%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150526201403+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150526201403+01'00') /Title (Enterprise in the Period of Fascism) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4063 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Enterprise in the Period of Fascism)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This interesting and important book shows how far we have come in the historical treatment of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between the business world and fascism in the mid-twentieth century. Once upon a time, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections between capitalism and fascism, sometimes taken to the point of reducing fascism to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?expression? of capitalism in a particularly nasty phase of its development, were seen as providing the grand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structural explanation which the general theorising about fascism seemed to demand. As Gerald Feldman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tells us in his gentle and ironic introduction, the declining use of Marxist tools of analysis of fascism has not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meant any loss of momentum in the investigation of the relationship between business and fascism. But now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the study of that relationship is driven by legal action for recognition and recompense by organisations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups representing Jews and other victims of Nazism and Nazi occupation during the Second World War; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the response to which has been official governmental commissions of inquiry and ? in order to enable such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigations ? the opening up of previously inaccessible public and private archives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is tempting, also, to see this reinvigorated area of study as part of a more general late twentieth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(move towards the ?globalisation? of morality \(or should it be the morality of ?globalisation??\), a kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsidiary or spin-off of the process of ?globalisation? itself. This move involves the attempt to define and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apply international criteria which will act as both guides and constraints on the behaviour of individuals and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(324)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 April, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harold James)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jakob Tanner)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(754600777X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(42.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(284pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aldershot)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip Morgan)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7419 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities. Another sign would be the very rapid indictment before an international war crimes tribunal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those held responsible for ?crimes against humanity? in the 1990s break-up of Yugoslavia. This litigious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trend, if there is one, is certainly putting historians back to work. The two editors of this book are globe-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trotting consultants of official historical commissions. This is not meant unkindly. The international, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supranational, protection of human rights is a highly desirable indicator and measure of the emergence of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international ?morality?, in train since 1945. Given the source and impetus behind the current researches into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business and fascism, a moral and ethical dimension is inevitably being written into the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigations of twentieth-century European political economy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is an edited collection of papers given to a conference of the Society for European Business )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History, and poses the usual unenviable challenges of publishing conference proceedings: how to be as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclusive and comprehensive as possible; and how to bring order and consistency of theme\(s\) to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions which may differ in quality and range. Generally, the editors make a pretty good fist of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always difficult job. I particularly liked the way in which something of the immediacy and freshness of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conference, and of the open-endedness of historical research, was captured in the brief but often stimulating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critiques which conclude each sub-set of contributions. But why is there no such ?comment? section for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final part of the book, which deals with business during the Nazi occupation of west European countries?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A few contributions seem to be answering different questions to the rest. This, I thought, was the case with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the essay on Spanish businessmen from the 1920s to the 1940s, which deals in very general terms with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effects of autarky and state intervention on the performance of the Spanish economy, and the ?contribution? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of business to the ?rise? of Franco?s dictatorship. It lacks the well-worked case studies that dominate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions on Fascist Italy and inform those on businessmen in Nazi Germany. But this probably \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandably\) reflects the current state of the historiography on these matters for Spain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Less understandable is the claim made in a couple of the other contributions, that there is no ?proper? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definition of what constituted economic collaboration with the German occupier during the war, and that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography of such collaboration is inadequate. This view justifies the author of the essay on Denmark )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ruling out any sustained discussion of economic collaboration with the Germans, beyond the off-the-cuff )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remark that ?the frontier between collaborating and just trying to survive is not an easy one to define? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(140\). Quite ? What we get instead is an interesting account of how the Danish economy performed during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war. Whatever one makes of the clunking and over-literal categorisations of ?collaboration? contained in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a book like Werner Ring?s )] TJ ET BT 165.656 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life with the Enemy: Collaboration and Resistance in Hitler?s Europe)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Weidenfeld and Nicolson; London, 1982\), there are any number of recent studies of the wartime occupation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of France and the Low Countries which have reshaped the conventionally polarised treatments of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?collaboration? and ?resistance?. Anyway, one would expect in a book of this kind to find attempts to fill the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alleged gaps in the definition and historiography of collaboration, rather than capitulation to their apparent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inadequacy. It must be said that the former is precisely what Richard Overy does, among other things, in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(piece on the )] TJ ET BT 95.000 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Grossraumwirtschaft)] TJ ET BT 197.012 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, squeezing out the meaning of economic collaboration from the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unpropitious of contexts for it, the forcible colonisation and ?Germanisation? of occupied Poland and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western Russia, where one might imagine the collaboration of local business to be largely irrelevant or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immaterial to Nazi occupation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The section on the neutral countries is potentially the most interesting but actually the most disappointing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book. The chapter on Switzerland is a tantalising introductory survey, which ends abruptly, just as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader?s interest is mounting. Again, this might reflect the stage the research has reached. The planned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution on Portugal did not materialise at the conference, and one wonders why the editors did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commission something after the conference for this publication, which is the usual recourse when a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conference does not come up with the goods. I also wondered about the logic of pairing Switzerland with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Denmark in this section, when the continued existence of a semi-autonomous government system probably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made Denmark?s position in the patchwork Nazi 'New Order' in northern and western Europe more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analogous to that of Vichy France. A similar nit-picking point might also be made about the pairing in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another section of contributions about Fascist Italy and authoritarian but not fascist Spain.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7316 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These quibbles about the near-impossible editorial decisions that have to be made about the organisation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any multi-authored collection of essays, should not detract from the important things which emerge from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book as a collective effort.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First, the book as a whole confirms the ?primacy of politics? in the ?era of fascism?. In Italy, Germany and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spain, businessmen found themselves reacting to, and obliged to accommodate themselves to, fundamental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes of political regime in which they might have played a part, but not necessarily a determining part. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most of continental Europe, east and west, these changes were the result of apparently irresistible and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irreversible conquest and occupation by Nazi Germany with its own visions of a racist and imperialist 'New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Order' for Europe. But more generally, businessmen had to operate in conditions at first sight extremely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncongenial to ?normal? business activity, which prevailed both in countries that had gone fascist and those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which had not. The model of First World War state-directed economic mobilisation and, above all, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of the Great Depression, seemed to demonstrate that free market capitalism was dysfunctional, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socially and economically damaging, and unpopular. The way out, everywhere, appeared to be greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political or state intervention in the economy, with the state either replacing the ?market? or so regulating its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operation as to change its character.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This was the political context for ?economic collaboration?, the second important issue addressed by most, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not all, of the contributions to the book. The famou, or rather notorious, aphorism of Giovanni Agnelli, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(head of Fiat, quoted in Franco Amatori?s contribution, that industrialists are government supporters by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definition, echoes throughout the whole volume. This statement of political neutrality, and of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adaptability, was, on the evidence of this book, pretty much the conventional attitude of many businessmen. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To protect the business, and to keep the business going, meant coming to terms with whatever political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime was in place; this was ?normal?. But the fascist regimes were not ?normal?; their political leaderships )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intended to bend their own and occupied countries? economies towards the realisation of ideological and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialist goals. Businessmen, even though they saw their motivations as ?economic?, had to get ?political? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a big way. This is why I think, for example, that Dirk Luyten?s dense and closely-argued piece on Belgian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business involvement with the occupier?s reorganisation of the country?s economy, rather overplays the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?primacy of economics? in these businessmen?s wartime decision-making. All over conquered western and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(northern Europe, and in Germany itself, businessmen got themselves co-opted on to the boards of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proliferating agencies and quangos set up to manage the German war economy and the economic occupation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of these territories. They \(or many of them\) did so in order to save what they could of their managerial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autonomy; to ensure that they managed a system foisted on them by the occupier; and because they feared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being left out or left behind by their business competitors in a world being shaped by others. In so doing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they ? willingly or not ? aligned themselves with Nazi systems of economic management that were basically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subverting the autonomy they wanted to defend. This was and is the classic inescapable dilemma of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?collaboration?, whether it is a matter of dealing with a Nazi occupation regime bent on exploiting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupied countries? economic resources, or with a gung-ho university administration bent on ?downsizing?!)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book also makes it clear that some businessmen became )] TJ ET BT 327.968 235.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(de facto)] TJ ET BT 366.296 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( civil servants in Germany before and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the outbreak of general war in 1939, and in occupied Europe after 1940, because they wanted to ensure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the businesses from which they came could take advantage of the opportunities for economic expansion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which would not otherwise have come their way under ?normal? market conditions. We perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underestimate the innate attractiveness of Nazism \(and Vichy authoritarianism\) as a system to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technocratic and managerial high flyers and high achievers who staffed these governmental economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agencies. Nazism was ?capitalist? in its glorification of initiative, performance, competition, and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?winners? by whatever means. Exploitation of the resources of the Nazi empire enabled these part-political, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part-economic entrepreneurs to innovate and experiment, to develop new industrial processes and products, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially synthetic materials, in ways unimaginable in a market economy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book gives us, then, a real sense of the pressures businessmen faced in Nazi Germany and in Nazi-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupied Europe; the narrowness of the choices confronting them, how those choices were influenced by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing context of the war and occupation policy, and the sometimes inhuman outcomes of those choices. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 4388 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many banks and businesses participated in and profited commercially from the ?aryanisation? of Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enterprises, pretty much universally applied throughout Nazi Europe. Others did not, or were reluctant to do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so, because from a similar perspective of the long-term futures of their businesses, they anticipated legal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other problems to do with ownership both during the conflict and once the war was over. From 1943, as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became clear that Germany was losing the war, preserving what could be preserved of the business for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-war period meant that many German companies )] TJ ET BT 291.632 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(continued )] TJ ET BT 341.960 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to use forced and slave labour in inhuman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions. For some firms in occupied western Europe, it meant keeping more workers on the payroll than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was economically justified to prevent their deportation to Germany, and seeking the protection of resistance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movements, something which happened in occupied Poland as well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thirdly, the contributions on eastern Europe ? especially Richard Overy?s detailed and meticulous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstruction of the Nazi economy there ? seem to indicate that the Nazis? economic exploitation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupied Europe was both a short-term plundering of resources to sustain the Nazi war effort, and a longer-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term attempt to create the )] TJ ET BT 159.656 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Grossraumwirtschaft)] TJ ET BT 261.668 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a German-dominated continental economic bloc. You will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need to read Overy?s essay to be convinced of this, since Feldman in his introduction suggests that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priority of winning the war ruled out any long-term economic 'New Order' planning, and Boris Barth?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Comment? is equally sceptical of Overy?s case.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, it emerges from the book that the occupied western European countries were not that badly off, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economically. Indeed their economies were certainly not ?destroyed? by occupation, although this would not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been the perception of the Dutch people after the terrible winter of 1944-5. Agriculture did well, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was little destruction or forced transfer of machinery and plant, and German spending and consumption, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even when effectively paid for by the occupied countries through the Nazi clearing system, had a Keynesian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimulus on depressed economies, leading to full employment in the early years of occupation. This might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest that economic collaboration with the enemy was ultimately self-justifying and ?successful?. It is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the only interesting thought to come out of a sometimes patchy, but generally rewarding book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 399.343 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 381.563 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 381.563 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/324)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 380.169 m 322.316 380.169 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 355.192 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 340.792 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1572)] TJ ET BT 34.016 326.392 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 380.4835 322.3157 392.3635 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/324) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000538 00000 n 0000000620 00000 n 0000004735 00000 n 0000004844 00000 n 0000004954 00000 n 0000005063 00000 n 0000008624 00000 n 0000008752 00000 n 0000008836 00000 n 0000008901 00000 n 0000016373 00000 n 0000016438 00000 n 0000023807 00000 n 0000023891 00000 n 0000028332 00000 n 0000028460 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28555 %%EOF