%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 34 0 R 39 0 R 65 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818131024+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818131024+01'00') /Title (Microhistories: Demography, Society and Culture in Rural England, 1800-1930) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4130 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Microhistories: Demography, Society and Culture in Rural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(England, 1800-1930)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Local history is beginning to emerge from the shadows in which it has lain for too long. Tainted for decades )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by its association with antiquarianism, its struggle for academic respectability has been a long one. Of course )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there have been academic practitioners, notably those associated with the Department of English Local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History at the University of Leicester; nevertheless, the general impression was that these were few in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number and ploughing a lonely furrow, the rewards for which \(in terms of academic esteem\) were rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insubstantial.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is changing, at least with respect to the social history of nineteenth century rural England. It is changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for a number of reasons. First, there is a growing recognition that many of the generalisations about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian countryside which form the received wisdom on the topic are inadequate as descriptions of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life as experienced by the people of the time. For example, the "three great estates" model of rural society, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the agricultural population is divided into landowners, farmers \(usually tenant farmers\) and landless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labourers has come under attack for its neglect of small family farmers, who were quite numerous even in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parts of the south-east.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.664 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.664 53.217 m 156.656 53.217 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 156.656 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Similarly, it is now becoming clear that farm service as a means of ensuring an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(32)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 April, 1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barry Reay)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521570282)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521570282)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Hinde)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.6637 53.5315 156.6557 65.4115 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7924 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adequate supply of agricultural labour had not died out throughout southeast England by 1851, as some have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggested, but lived on in a variety of forms in several localities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second, much extant rural history fails to engage with the day- to-day lives and perceptions of the working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classes. The labourers are seen through the eyes of farmers; the "condition of the labourer" is discussed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much the same style as would be the condition of a used car. The family economics of poor households are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oversimplified, being analysed in terms of adult male wages and household expenditure budgets, to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglect of the income generated by the work of women and children and of the enormously complex and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devious stratagems to which poor families resorted in an effort to make ends meet.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is not that the materials are not available with which to carry out studies of country lives as they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lived. Poor Law records, court records, and oral histories \(for example\) are all there to be used. But, and here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the crux, working with these sources to the depth that is required in order to write convincing history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this kind is almost impossible unless the historian is prepared to write local history. Thus local history is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerging not only because it is good in itself, but because it is necessary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Developments in historical demography have, in some respects, run parallel to those in social history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historical demographers have mainly been drawn from the social scientific community and have gone about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their business using the method of social science, and burdened with the social scientists' predilection for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generalisation, and distaste for the unique. Time and again in the historical demographic literature the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internal homogeneity of England has been stressed, and regional and local variations minimised. Temporal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterns, too, have been simplified almost to the point of caricature. The decline in fertility within marriage, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for example, is described as if it appeared "out of a clear sky in 1880 or 1890", affecting all sections of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society within a very short space of time.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 231.320 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 231.320 473.955 m 245.312 473.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 245.312 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Prior to this, fertility within marriage had, we are told, been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constant for centuries.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 140.324 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 140.324 459.699 m 154.316 459.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 154.316 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Like good social scientists, the historical demographers have stressed analytical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rigour, and the need for empirical work to be replicable and for studies to be comparable. This explains the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popularity of family reconstitution, a technique originally devised by the French demographer Louis Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a means of obtaining "pure" estimates of biological fertility. Family reconstitution involves using )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genealogical information derived from ecclesiastical registers to construct potted biographies of a subset of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those resident in small historical populations. These biographies are then analysed, using a complex set of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rules, to produce detailed demographic statistics relating to fertility, nuptiality and \(infant and child\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mortality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Family reconstitution is good at providing the bare bones of population history. But because it necessarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separates the lives of its subjects from their social and economic context it cannot help supply explanations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for demographic behaviour. Yet despite the fact that the basic patterns in English population history which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family reconstitution reveals were known 14 years ago, demographers have been reluctant to venture outside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its rather limited and limiting confines to examine the historical context of demographic change.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 496.628 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 496.628 276.627 m 510.620 276.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, this task has been taken up, to the extent that it has, by historians. David Levine has been doing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellent work in this vein for decades, and he and a small group of colleagues have recently taken the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographers quite sternly to task for their lack of attention to historical contingency.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 446.960 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 446.960 221.859 m 460.952 221.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 460.952 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Even at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, where a degree of fundamentalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about family reconstitution has at times been expressed, the need to examine local contexts is being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognised.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 89.000 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 89.000 179.091 m 102.992 179.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This introduction has been rather long, but it provides the necessary historiographical context within which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the scope of Barry Reay's ambitious book can be appreciated. For in )] TJ ET BT 364.448 139.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Microhistories)] TJ ET BT 435.116 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Reay attempts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate how the detailed study of the lives of the inhabitants of a local area, using a wide variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quantitative and qualitative sources, can shed light on aspects of the social and demographic history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century rural England which have hitherto remained obscure. Reay's )] TJ ET BT 418.424 97.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Microhistories )] TJ ET BT 492.092 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are histories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from below; they are histories of the workers viewed through the eyes of the workers, and often told by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers themselves \(there is a lot of oral history evidence here\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 231.3197 474.2695 245.3117 486.1495 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 140.3237 460.0135 154.3157 471.8935 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 496.6277 276.9415 510.6197 288.8215 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 446.9597 222.1735 460.9517 234.0535 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 88.9997 179.4055 102.9917 191.2855 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 7385 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After an introductory chapter describing the local area Reay has chosen to study, the Blean area of northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kent near Faversham, the rest of the book is organised into thematic chapters. Two of the themes are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographic: fertility decline and health; four are social and cultural: the social economy, class, family life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and kinship, and literacy; and one, sexuality, combines elements of both.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The order in which these topics are considered is, I think, significant. Reay begins with an analysis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fertility within marriage which is almost exclusively based on conventional family reconstitution \(although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reay does use individual-level census data to add a bit more contextual information\). The burden of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument is that there were small but significant variations in marital fertility prior to the fertility decline of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1880s. He suggests that the New Poor Law of 1834 might have influenced fertility behaviour, but this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggestion is little more than speculation. It is bound to be speculation, because Reay has, in this chapter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only allowed himself to use the kind of evidence used by the demographers, which reveals precious little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the motivations underlying demographic behaviour. Indeed this chapter of Reay's book is an excellent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstration of the limitations of the conventional demographic analysis of population change in the past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next chapter, entitled "health" \(note, not "mortality"\) begins with a family reconstitution based analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of infant mortality. Reay shows that the Blean was, for rural England at least, rather unhealthy in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century, and becoming more so as the century progressed. But it is when other sources are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought to bear on the topic, notably the Reports of the Medical Officer of Health \(known to medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians as the MH12s\) and also school log books indicating the extent of absence through ill health, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sheer extent of morbidity which is hidden behind the mortality statistics becomes clear. Historians have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often supposed \(using mortality statistics\) that the children of the rural labourers, though desperately poor, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least had the benefit of good health. Because he has gone beyond the mortality statistics, Reay is able to cast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubt on this supposition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, it is in the second part of the book, when he turns his attention to class and the social economy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the slaying of dragons really begins. Reay's first target is the "adult male wage". This is not a straw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dragon. The received wisdom concerning regional variations in rural poverty is still based largely on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variations in adult male wages. For example, mid-nineteenth century rural Dorset has become a byword for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poverty largely on the strength of the very low adult male cash wages that were paid. Dorset farmers of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time were much aggrieved by this, arguing that the complex system of payments in kind operating alongside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the cash wages in the county meant that the Dorset labourer was not worse off than those in other countries. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By using the well known Kent Oral History archive created by Michael Winstanley together with his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oral history evidence from the Blean, Reay is able effectively to show that adult male wages were only a part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(often quite a small part\) of the family economies of the poor. Not only were the contributions of women and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children crucial to enable families to make ends meet, but also because adult male wages were not always to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be relied upon, families were compelled to resort to a complex array of survival strategies in order to muddle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through. These included the use of credit, petty theft, and "playing the poor relief system".)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The "autonomous nuclear family" provides another target. Reay is concerned to show that families in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blean relied substantially \(though not, of course, exclusively\) on assistance from their kin to help them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through periods of social or economic difficulty. Contrary to the picture painted in much recent literature on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kinship in historical England, kinship ties in the Blean were "dense". For most families, kin were all around, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and provided an important complement to publicly available welfare services. Therefore although families )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were nuclear, they were far from autonomous.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both the adult male wage and the autonomous nuclear family have been adopted by historians at least in part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because they are easily identifiable from quantitative data. For the same reason, as Reay points out, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("illegitimacy is a category much favoured by historians".)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 307.772 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 307.772 110.067 m 321.764 110.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 321.764 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Yet, as he shows in his chapter on "sexuality", )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians' views of the social context of illegitimacy are at odds with what he observes in the Blean. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem lies, again, with the limited range of sources which most historians of illegitimacy have employed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Relying heavily on parish registers, they have observed that only a small minority of births were illegitimate. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This has led them to characterise illegitimacy as "deviant" behaviour, and to develop the notion of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 307.7717 110.3815 321.7637 122.2615 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R 45 0 R 48 0 R 51 0 R 54 0 R 57 0 R 60 0 R 63 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 8619 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("bastardy prone sub-society" \(Reay's next dragon\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In what for me is the most impressive chapter of the book, Reay shows that, far from being deviant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour, "illegitimacy should be seen as part of the normal sexual culture".)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 404.084 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 404.084 754.563 m 418.076 754.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 418.076 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He uses detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genealogies to reveal the absence of any obvious bastardy-prone sub-society. But the coup de grace is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administered by his remarkable use of the examinations of unmarried mothers in the Petty Sessions records. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These permit Reay to portray the sexual lives of the villagers of the Blean with a depth and immediacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unmatched, so far as I am aware, in any other writing on rural England. Indeed, there are echoes here of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emile Zola's famous naturalist description of life in the French village of Romilly.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 429.152 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 429.152 683.283 m 443.144 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The remaining two chapters of the book deal with the gradual increase of literacy in the Blean during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century, and with the inhabitants' perceived notions of the concept of class. There is rather more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comfort for the traditional historiography here. For example, although Reay stresses the difficulty of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measuring literacy accurately, he concludes that the historians' traditional measure - the ability of a person to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sign his or her name - remains valuable. Indeed he uses it, along with oral history evidence, to chart the slow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and haphazard development of literacy among the working people of the Blean during the nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, a development which was slow in large part because literacy was not seen by the poorer people as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly important or necessary skill. Nevertheless, Reay is even here concerned to get away from too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simplistic a division of society into literate and illiterate on the basis of a single, rather crude, measure.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The one traditional concept to emerge almost unscathed from Reay's penetrating criticism is the notion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landless labourers as a distinct social entity. Although class images, as revealed by oral history evidence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were diverse, "[t]here was a coherent social-occupational group, self-replicating, largely endogamous and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by and large, landless", and this class cannot be qualified out of existence.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 389.852 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 389.852 473.955 m 409.844 473.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a final, brief, chapter Reay makes some general points about the role of microhistory within the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research project. This chapter deserves close scrutiny despite \(rather disconcertingly for any would-be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewer\) reading rather like a review of his own book! It is clear that Reay believes that "the local is central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the nature of the historical process".)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 219.212 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 219.212 404.931 m 239.204 404.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 239.204 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Thus he does not want the book to be seen as a "case study", with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all the questions about representativeness that that might imply. Neither is he arguing for a broader empirical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project through which a general picture emerges from a series of detailed case studies, of which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Microhistories )] TJ ET BT 107.684 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could form a prototype. Nor does he claim to be writing a "total history" of the kind once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advocated by Alan Macfarlane.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 184.628 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 184.628 347.907 m 204.620 347.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 204.620 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As he himself writes \(helpfully for the reviewer\): "[t]he message of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is that it is impossible to understand society and culture without examining local contexts".)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 497.900 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 497.900 333.651 m 517.892 333.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 517.892 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then, is the agenda on which Reay wishes to be judged. And, judged on this agenda, the book is surely a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resounding success. The range of methods and the variety of sources which Reay has used have allowed him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to display a remarkable understanding of what it was like to be a poor inhabitant of this area of Kent in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have just two criticisms. The first concerns social change. Reay sees the local area as "the site for exploring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant social change". Yet in places in the book the unfolding of the historical process gets lost. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happens most clearly in the chapter on the "social economy".)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 327.092 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 327.092 221.859 m 347.084 221.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 347.084 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Here Reay intersperses oral history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence, mainly from the very end of the nineteenth century or the early twentieth century, with other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(mainly written\) evidence relating to much earlier periods. He produces a wonderful vignette in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(messiness and uncertainty of the material existence of the Blean's poor are impressively portrayed, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cost of this is an obscuring of trends over time. Things were hard; "muddling through" was the order of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(day; but were things in general getting better or worse? Reay gives us little indication. Yet one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions of Alan Armstrong's recent study of agricultural labourers in the nineteenth century is that their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(living standards were rising throughout the second half of the century.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 370.964 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 370.964 122.067 m 390.956 122.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 390.956 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Reay does not give Armstrong's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book a good press, yet it seems to me that Armstrong conveys a clearer picture of what I believe to be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("significant social change" than Reay manages to do.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second, nowhere in Microhistories is the impact of population mobility on any of the aspects of social life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reay analyses the subject of any serious discussion. Indeed, neither "migration" nor "mobility" appear in the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 404.0837 754.8775 418.0757 766.7575 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 429.1517 683.5975 443.1437 695.4775 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 389.8517 474.2695 409.8437 486.1495 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 219.2117 405.2455 239.2037 417.1255 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 53 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 184.6277 348.2215 204.6197 360.1015 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 56 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 497.8997 333.9655 517.8917 345.8455 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 59 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 327.0917 222.1735 347.0837 234.0535 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 62 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 370.9637 122.3815 390.9557 134.2615 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R 81 0 R 83 0 R 85 0 R 87 0 R 89 0 R 91 0 R 93 0 R 95 0 R 97 0 R ] /Contents 66 0 R >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Length 7795 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(index! It is one of the most significant weaknesses of family reconstitution that only the non-mobile people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are analysed. Reay does an admirable job of putting family reconstitution's skeletal biographies into their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social and economic context, but the mobile majority \(and they were a majority, even among the poor\) are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still largely missing. This omission is especially noteworthy because the availability of individual-level )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(census data after 1841 makes it possible to incorporate many of these migrants into a family reconstitution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(style analysis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, I do not wish to end this review on a note of criticism. )] TJ ET BT 346.640 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Microhistories)] TJ ET BT 417.308 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievement; it deserves respect; and it should be required reading for historical demographers and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians. It lives up to its billing on the dust jacket as "a central contribution to the `new rural history'". I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greatly enjoyed reading it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.267 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 590.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example Reed, M., "The peasantry of nineteenth- century England: a neglected class", History )] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Workshop 18 \(1984\), pp. 53-76.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 218.996 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 218.996 574.995 m 272.984 574.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 562.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reay, B., Microhistories: Demography, Society and Culture in Rural England 1800-1939, Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press, 1996, p.67.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 259.340 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 259.340 546.483 m 313.328 546.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 533.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilson, C. and Woods, R., "Fertility in England: a long-term perspective", Population Studies 45 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1991\), pp.399-410.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 160.004 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 160.004 517.971 m 213.992 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 505.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the basic results of English family reconstitution, see Wrigley, E.A. and Schofield, R.S., "English )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population history from family reconstitution: summary results 1600-1799", Population Studies 37 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1983\), pp.157-184.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 160.004 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 160.004 475.203 m 213.992 475.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 462.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See the contributions to Gillis, J., Tilly, L.A., and Levine, D. \(eds\) The European Experience of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Declining Fertility: A Quiet Revolution, 1850-1970, Oxford, Blackwell, 1992.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 440.336 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 440.336 446.691 m 494.324 446.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 433.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example Garrett, E. and Reid, A. Thinking of England and taking care: family building )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategies and infant mortality in England and Wales, 1891- 1911, International Journal of Population )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geography, 1 \(1995\), pp.69-102.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 222.320 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 222.320 403.923 m 276.308 403.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 391.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reay, op.cit., p.184.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 160.676 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 160.676 389.667 m 214.664 389.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 376.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid., p.212.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 122.348 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 122.348 375.411 m 176.336 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zola, E., La Terre, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1980.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 312.308 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 312.308 361.155 m 366.296 361.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 348.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reay, op.cit., p.155.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 160.676 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 160.676 346.899 m 220.664 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid., p.262.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 122.348 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 122.348 332.643 m 182.336 332.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 319.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Macfarlane, A., Harrison, S. and Jardine, C., Reconstituting Historical Communities, Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press, 1977.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 232.340 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 232.340 304.131 m 292.328 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 291.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reay, op.cit., p.262.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 160.676 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 160.676 289.875 m 220.664 289.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 277.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, p.260.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 119.348 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 119.348 275.619 m 179.336 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 262.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Armstrong, A., Farmworkers: a Social and Economic History 1770-1980, London, Batsford 1988.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back 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