138.344 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 138.344 391.923 m 192.332 391.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 379.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Hynes, )] TJ ET BT 113.348 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A War Imagined: The First World War and English Culture)] TJ ET BT 401.012 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Bodley Head; London, 1990\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 363.411 m 118.004 363.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 350.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Taylor, )] TJ ET BT 112.676 350.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War Photography: Realism in the British Press)] TJ ET BT 340.004 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Routledge; London, 1991\); L. Noakes, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War and the British: Gender and National Identity 1939-1991)] TJ ET BT 362.672 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(I. B. Tauris; London, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 504.992 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 504.992 334.899 m 558.980 334.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 310.037 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2002/sep/28/featuresreviews.guardianreview1)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 280.131 m 419.288 280.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 422.288 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 276.799 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 259.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 259.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/317)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 257.625 m 322.316 257.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 232.648 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.248 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1559)] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.848 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2002/sep/28/featuresreviews.guardianreview1)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 138.3437 435.0055 192.3317 446.8855 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 138.3437 392.2375 192.3317 404.1175 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 363.7255 118.0037 375.6055 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 504.9917 335.2135 558.9797 347.0935 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 280.4455 419.2877 292.3255 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2002/sep/28/featuresreviews.guardianreview1) >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 257.9395 322.3157 269.8195 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/317) >> endobj xref 0 44 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000568 00000 n 0000000650 00000 n 0000005344 00000 n 0000005453 00000 n 0000005563 00000 n 0000005672 00000 n 0000009233 00000 n 0000009361 00000 n 0000009445 00000 n 0000009536 00000 n 0000017555 00000 n 0000017585 00000 n 0000017713 00000 n 0000017749 00000 n 0000017779 00000 n 0000017907 00000 n 0000017943 00000 n 0000018034 00000 n 0000026268 00000 n 0000026298 00000 n 0000026426 00000 n 0000026462 00000 n 0000026492 00000 n 0000026620 00000 n 0000026656 00000 n 0000026775 00000 n 0000032925 00000 n 0000033053 00000 n 0000033108 00000 n 0000033236 00000 n 0000033291 00000 n 0000033418 00000 n 0000033473 00000 n 0000033601 00000 n 0000033656 00000 n 0000033783 00000 n 0000033910 00000 n 0000034038 00000 n trailer << /Size 44 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34133 %%EOF