%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721140502+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721140502+01'00') /Title (Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4476 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Niall Ferguson is a glutton for exposure. From January to mid-February 2003 six one-hour television )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programmes, four lectures to substantial audiences in the University of London?s Senate House, and a large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(glossy book have been devoted to his theme of ?empire? or, as he also puts it, ?how Britain made the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern world?. Elsewhere, for example in )] TJ ET BT 241.964 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Times)] TJ ET BT 291.632 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(6-7 January 2003\), there have been extracts taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the book. What was the point of all this activity, including as it did a two year crash-course in selected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading from the recent subject literature and extensive globe-trotting? Was its upshot, as Ferguson asks of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the empire itself, ?a good or a bad thing??)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Considering the published output, as with ?the empire? of the past, this is in many respects a pointless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question, for the answer depends on where questioners stand and what in particular they choose to look at. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the point of view of personal enrichment, Ferguson himself doubtless found the operation of the free )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(media market a very good thing, as will his publisher. In terms of entertainment, pleasure, a measure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general interest or instruction, and stimulation, many of the 2.5 million viewers of Channel 4?s offerings will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have felt themselves well rewarded, if two )] TJ ET BT 240.632 104.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Telegraph)] TJ ET BT 319.628 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( reviews \(10 and 24 January 2003\) and a column )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the first episode by William Rees-Mogg in )] TJ ET BT 267.320 90.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Times)] TJ ET BT 316.988 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are anything to judge by. Others, who as one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might naturally expect received nothing from the proceeds, either were soothed by Ferguson?s Scottish lilts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and burrs, or were driven to apoplectic outbursts. Among the latter was Jon Wilson in )] TJ ET BT 448.292 61.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian)] TJ ET BT 515.960 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(8 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(325)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 31 March, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Niall Ferguson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(713996153X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(417pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allen Lane)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Porter)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7846 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(February 2003\), condemning \(with an alliteration worthy of Ferguson himself\) what appeared to him a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?glossy glorification of imperial violence?, possessing a tendency to ?encourage policy based on a version of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the history of empire that is simply wrong?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 244.004 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 244.004 766.563 m 257.996 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such points about the reception of Ferguson?s work in their limited way parallel the historic experience and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of empire itself. It was almost everywhere far too multi-faceted or ambiguous for the application of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crude general labels, ?good? or ?bad?, to do justice to the complex issues involved. This was from the start )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an insurmountable problem for a subject rightly treated as global in scope, which also demanded a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological coverage from the late sixteenth to the early twenty-first century. Although Ferguson devotes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significantly more space to the period after circa 1800, the problem remains.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, doing justice to complex issues can also be understood in different ways. The demonstration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complexity may take the form of impressing audiences with inescapable detail, illustrating in the process the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inadequacy of current generalizations and conventional views. Alternatively, it can entail the ruthless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposition of dominant themes on a heap of fact, winnowing and threshing until a mountain of factual chaff )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been bagged and fairly stored in its proper ? subordinate ? place. Ferguson evidently wishes to do both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of these things. Fond of phrases such as ?most people assume?, ?nowadays it is quite common to think?, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sees himself as a new radical, despatching to its resting place a tired conventional wisdom that holds empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to have been always either exploitative, or unnecessary, and everywhere thoroughly wasteful for both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonisers and colonised \(pp. xviii-xix\). This he does by drawing out the legacies of Britain?s empire. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offsets the brutality and destruction associated with slavery, piracy, and events such as the Morant Bay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellion \(1865\) or the Amritsar massacre \(1919\), with factual information to illustrate the triumph of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism, the spread of parliamentary institutions, the growth of literacy, recognition of the virtues of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minimal state, and the rule of law \(pp. xxiv-xxv\). The dominant theme he wields in order to corral untidy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail is that of ?globalization?, a process in which Britain?s empire more than any other agency promoted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the optimal allocation of labour, capital and goods in the world? \(p. xx\). Ferguson has no doubt that Empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?enhanced global welfare ? in other words was a Good Thing?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In both cases, Ferguson metes out rough justice to complexity. It is easy to find examples of conventionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wholly critical or uncritical judgements on empire, but Ferguson is misguided in assuming that these persist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the absence of an historical literature providing material for more discriminating and nuanced assessments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of empire?s record. The survival and persistence of those judgements reflect not persuasion but inadequate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading and thought, conditions unlikely to be disturbed by the appearance of a new set of no less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional views. Ferguson?s own ?on-balance-beneficial? legacy of empire offers no new insight but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather the refurbishment of a much older conventional ? some would say Whiggish ? wisdom. Far from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(updating our view of empire, in highlighting the interplay of ?liberty? and ?slavery?, Ferguson looks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(backward to an outdated literature, and at times is consequently wide of the mark ? as when assessing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of the Durham Report as ?the book which saved the empire? \(pp. 111-13\). As for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?globalization?, now well-established as a fashionable resort for the conceptually starved, what does one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make of the claim that it optimises the allocation of material resources? When one man?s optimum can so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easily encompass another?s poverty, just as orthodoxy and heresy may be interchangeable, these can too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easily become weasel words, traps for the unwary even if the statistics of measurement such as GDP are to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be relied upon, which often they are not. Arrangements optimal for the continued working of a system of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exchange may not necessarily be so when assessed in terms of individual or even communal wellbeing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Inevitably there will be those who wonder whether such over-simplifications are not merely the product of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(television producer?s requirements triumphing over the historian?s need for greater attention to the difficulty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of presenting major historical problems in any visual format. After all, Ferguson?s book is very much the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book of the film, a fleshier version of what is for the most part clearly spelt out on the screen. There is little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence of an opportunity being taken to refine arguments rather than thicken narrative. For example, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement from British abolition of the slave trade to the emancipation of the empire?s slaves was far less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smooth and confident than is suggested here \(p. 122\). Sir Charles Dilke?s book)] TJ ET BT 413.972 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Problems of Greater Britain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Macmillan; London, 1890\) is mentioned, but not his earlier )] TJ ET BT 325.664 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Greater Britain)] TJ ET BT 400.664 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Macmillan; London, 1868\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presumably because that would upset an argument linking the term ?Greater Britain? to J. R. Seeley?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 35.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Expansion of England)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 244.0037 766.8775 257.9957 778.7575 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7255 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London; Macmillan\) published in 1883 \(pp. 246-7\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That said, however, the visual aspects of the programmes and the illustrations in the book are often splendid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and fresh to the eye. The programmes are certainly best seen well spaced. Consecutive videos are too likely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to impress viewers with the limits to both the range of available visual devices and the film-maker?s budget. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are many suns setting, plenty of light on water, frequent shots of Ferguson in boats or canoes, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sound of his foot-fall on floorboards crossing to a window or to a mahogany table for displaying a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(document. Cuttings, for example from the same colourful Indian scene, provide the backdrop or continuity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on more than one occasion. The book in one respect at least is more modest ? readers are not treated to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(screen?s many instances of full-frontal Ferguson poised to make eye contact with a key pronouncement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about liberty or slaves. Nevertheless, precisely the same points are made on the page, decked out with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same catchy or demotic phraseology. Ferguson has a quick eye for the riveting analogy ? New South Wales, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the eighteenth-century equivalent of Mars?, where Australians ?started out as a nation of shoplifters? \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(103, 106\). Arresting, yes, but not always apposite \(for reasons which, in this case, Joseph Banks might have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explained\), and so at risk of disguising reality with cosmetic flippancy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is strange that someone such as Ferguson, well-acquainted with thinking about virtual history, other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible outcomes to any chance sequence of events, and alternative futures, should comprehensively ignore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this analytical dimension in the case of empire. Occasional references are made, for instance, to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibility of a French not a British victory in mid-eighteenth-century India. In calculating imperial Britain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favourable legacy, the twentieth-century alternative empires of Germany, Italy and Japan are cited to provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(horrific counterweights, had they managed to turn conquest into more than temporary colonial controls. At )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same time, however, Ferguson seems to believe that for most areas of the world the experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial rule offered the only way to the future. This begs many questions. Why, for example, should one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assume that eighteenth-century India could not have evolved its own economic path, with distributions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capital, labour and goods ?optimal? in the eyes of its own elites however different from the criteria of liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western political economists? The work of regional historians gives grounds for disputing such an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumption, and thus for questioning perceptions of backwardness and modernity conditioned in the west, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but Ferguson does not pay it any attention.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After alternative histories, it is perhaps worth probing further Ferguson?s use of the term ?globalization?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How is it to be understood, either in chronological terms, or functionally? His terminology refers to ?modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(globalization? \(pp. xix-xx\), but also to earlier eras or phases of globalization. Sometimes these appear to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separated out and discontinuous, but he also knits them together in a single period and process. Should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(globalization be taken to mean little more than the far-flung existence of even limited economic activity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involving a major power?s \(e.g. Britain?s\) nationals? Or is it to be understood as an active process of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territorial integration into a world-wide market economy? In both cases, ?globalization? is apparently a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing feature, albeit one, Ferguson seems to suggest, in which the phase 1850-1914 was characterised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the economic equalization of incomes, and the second half of the twentieth century was one of mounting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic divergence and inequality. There is a fuzziness here in the handling of globalization, whether as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept, descriptive category, or economic process, that needs to be cleared away.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This need for clarity is further indicated by Ferguson?s lack of sustained attention to the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(globalization stretching back well before 1815. There is much in the history of the seventeenth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth centuries to support the view that a process of globalization was also then underway. Ferguson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself refers in passing to the seventeenth century?s ?globalization with gunboats? \(p.18\). Doubtless the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balance of power and wealth among, and so the contribution made by, participating states was then different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from that which developed later on; and ?globalization? had perhaps not yet become global in its reach. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may be debated whether there was a distinctly ?early modern globalization?, or merely an earlier phase of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single process. It is more important, however, to recognise that the prominence of war and economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protection or monopolization meant that the characteristics of that earlier age were very different from, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the process of globalization was largely driven by forces unlike, those that Ferguson suggests operated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the British-dominated phase of globalization after 1850.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7391 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If it is accepted that there was an early modern globalization under way well before the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars, that its momentum owed much to war both internationally and on local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial frontiers, and that the prominent role of Britain in the Caribbean, North America, and parts of Asia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means that it too deserves the ghastly appellation of ?Anglobalization? \(p. xxiii\), then this has implications )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Ferguson?s portrayal of the post-1850 period. From then onwards Ferguson seems to allow that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global accumulation of wealth was promoted only by an increasing absence of restraint on the movement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people \(labour migration\), the flow of capital \(external investment\), and produce from land \(overseas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commerce\). This argument is unpersuasive because it ignores the role of war, economic protection, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategic calculation, persisting from that earlier period, in the continuing growth of a global economy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain?s many colonial wars in the nineteenth century and beyond were an essential aid to the incorporation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of new territories into her own empire, and to the expansion of free trade both within her colonies and into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas beyond the reach of her direct rule. Furthermore, in Ferguson?s contemporary age of ?modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(globalization?, echoes of the early modern period are to be found in the way in which world economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterns are decisively shaped by the protectionist agenda of the United States and the states which have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come to make up the European Union, notably in respect of their domestic agriculture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This last observation directs us not only to the compatibility of continuing globalization with partially-closed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economies, but also to the limitations of free trade arrangements historically associated with the pursuit of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(open global economy. Contrary to much current thinking, Ferguson wishes us to accept that the priority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attached by Britain to free trade, free labour migration, and unfettered capital movements, was beneficial to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain itself, to its empire, and to the world at large. The extension of her empire not least contributed to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global growth of GDP, because Britain was the ?least protectionist? of all the great powers. By this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yardstick, the British empire was ?a good thing?, British rule being largely supportive of economic growth. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It can surely be argued that this simple standard requires a more critical consideration than Ferguson ever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that it might need.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two points are fundamental. First, it is surely necessary to bear in mind that the pattern of free trade, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly in the form of unlimited exchange of foodstuffs and raw materials for manufactured capital and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumer goods, generally operates over any significant period of time to the decided disadvantage of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commodity producers. Free trade might become one of the pillars of ?Anglobalization? but at the same time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was likely to restrict and impoverish the less economically ?modernised? party. The second follows from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that: free trade cannot necessarily be equated with freedom of choice and opportunity. For example, the time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at which any territory is drawn through the opening up of its trade into the globalizing economy can have a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical impact on its future development. The great variety of combinations of climate, geographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position, and natural endowment of resources, inevitably mean that each territory may be more or less well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placed to find its own niche in the range of economic openings prevailing at any one time. Hence, as Donald )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Denoon demonstrated in his )] TJ ET BT 172.004 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Settler Capitalism)] TJ ET BT 259.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Clarendon; Oxford, 1983\), temperate lands of white )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement, faced with exclusion from industrial and manufacturing options, not only evolved their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms of capitalism but did so largely irrespective of their colonial or independent status. Moreover the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distribution of any gains within individual states was often not directed to equalizing incomes. Ferguson is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be applauded for his realism in calling on historians at least to consider not ideal worlds but inescapably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperfect worlds, in which the option of ?Anglobalization? was if not the best, then perhaps the least worst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course available. However, the reality of the imperialism of free trade that underlay this option was far more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constraining and less benign than Ferguson seems to acknowledge. It was, of course, greatly to Britain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own advantage as the world?s major industrial power for much of the nineteenth century that she should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insist on the expansion of free trade, while at the same time facing little serious competition in the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markets she was exploiting.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A last comment relates still more directly to the persistent issue of costs and benefits. As befits any public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performer, Ferguson is fond of catching his audience?s attention with striking juxtapositions of images and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments. Stark intellectual polarities, however, can be a snare and delusion especially in the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire, so riddled as it is with complexities and ambiguity. In seeking to argue that the empire was not )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 4499 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economically bad for both Britain and her colonies, Ferguson sets up an Aunt Sally no less grand and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vulnerable than that constructed by some of the historians he criticises. Consider his inclusion in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography to Chapter 5 of Robert Huttenback?s and Lance Davis?s )] TJ ET BT 371.288 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mammon and the Pursuit of Empire)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge University Press; Cambridge\), a book extensively debated when it appeared in 1986. Its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(messages have nonetheless not been taken heed of here. Whatever the problems presented by that work \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were numerous\), Davis and Huttenback confirmed above all the need to ask of imperial commitments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and colonial possessions who benefited, from what, and when. In demonstrating that fortunately-placed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals, particular social classes and identifiable types of business, in both metropole and colonies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gained or lost in varying degrees and at different times, they argued convincingly for a more discriminating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and modulated scrutiny of the empire?s political economy than was then available. They also proved beyond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubt the crucial incidence of taxation and the costs of defence to any assessment of costs and benefits. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ferguson, however, seems in effect to argue that the association of global economic growth with both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(element of redistribution inherent in the workings of a free-market system, and the existence of Britain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(free-trade empire, were sufficient ? as Lewis Carroll would put it ? for all to have prizes. That surely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represents a significant retreat from the ground so usefully opened up to debate some fifteen years ago.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 561.987 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the full text of this article, see )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 229.664 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,3604,891477,00.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 229.664 529.971 m 549.332 529.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 78.008 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 81.008 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 81.008 515.715 m 134.996 515.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 490.853 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2003/jan/18/featuresreviews.guardianreview5)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 460.947 m 417.956 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 420.956 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2003/jan/25/digestedread)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 432.435 m 319.664 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 322.664 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 429.103 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 411.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 411.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/325)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 409.929 m 322.316 409.929 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 384.952 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.552 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1574)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.152 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,3604,891477,00.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.752 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2003/jan/18/featuresreviews.guardianreview5)] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.352 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2003/jan/25/digestedread)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 229.6637 530.2855 549.3317 542.1655 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,3604,891477,00.html) >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 81.0077 516.0295 134.9957 527.9095 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 461.2615 417.9557 473.1415 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2003/jan/18/featuresreviews.guardianreview5) >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 432.7495 319.6637 444.6295 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2003/jan/25/digestedread) >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 410.2435 322.3157 422.1235 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/325) >> endobj xref 0 35 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000551 00000 n 0000000633 00000 n 0000005161 00000 n 0000005270 00000 n 0000005380 00000 n 0000005489 00000 n 0000009050 00000 n 0000009178 00000 n 0000009262 00000 n 0000009346 00000 n 0000017245 00000 n 0000017275 00000 n 0000017403 00000 n 0000017439 00000 n 0000017504 00000 n 0000024812 00000 n 0000024877 00000 n 0000032321 00000 n 0000032433 00000 n 0000036985 00000 n 0000037113 00000 n 0000037226 00000 n 0000037353 00000 n 0000037408 00000 n 0000037535 00000 n 0000037662 00000 n 0000037789 00000 n 0000037897 00000 n 0000038025 00000 n trailer << /Size 35 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38120 %%EOF