%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140819125821+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140819125821+01'00') /Title (British Government Policy and Decolonisation 1945-1963: Scrutinising the Official Mind) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4389 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(British Government Policy and Decolonisation 1945-1963: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Scrutinising the Official Mind)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At first sight the idea of another scrutiny of the official mind hardly seems likely to add much to the debate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the end of empire. The controversy has somewhat died down in recent years, perhaps because of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plethora of documents emanating from official minds and reproduced in the )] TJ ET BT 400.952 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Documents on the End of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empir)] TJ ET BT 64.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(e series.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.668 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.668 222.033 m 116.660 222.033 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 116.660 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Criticism of the latter project has often focussed, albeit unreasonably, on the absence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material from the former non-self-governing territories. Moreover the concept of the official mind, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owes much to the work of Professor William Roger Louis, may open up a can of methodological worms as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as apparently ignoring the many forces within and outside the British government, which assumed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance in the ending of the British empire.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet we have a book which, whatever the title, does add to the historiography and to the means by which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of empire can be best understood and which incorporates a new approach to some of the old questions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In essence, by formulating)] TJ ET BT 164.324 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an account of the British retreat from empire into three distinct analytical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frameworks, there is an escape from much work on decolonisation which examines the nature of the transfer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of power and the reasons which produced its various stages at different times in different countries. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of viewing the end of empire as more than simply the transfer of power is indicated by Frank )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heinlein?s tripartite division of each chronological section. The informal empire and the exercise and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(319)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 March, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frank Heinlein)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(714652202X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(39.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(350pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frank Cass)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Kent)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 102.6677 222.3475 116.6597 234.2275 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 6085 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(projection of British power in the world is one aspect of this tripartite approach; the formal empire of non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-governing territories another; and the development of the Commonwealth the third part of the story. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Each chapter on Attlee, Churchill and Eden and then the two Macmillan governments is treated in this way.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, some would argue that there was no such thing as informal empire, as the exercise of power is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinct from empire and the manifestation of informal empire is not tangible enough to warrant attention. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, just as the maintenance of influence was a key component of the formal transfer, so the appearance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this influence was perceived as desirable by British policy makers in ways which reflected something more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than power measured in military or economic strength. As one official noticed, power is to be measured in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than money or troops. Prestige, and how it was perceived in relation to Britain is particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important, even now. With the Empire treated in this more comprehensive way a much fuller story can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(told, although this creates a new set of problems.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In an initial discussion about the historiographical treatment of empire, the author points out that books on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the end of empire have generally fallen into two categories ? those that treat the empire in general; and those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that treat the specifics of a territory in more detail. If the old debate about the relative importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropolitan policies, the situation in the colonies and the growing demands of the nationalists and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international pressures has been largely superseded, then there is a new tripartite framework offered. Yet the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis forming the meat on this framework is not always convincing. The book aims to bring new elements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into play in analysing the loss of Britain?s empire. In particular, it sets out to look in greater detail at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic and strategic role of the Commonwealth and the reviews of the Macmillan government, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(escaping from the balance sheet idea as an explanation for the abandonment of empire.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The idea, as the author notes, is to argue that British policy responded to the restructuring of the local and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international orders which begs the question of who or what restructured them. What this apparently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different approach takes us back to is the old question of how much this reconstruction was due to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of the Second World War, how much to the Cold War and how much to economic planning at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international and local levels. In addition, the idea of a vague balance sheet constituting the loss of prestige )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in relation to all three parts of the decolonisation tripod is never fully explored. The balance sheet idea is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejected, not just in terms of economic, profit and loss, but in terms of any form of assessment about loss and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gain associated with the decrease or enhancement of British prestige as a world power or as a responsible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international player. Thus, although the quest for prestige features strongly in relation to the maintenance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informal empire, its relative importance at different times and compared to other considerations is not easy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to pinpoint.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Cold War is also neglected, in the sense that it is relatively unexplained in terms of strategy and politics; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and not understood at all in terms of the difference between cold and hot war. The idea that the Cold War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may have influenced the end of informal empire, if not the timing of the transfer of power, because the latter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made the war against communism easier to wage is clearly vital and Heinlein does acknowledge this point. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nothing affected the international order more significantly than the Cold War, and American policy towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British presence in Africa was clearly influenced by it. Yet while the Cold War is well used here to reject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the argument of calculations of strategic, or economic, benefits influencing the transfer of power, and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualify the argument of nationalists simply pressurising Britain to leave, more understanding of the Cold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War is clearly needed. In particular a rejection of the orthodox description of containment is badly needed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make more sense of the relationship between Cold War and empire.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7318 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In part this lack is an inevitable consequence of the broad task undertaken in the book. It is not so much an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to come to grips with a definition of the official mind? but rather to paint a broader picture of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems and aspirations policy makers faced. On the one hand there was a great variety of official views on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various aspects of empire; while on the other hand, a complex array of problems. Some differences can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encapsulated in the views that predominated in different departments, while others within departments and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between those in London, those in the bush and those in colonial capitals need teasing out. Thus, in addition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to reflecting the varied nature of the problems and different attempts to grapple with them there are also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems in defining the elements of causation and the catalysts of change.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Consequently, although the book is admirably researched \(in the sense that a wide array of primary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secondary sources have been looked at\), there is the impression that the overall aim has been to consult a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide array of sources across what is a very ambitious and demanding chronological period, rather than to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pick out and develop key arguments on the tripartite divisions. For example, on the issue of informal empire, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heinlein sometimes appears to prefer to describe the many things that could be said to relate to it, rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to explain what it meant at different periods. This deepens the problem of distinguishing a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanatory factors that could apply to both formal and informal empires.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, in the chapter on the Attlee government, it is noted that there was a crucial difference between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the initial Colonial Office desire to develop means to help colonial producers, and the desire of other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(departments of the British government to increase exports of tropical produce to the dollar zone, or use them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as replacements for dollar purchases. This was accompanied by Bevin's and the Foreign Office's idea of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Third World Power' \(not explored in the book\), the cultivation of which would enable Britain and Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the empire, backed by the Dominions, to develop resources equal to the USSR and the US through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of what was referred to as the 'middle of the planet'. By combining the area forming Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe, the Middle East and Africa under British leadership, formal empire would be transcended and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become a more informal embodiment of Britain as a world power. The difficulty of establishing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundary between what constitutes formal and informal empire is clear, as is the difficulty of clarifying the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linkage between them. Heinlein suggests that under Attlee the distinction was defined in terms of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceived need to maintain a military presence and formal rule whenever there was no likelihood of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufficiently strong government replacing British administration. This does not fit easily with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justifications for remaining in Egypt after transferring power or with the lack of consideration in Africa of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the immediate possibilities of independent states being created. The dichotomy between the different strands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is often in evidence; but the author hints that there was no overall policy for them all, instead of suggesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there could not have been one, because the changing nature of the international order and the perceived role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of empire did not allow for one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is easy to find fault with a book that to its credit aims so high and does more \(and less\) than subject the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('official mind' to close scrutiny. Yet the achievements of the book are also easy to identify. It covers many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas of the British Empire from India, and South East Asia, to the Middle East and Africa, and touches on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Guiana and the West Indian Federation. There is material on economics, with the role of the sterling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(area featuring strongly. European issues are referred to, in discussions of Plan G and the consideration of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two-tier Commonwealth along with the admission of European members. Multi-racialism and the important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration of Africa in the coming decade of the 1960s are also incorporated into the considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coverage of the Macmillan years. The author appears not to have had the opportunity to consult the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Documents on the End of Empire)] TJ ET BT 229.340 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on the Macmillan and Home governments, which in some ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes the archival work even more impressive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is some perceptive analysis of why the formal empire was abandoned. The idea of having to find a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle way, between the Algeria of multi-racial disaster and war on the one hand, and the Congo crisis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secession and chaos on the other, is a useful way of describing the dilemma facing the British government. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And it indicates how international considerations figured strongly in the final years of African empire. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument that it was the difficulty of transferring power, more than the desire to keep control that accounted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for delay in the retreat is convincing. It might have been desirable to devote more space to the big question )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7326 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of why the South Asian non-self-governing territories achieved independence at the time they did, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African colonies and the informal empire were seen as vital to Britain?s future. For example, the argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that when nationalist pressures threatened stability \(as they did in India and Burma\) power was transferred, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and when they did not power was transferred to pre-empt it \(as in Ceylon\) does not explain reactions to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enosis, Mau Mau or the war in the Aden protectorates. The author refers to the importance of Britain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international standing and emphasises the impact of the changed international situation and the problems in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual territories as factors that made continuation of colonial rule difficult. Yet it is the connection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between them and their combined impact that needs emphasis in determining the nature and timing of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transfer of power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless some of the analysis of the motives at work in the abandonment of formal empire is convincing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and informative. The idea presented in the book ? that it was not so much a question of finding reasons for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaving, as of finding a reason for staying that provides the main explanation of British policy ? is important. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It also explains the difficulty historians have had in finding a cause for the abandonment of formal empire, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposed to seeking to describe policies aimed continually at minimising the relative difficulties in retaining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or jettisoning it. The idea that the Foreign Office was primarily interested after 1956 in Britain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international standing, as opposed to the Colonial Office?s emphasis on the needs of individual colonies, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well brought out, as is the prevention of Soviet penetration, although it was often more the case of needing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to prevent the conditions that were perceived as conducive to the facilitation of Communism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However in the discussion of informal empire some of the key questions are answered less convincingly. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British policymakers, it is argued, believed they had to maintain a world role in which overseas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitments involving the deployment of British forces were an important element. The rationales for this, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given by Heinlein, were to maintain prestige and standing, to contribute to the containment of communism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to secure a privileged position in relation to the US, to protect British assets and to preserve the stability of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pound. The first of these stands out from the documents at all times, but the other four, if not grotesque )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justifications for the lack of substance in the first, are at least questionable. Moreover, without entering into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such debates, the intangible elements cannot be used to support the conclusion that if maintaining the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitments informal empire involved was counter-productive, policymakers could not be expected to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realise this at the time. This old argument, justifying the sensible management of the retreat from empire and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international decline, is difficult to reconcile with the importance given to the pursuit of prestige. Even if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prestige was pursued in order to bring concrete advantages in line with the other four goals, rather than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other goals being used as a justification for the pursuit of prestige, the first consideration of the policymakers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should have been the relative advantages and disadvantages of the policies. To argue that for 18 years the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternatives could not have been conceived of, when the disadvantages of maintaining commitments were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often noted, is rather extraordinary. The files are full of occasions when prestige was given as the essential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reason for not cutting costs or reducing overseas commitments, because the costs of losing prestige were said )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be greater. Interestingly in the case of oil, the claim that policy makers wanted to invade Egypt, not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protect prestige, but to protect the Canal and prevent Nasser cutting off the supply of oil, when this was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precisely what would guarantee the stopping of the oil \(as indeed happened\), is a good example of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between oil, economic advantage and prestige. Prestige was indeed connected to material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests, but arguably in ways radically different to those suggested in this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another problem underlying the book?s treatment of prestige and its importance compared to the alleged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tangible goals of informal empire, is the way the book dismisses the idea that interests \(in the form of areas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of strategic importance\) were considered more important than politics and prestige, rather than as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subordinate to them. Furthermore, the claim that in informal empire concessions could be made if loss of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(face was prevented, as in Egypt and Iran, rather misses the point. The continued existence of informal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire required that concessions could not be made without losing face: hence the efforts \(one successful, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one not\) to overthrow the regimes in Iran and Egypt, which had strong anti-British movements that required )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain to lose face to become more successful.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite these criticisms this is an important book which adds to and should lead to the further development )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 2003 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of interpretations of the end of empire, based firmly on the type of distinctive approach made here. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a contribution that stands out from many recent works and is a necessary read for both students and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established scholars.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.059 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 702.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For full details of the )] TJ ET BT 168.344 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Documents on the End of Empire)] TJ ET BT 363.668 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( project and its publications, see )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.sas.ac.uk/commonwealthstudies/research/bdeep.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 686.787 m 375.980 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 378.980 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 392.972 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 398.972 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 398.972 686.787 m 452.960 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 661.925 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 642.943 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 625.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 625.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/319)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 623.769 m 322.316 623.769 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 598.792 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.392 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1565)] TJ ET BT 34.016 569.992 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.sas.ac.uk/commonwealthstudies/research/bdeep.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 555.592 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 687.1015 375.9797 698.9815 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.sas.ac.uk/commonwealthstudies/research/bdeep.html) >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 398.9717 687.1015 452.9597 698.9815 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 624.0835 322.3157 635.9635 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/319) >> endobj xref 0 31 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000596 00000 n 0000000685 00000 n 0000005126 00000 n 0000005235 00000 n 0000005345 00000 n 0000005454 00000 n 0000009015 00000 n 0000009143 00000 n 0000009227 00000 n 0000009256 00000 n 0000009384 00000 n 0000009420 00000 n 0000009485 00000 n 0000015623 00000 n 0000015688 00000 n 0000023059 00000 n 0000023124 00000 n 0000030503 00000 n 0000030601 00000 n 0000032657 00000 n 0000032784 00000 n 0000032896 00000 n 0000033024 00000 n 0000033079 00000 n 0000033207 00000 n trailer << /Size 31 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33302 %%EOF