%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R 26 0 R 34 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722134645+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722134645+01'00') /Title (The Political Thought of Joseph Stalin: a Study in Twentieth-Century Revolutionary Patriotism) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4001 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Political Thought of Joseph Stalin: a Study in Twentieth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Century Revolutionary Patriotism)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I suppose a slight confession is in order before I begin. This is a book that I had hoped to write, but for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variety of reasons it never transpired. To me, it seemed to be a glaring omission in the literature on Stalin. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bookshops were awash with biographies of Stalin. Appraisals of the Stalinist system were as numerous as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medals on Brezhnev's chest. Yet why nothing on the thought of one of the most prominent figures in recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history? Surely an assessment of Stalin's place in the pantheon of twentieth-century Marxist-Leninist thought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a worthy topic for academic consideration, even if I had trouble persuading friends and family of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merits? The usual response of colleagues when informed of the project to write on Stalin's thought was, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('well, that should be a short book .'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thankfully Erik van Ree )] TJ ET BT 155.996 140.147 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(has)] TJ ET BT 173.336 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( written the book, and an excellent one it is too: erudite, meticulously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researched and full of interesting detail. It provides fascinating insights on some of the puzzles surrounding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalin, and gives us fresh perspectives on Stalin the person, Stalin the leader and the system over which he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presided. That is not to say that there are not lots of disputable issues in here \(that is one of its delights\). But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it adds a great deal to our overall understanding of the man and the era. Get hold of a copy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Now, I obviously need no persuading of the relevance of the work. But for the doubters out there, how does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 May, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Erik van Ree)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(700717498X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(375pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Sandle)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7701 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(van Ree seek to persuade of its merits? In his introduction he addresses this issue, although I think a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the deeper historiographical context of studies of Stalin would have been useful. He argues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correctly in my view, that western scholars have approached this question from the mistaken angle that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalin was interested in power and power alone. Doctrine was secondary, derivative, irrelevant. Van Ree )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insists that Stalin did not simply adjust his ideas in an ad hoc, arbitrary fashion to fit the changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances in which he found himself. On the contrary, van Ree's argument is founded on the notion that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalin often stuck to his basic ideas and concepts even when all the evidence suggested he should abandon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What van Ree does not discuss in his very illuminating introductory chapter is )] TJ ET BT 412.988 670.421 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(why)] TJ ET BT 434.324 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( this assumption of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western scholars - that Stalin was all about naked power and had no interest in ideas per se - has proved so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enduring and so difficult to dislodge. What is/was it about the Western Sovietological community, scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Marxism, biographers of Stalin, and others that just accepted this unquestioningly? Have we all been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victims of Trotskii's damning verdicts on Stalin? Or does it say more about the western intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community itself? Was it more comforting for us to think that a dictatorial, brutal, mass murderer could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibly be an intellectual, be interested in philosophy or doctrine or conceptual questions? Or that his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crimes were derived from something primeval, uncivilised, barbaric, something Eastern/Russian/Georgian, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surely something unthinkable for a 'westernised', 'civilised' man of ideas?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is all about filiations and fidelities. Who is the rightful parent of Stalin's ideas? Was Stalin a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faithful disciple of Marx, Engels and Lenin, or a perverter of the Holy Canon? The thrust of Van Ree's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach is to examine the factors that shaped the development of Stalin's political thought. He sets out to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explore whether Stalin was influenced more by the western \(mainly though not wholly, German\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary traditions embodied in the ideas of Marx, Engels )] TJ ET BT 338.648 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al)] TJ ET BT 359.648 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, or by the native Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophical/doctrinal/political traditions of statism, bureaucratic centralism and mobilisation of society for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime-defined goals. He sets this story within the wider context of the continuity/discontinuity thesis: how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far was the regime which emerged out of 1917 an outgrowth of the pre-1917 Russian traditions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices, or was it instead a new order? Van Ree on the whole rejects the continuity thesis, arguing instead )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Stalinism was a part of modernity, in contradistinction to the )] TJ ET BT 349.340 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien regime)] TJ ET BT 417.656 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( pre-modernity of tsarism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Concomitantly, Stalin's thought was not part of a continuity with earlier patterns of Russian thought, but was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(derived from the western revolutionary tradition. This review \(thankfully!\) is not going to explore these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(murky waters, except to make one general point. The distinction - modern equals Stalin, pre-modern equals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tsarism - drawn here by van Ree is too rigid and something of a caricature, especially of late Tsarism. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tsarist state was acquiring many of the characteristics normally associated with 'modern' states: increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centralised and bureaucratised, characterised by state economic interventionism, industrialising, and with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high proportion of resources devoted to defence prior to 1914. The dichotomy of modernity \(Stalinism\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pre-modernity \(Tsarism\) is too stark.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Turning to the specific doctrinal sphere, the 'standard' story of the development of Marxist thought in Russia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outlines that as the imported ideas from Europe were grafted onto the native Russian revolutionary plant, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(graft gradually took on the characteristics of the native plant, until it was almost unrecognisable. First Lenin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduced ideas \(the vanguard party, the revolution in a non-western industrialised power\) that deviated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the classical canon of Marxism. Stalin then took this further \(socialism in one country, Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism, excessive centralism\) until nothing was left of the 'original' Marxism, having been displaced by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elements of the native Russian tradition. But van Ree \(contentiously perhaps, but persuasively in my view\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that 'there is no fundamental doctrine in the work of Lenin and Stalin that cannot be found in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western European revolutionary tradition - Jacobin, Marxist or otherwise.' \(p. 14\) He is not saying that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalinism is the only outcome, or indeed an inevitable outcome, but was one possible outcome of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western European revolutionary tradition. The standard story, for the author, rests on a far too narrow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading of the Western tradition, in particular the Marxist view of the state and the Marxist view of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation and its historic role. As a result, Stalin and Stalinist doctrine have been placed firmly in the Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition because there was nowhere else to put them once they are denied the status of children of Marxism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Interestingly van Ree describes how his own belief that Stalinism was a direct product of the Russian )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6517 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition was seriously undermined when he visited Stalin's private library. There he found the works to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost exclusively those of Marx, Engels and Lenin, all with hand-written notes in the margin. Stalin's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mental world, right up to his death, was wholly Marxist. This is not to say that the Russian tradition had no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence, but that this had always to be fitted in around his Marxist framework.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What then is Van Ree's argument? His belief is that Stalin's thought evolved into a 'strange compound of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marxism and nationalism'. \(p. 17\) He terms this 'revolutionary patriotism', whereby the interests of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation are best served by revolutionary change. It was not a conservative nationalism though, but rather a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary nationalism, derived in part from Marxism and in part from European Jacobin traditions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalin's Marxism was derived mainly from Marx, Engels and Lenin. They were the only people, according to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(van Ree, that Stalin ever acknowledged as intellectual influences upon him. Even here though, Stalin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assigned a higher status to Marx and Lenin than to Engels, whom he argued had misinterpreted Marx.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 522.608 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 522.608 640.515 m 536.600 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 536.600 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(van Ree also uncovered in Stalin's work reflections of other Marxist figures: the Georgians \(Zhordaniia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Makharadze and Shaumian\); Austro-Marxists \(Bauer and Renner\); and Russians \(Bogdanov, Plekhanov, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Preobrazhenskii, Bukharin and Trotskii\). I think there is also a wider point here that perhaps needs greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis in van Ree's argument. The lines of filiation are drawn from Marx/ Engels/ Lenin to Stalin. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there needs to be a sustained discussion of the nature of Bolshevism as a set of political doctrines and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices. Leninism was just one strand of Bolshevism, and Stalin's thought needs to be seen within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of the diverse Bolshevik mental universe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalin's nationalism emerged during his years in power. The patriotic, nationalistic elements in Stalin's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought were gradually absorbed into his thinking, co-existing uneasily with his Marxist ideals. It was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences of the USSR during the Great Patriotic War that convinced him of the potential that lay within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the patriotic motif. In the post-war years Stalin held up the nation and its national community as the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source of hope for defeating the bourgeoisie. Socialism allied with patriotism was the best way to defend the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests of the nation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is structured thematically. The first six chapters of the book explore the intellectual forebears of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalin's ideas, explicitly selecting from the outset those streams that, directly or indirectly, flowed into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(river that became Stalin's political thought: namely,)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacobinism \(as an early example of revolutionary patriotism, combining centralisation, government by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terror, patriotism\);)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The state in the thought of Marx and Lenin \(centralised, minority rule, bureaucratic\);)] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The notion of a proletarian revolution in a backward country \(this was a central part of Marx's ideas, not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leninist ingrafting\);)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marxist nationalism \(Marxism actually contained a strong nationalist element, and so Stalin's emphasis on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the power and utility of nationalism for a revolutionary movement was entirely consonant with Marxism, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a perversion of it\);)] TJ ET BT 34.016 201.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalin's intellectual development before October and under Lenin \(in particular his views on the national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are many interesting insights here. For example, on the issue of nationalism within Marxism, van Ree )] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that this had two strands. Firstly, Marx and Engels appeared to see the proletariat as a force for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 132.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('patriotic regeneration'. Secondly, they did not value all nations equally. A dividing line could be drawn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between those nations representing progress, civilisation, modernity and those representing barbarism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 103.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reaction and darkness. The former nations were to be supported, as they pointed history towards its final goal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of internationalism. If the latter type of nation was to triumph, then the march of history would be held back.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This accounts for Stalin's view that Russian culture was superior to the other national cultures in the Tsarist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire and that assimilation of non-Russian cultures into Russia would be a progressive step on their path to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 522.6077 640.8295 536.5997 652.7095 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7616 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernity, civilisation and eventually socialism and communism. Stalin's own views on the nation evolved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from hostility to the whole concept in 1904, through a partial culturalist approach to nations in his 1913 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pamphlet to his support for central authority and local autonomy by 1923. This is a key point for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding not only Stalin's views, but also for our understanding of the evolution of the nationalities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy of the Soviet state. In van Ree's view, Stalin's 'Red Patriotism' as People's Commissar for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nationalities - his advocacy of central authority and Russian predominance - was not really news. This was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fully in line with his pre-revolutionary writings. But, for van Ree, 'the new thing was that )] TJ ET BT 465.140 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(despite this)] TJ ET BT 519.476 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agreed to federalism and cultural autonomy for the non-Russian nations.' \(p. 82; emphasis in the original\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The main section of the book explores the key themes in Stalin's thought, including: the state; the economy; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class struggle; socialism in one country; the cult of personality; society, culture and science; world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution. It concludes with two chapters that explore the content and philosophy of his concept of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary patriotism. A broad-ranging conclusion draws together the strands, and poses some difficult )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions. There is a very full bibliography, which is invaluable for the researcher working on Stalin. So )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what are the main strengths and weaknesses?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The strength of the opening section is the very clear way in which van Ree sets out the lines running from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marxism and Jacobinism, to the ideas of Stalin via Lenin. Yet I also think that, paradoxically, this may be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weakness of the text, on two counts. Firstly, while there is a conceptual neatness in being able to identify the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(straight lines running from Jacobinism through Marx and Lenin, in life things are rarely that neat. A greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(awareness of the ambiguities and tensions in the writings of all these figures might point us to why \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how\) these particular interpretations gained hegemony at that time in that place. Secondly, by focusing upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the debate about whether Stalin's thought derives from Marxist or Russian traditions, there is not enough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention paid to the nature and development of Stalin's thought )] TJ ET BT 341.492 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(on its own terms)] TJ ET BT 420.500 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The particular qualities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalin's ideas, the different modes of expression he deployed, the rhetorical devices, the use of polemic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the influence of context, audience, language and so on in the development and expression of his ideas do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(get the attention they warrant. Two points flow from this.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first relates to the modes of expression or the language used by Stalin and the effect this may have had. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, is there sufficient attention paid to the intellectual development of the young Koba, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular the type of education and revolutionary training he underwent? How might his seminarian training )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have influenced the manner in which he approached the texts of Marx, Engels and Lenin as well as the way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which his ideas were expressed and his arguments formulated? The catechismical style - so evident in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kratkii kurs)] TJ ET BT 89.012 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( - was surely evidence of the modes of thinking inculcated in Orthodox seminaries.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 487.616 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 487.616 331.395 m 501.608 331.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 501.608 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( How )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might Stalin's style have aided him in his schemes to seize power, win support and destroy the arguments of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his opponents? This in turn raises questions about how this may have influenced those who have read and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpreted Stalin's works. Did this style of expression lead theorists to the conclusion that Stalin's writings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were dogmatic, simplistic and thus unworthy of serious academic analysis, unlike the works of Trotskii, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lenin or Bukharin? Did the way Stalin expressed his ideas prevent scholars from looking beyond the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surface?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second point relates to the questions of purpose and context. A focus on the ideological parentage of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalin's ideas can take the eye away from the immediate context. Stalin, like most Bolsheviks, was no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detached philosopher. He was a revolutionary. His doctrine was always to have a practical application, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if this was only the destruction of the ideas of a rival or their faction. A full account of the development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalin's thought needs a detailed awareness of the purpose to which Stalin's ideas were aimed, the context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within which it occurred and the audience to which it was directed. Appraising Stalin's political thought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would then also need to include the extent to which as a piece of polemic, say, it was effective or persuasive. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Or how the 'rules' of polemical engagement may have significantly affected the way that Stalin expressed his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas, simplifying, exaggerating, caricaturing, embellishing and so on? This shifts the focus away from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marxist/Russian nexus, and gives us a broader perspective on Stalin's thought, its strengths, patterns and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter on 'Socialism in One Country' is a good illustration of the points made above. Van Ree produces )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 487.6157 331.7095 501.6077 343.5895 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 6978 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a fine sustained analysis of Stalin's thoughts on this issue, and takes the trouble to pursue this beyond the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1920s, a point usually ignored by others. However, the context within which this debate took place - the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factional struggle for control of the party - was largely absent. The debate was set largely in the context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other strand of this debate, about how best to build socialism in Soviet Russia. But the two aspects are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indissolubly linked. The factional struggles meant that much of the discussion was carried out polemically, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and this context is absolutely crucial.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, the use of doctrine by Stalin to win power for himself, to construct his cult of personality and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project an image of himself as a faithful disciple also perhaps needs further discussion. This is touched upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the chapter on the cult of personality, but more needs to be said about the 'Foundations of Leninism' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pamphlet \(how far was Stalin actually responsible for these lectures?\). How did Stalin come to the decision )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as to what to include in his )] TJ ET BT 165.680 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sochineniia)] TJ ET BT 222.344 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? What does this tell us about Stalin's own perception of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to Soviet Marxism-Leninism?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One final point to be made is that at times there is a lack of detail. An example of this comes in the chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Stalin's economic thought. Tracing the developments in Stalin's thinking across the 1920s and up to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pamphlet )] TJ ET BT 81.680 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Economic Problems of Socialism in the USSR)] TJ ET BT 322.664 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(on which incidentally Van Ree provides a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly illuminating commentary\) the author identifies the main points of continuity with the works of Marx )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Lenin. But a more specific analysis of key moments would have been useful. The best example of this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the decision to collectivise. The background to Stalin's adoption of the idea of involuntary collectivisation is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(related. But the thinking behind why it was carried out in that particular way, at that particular time is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frustratingly absent. Why did Stalin take the decision suddenly and without warning at the end of 1929? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Why did he choose to do it rapidly, coercively? Why was it undertaken via a war against the kulaks? Where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the doctrinal basis, if any, for the specifics of this decision? The details here are crucial. Stalin inherited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the broad prescription about how socialists should socialise the rural sector. But by carrying it out, Stalin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resolved many of the ambiguities in Bolshevik thinking and also provided a model for further socialist states )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as an understanding of what collectivisation actually meant. It fell to Stalin to convert the general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prescriptions of Bolshevism into a tangible plan for how to get Soviet Russia from where it was to socialism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In so doing he specified both the theory and practice of socialism in Marxist-Leninist discourse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But aside from this, the book provides some wonderful insights and bravely tackles some contentious issues. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In particular, van Ree notes that Stalin took his publicly avowed doctrines seriously. This is a highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant argument. Stalin's world-view of struggle, resistance and opposition was not some elaborate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deceit. He also argues that Stalin was no autocrat: that the USSR remained a party dictatorship. In his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion, van Ree argues that Stalinism was a synthesis of Marxism and Jacobinism, and that it stood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centrally within the tradition of the Western European Enlightenment. It was a wild, extreme version of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspiration to construct a rational, just social order, but it was part of that tradition nevertheless. The lesson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that van Ree draws from this is a potentially highly uncomfortable one: 'Stalinism is about our own origins'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 286\) It is a lesson we all need to heed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 226.611 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 195.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a little ironic, given that Engels played a central role in codifying Marxism, and in developing )] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a particular interpretation of Marx, which was fundamentally the one adopted by the Russian Marxists.)] TJ ET BT 48.816 167.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This topic is mentioned, but it needs further elaboration. See p. 167.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 390.320 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 390.320 166.083 m 444.308 166.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 64.016 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review. For reasons of time only he is unable to comment further.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 125.571 m 118.004 125.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 88.709 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 74.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 69.727 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 51.947 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 51.947 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/320)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 50.553 m 322.316 50.553 l S endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 390.3197 166.3975 444.3077 178.2775 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 125.8855 118.0037 137.7655 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 50.8675 322.3157 62.7475 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/320) >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 306 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1567)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 36 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000610 00000 n 0000000692 00000 n 0000004745 00000 n 0000004854 00000 n 0000004964 00000 n 0000005073 00000 n 0000008634 00000 n 0000008762 00000 n 0000008846 00000 n 0000008911 00000 n 0000016665 00000 n 0000016749 00000 n 0000023319 00000 n 0000023349 00000 n 0000023477 00000 n 0000023513 00000 n 0000023597 00000 n 0000031266 00000 n 0000031296 00000 n 0000031424 00000 n 0000031460 00000 n 0000031558 00000 n 0000038589 00000 n 0000038717 00000 n 0000038772 00000 n 0000038899 00000 n 0000038954 00000 n 0000039080 00000 n 0000039175 00000 n 0000039240 00000 n trailer << /Size 36 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39598 %%EOF