%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416014545+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416014545+01'00') /Title (Taverns and Drinking in Early America) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4135 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Taverns and Drinking in Early America)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tavern-going was as an important a part of the social fabric of early America as churchgoing. Even in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most obscure communities Americans visited a tavern regularly if not daily. Legislators could no more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prescribe a healthy provision of taverns, or appropriate uses of them, than they could foist religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conformity on communities through established churches. Colonial Americans were as determined to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercise choice in matters of sociability as they were in matters of religious observance, and as willing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(break the law in order so to do. Colonial Americans drank what modern observers would regard as excessive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quantities of alcohol, often in public houses entirely devoid of charm. This must seem as alien as witchcraft )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to today?s health-conscious Americans, yet a rich historiography has grown up around witchcraft while the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of tavern-going is in its infancy. Unlike churchgoing or witchcraft, tavern-going is still regarded by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of the historical profession as a frivolous topic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One problem bedevilling the literature on tavern-going is that readers and authors tend to assume they know )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what drew people to public houses in the past. Nineteenth- and early twentieth-century writing on tavern-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(going was riddled with untested assumptions about the immorality or, alternatively, the cheery vivacity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the taverngoer. An objective historical study of drinking and tavern-going needs to start with some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental questions. Why, if colonial Americans could and did drink at home, at work and even on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(streets, did they need public houses at all? How do we account for the fact that cities founded by Protestant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(326)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 May, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sharon Salinger)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(801868785X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(42.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(309pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Hopkins University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baltimore)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Thompson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7244 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sectarians ? Boston and Philadelphia for example ? had in the mid-eighteenth century more taverns per )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capita than Paris or Amsterdam?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The materials available for a study of taverns and drinking in early America do not easily supply responses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to these questions. Magistrates and moralists, concerned with suppression of demand and the prosecution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlicensed supply, were responsible for producing by far the largest portion of the evidence on tavern-going )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now extant. They thought they knew what drew Americans to taverns, but their testimony requires careful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation. Journals, diaries and letters also suggest why Americans might have visited taverns and what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they found when they got there, but these sources often leave underlying assumptions unstated. White adult )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(males were responsible for producing the vast majority of the evidence we have to work with and some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their testimony on the subject could, at first and even second glance, be described as 'frivolous'. It is easier to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide an 'entree' into 'the place of public houses and drinking in colonists' lives' \(p. 5\), as Sharon Salinger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(puts it, than it is to provide definitive answers to the questions of why, and with what effect, Americans used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public houses ? and yet these are the questions that need to be addressed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sharon Salinger has read extremely widely to produce a synoptic account of tavern-going and drinking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across colonial America in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The chief advantage of this approach is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it establishes the sheer scale of the phenomena under discussion. \(This is graphically demonstrated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the maps of tavern density in seaport cities contained in Chapter six and by calculations of per capita )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provision elsewhere in the text\). The tavern may have been a familiar landmark in the old world but it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nigh on ubiquitous in the new. Salinger?s continental focus also allows her to draw an important negative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion: the uses to which Americans put public houses were surprisingly uninfluenced by local or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regional cultures. Licensing policy and attitudes toward drunkenness varied across the colonies, but these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variations had little purchase on the behaviour of patrons.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So why did so many colonial Americans use taverns? Or, if this is an impossible question, what wider social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces were reflected in and promoted by the act of tavern-going? In Chapter one Salinger locates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(services public houses provided colonial Americans within the contexts of inherited Dutch and English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditions and distinctive American legislation. As it evolved, American legislation governing public houses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(departed from European norms by prohibiting particular groups of potential drinkers, notably native )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans, apprentices, slaves and sailors, from frequenting public houses. This serves to introduce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Salinger?s main argument: that over the course of the eighteenth century colonial taverns became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusionary, ultimately serving specific sections of society rather than the community as a whole. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument is developed in Chapter two, where, drawing chiefly on evidence from the city of Philadelphia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Salinger argues that the exercise of affinities of class and ethnicity, coupled with the uneven distribution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(services, pushed the tavern trade as a whole toward the service of 'knots of men rightly sorted'. It is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursued in subsequent chapters treating attitudes toward drunkenness, prosecutions for infractions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(licensing law, and licensing policy itself. Both by choice and as a result of social control exerted from above, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the course of the eighteenth century taverngoers drank increasingly with 'their own kind'. Since the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tavern was overwhelmingly the preserve of adult white males in unhindered possession of their labour, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tavern-going fostered particular racial and gender identities as well as contributing to an embryonic class-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whatever limitations this argument possesses are in no way attributable to a lack of research. Salinger has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read just about every shred of evidence on colonial tavern-going that the archives will yield. Before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evaluating her argument I should note that Salinger generously praises my own book on tavern-going in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth-century Philadelphia \(which has a different emphasis\), and, although I?m not wildly excited by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the framework in which she places her evidence, there is no doubt that )] TJ ET BT 375.272 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Taverns and Drinking in Early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(America)] TJ ET BT 74.672 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is highly readable, thoroughly researched and cogently argued. By providing the first modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of tavern-going in the colonies as a whole, Salinger will, hopefully, reinvigorate the study of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspect of America?s social history too long neglected.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Where, with whom, and under what conditions men choose to drink with one another together constitute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of the most sensitive cultural indicators imaginable. Since there is no dispute that by the end of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7746 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century Americans tended to drink and socialise in class-specific establishments, whereas two or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three generations before they typically drank in heterogeneous companies, what is wrong with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion that tavern-going illuminates class formation?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At issue here is how one interprets that period, in some communities quite lengthy, during which the rich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commonly drank in the same surroundings as the poor, the intelligent bent elbows with the uneducated, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the traveller mucked in with the locals. If one attributes this situation to forces of provision, or, as in the case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of colonial Philadelphia, to the way in which licensing laws forced publicans to be generalists rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specialists, then it might be considered a phenomenon of only passing interest. Moreover, travel narratives, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which well-to-do men castigated the mixed company they typically encountered in colonial taverns, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest that wealthier Americans wished to drink among 'their own kind' long before even big cities such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philadelphia possessed establishments wherein they could indulge their desire. \(We simply cannot tell from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the available records whether labouring Americans were equally infuriated by the experience of drinking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with gentlemen\). It would seem then that period in which colonial Americans routinely drank and conversed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in mixed companies is an aberration \(although, even if it were, it would be worthy of note, for at no time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since have wealthy Americans possessed a comparable knowledge of the appearance and opinions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labouring men and women\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However the evidence on mixed companies is open to variant interpretations, as readers of )] TJ ET BT 471.584 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Taverns and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Drinking in Early America)] TJ ET BT 163.004 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( can judge from a close reading of chapter seven. Here Salinger presents evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the extent to which men of wealth and education disliked drinking in mixed company, to establish an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antipathy that helps explain the creation of exclusive establishments such as Philadelphia?s City Tavern, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which presumably fostered an equal and opposite reaction among labourers. However the crucial question is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why did men like Alexander Hamilton or Daniel Fisher, authors of some of the more pungent commentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Philadelphia?s taverns cited in this chapter, visit or stay in taverns at all? Broadly speaking, they did so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out of choice: more specifically from a desire learn from and participate in the talk of the town. \(Again we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have no way of knowing whether labouring Americans were drawn to taverns for similar reasons ? although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Franklin?s )] TJ ET BT 87.680 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Autobiography)] TJ ET BT 159.680 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( suggests that at least some labourers wished to participate in civic discourse\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given that much nonsense was talked among gentlemen in club settings, and much liquor was consumed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there besides, the fact some taverns and some taverngoers were incapable of supplying the peculiar civility a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man such as Alexander Hamilton sought is perhaps less interesting than the fact that apparently he believed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that some did or could. The willingness of men such Daniel Fisher and Alexander Hamilton to drink in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mixed tavern company contained within it a grudging acceptance of the idea that at least some members of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the labouring classes were capable of intelligent and 'civilised' conversation and behaviour. If something like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this was the case then the subsequent development of the tavern trade along 'exclusionary' and class-specific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lines takes on an altogether darker complexion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Taverns and Drinking in Early America)] TJ ET BT 225.668 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( employs 'class' in the relatively loose sense that is a term of art in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the literature on the social history of early America. By 'class' Salinger means to indicate a consciousness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one?s place in a social hierarchy, a hierarchy shaped by the existence of a degree of social mobility unknown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Europe. The organisation of the tavern trade and the practice of tavern-going speak both to the existence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this hierarchy and to the cultural forces challenging it. Clearly a class analysis places the available )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence on tavern-going in a coherent framework. It does so however by downplaying some of other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes that emerge from that evidence. For example, taverns and tavern-going were clearly implicated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenal rates of alcohol consumption and drunkenness. Quite how heavy or even destructive drinking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fits within a framework designed to illuminate the salience of class-consciousness is unclear. Taverns and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tavern-going also provide the best evidence we have on the separation of public from private life in early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America. Once again, this aspect of the evidence bears on class formation but presents other interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes and problems besides. One could make the same point in relation to the fact that the tavern was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male world. Moreover men began seeking ever more socially homogenous settings in which to drink at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same time and in the same communities as they began protesting against imperial measures and setting about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the business of forming independent governments. )] TJ ET BT 279.656 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Taverns and Drinking in Early America )] TJ ET BT 474.308 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little to say about the political functions of taverns. One can readily appreciate why Salinger chose to build )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 3211 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her analysis of taverns and drinking around the concept of class. However, partly because the evidence she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presents is so rich, readers of )] TJ ET BT 176.312 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Taverns and Drinking in Early America)] TJ ET BT 367.964 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( may find themselves wishing for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more sustained discussion of the alternative themes suggested by Salinger?s research.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hopefully )] TJ ET BT 85.676 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Taverns and Drinking in Early America)] TJ ET BT 277.328 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( will mark the end of a first phase of inquiry into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject. The historiography now contains a comprehensive survey of the topic, as well as a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies focussed on specific communities. There is broad agreement in the literature as to the basic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of the tavern trade over the course of the eighteenth century. Sharon Salinger has suggested a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework within which that development might be interpreted. This framework deserves to be discussed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed, refined or perhaps rebutted in future studies. The existing historiography also highlights the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence of a significant gap in our knowledge. We know very little about the social history of the hotels, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleasure gardens and clubs that in the early nineteenth century replaced the colonial tavern as the primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(site of discretionary sociability. And although there are a number of studies of saloon-going in mid- to late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth-century America, there is work to be done on working class drinking in the early national period. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hopefully Salinger?s survey will be picked up in graduate classes on American social history and serve as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the inspiration for further reflection and research.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is pleased to accept this review and thanks Dr Thompson for his comments.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 513.391 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 495.611 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 495.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/326)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 494.217 m 322.316 494.217 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 469.240 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.840 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1576)] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.440 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 494.5315 322.3157 506.4115 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/326) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000540 00000 n 0000000622 00000 n 0000004809 00000 n 0000004918 00000 n 0000005028 00000 n 0000005137 00000 n 0000008698 00000 n 0000008826 00000 n 0000008910 00000 n 0000008975 00000 n 0000016272 00000 n 0000016337 00000 n 0000024136 00000 n 0000024220 00000 n 0000027484 00000 n 0000027612 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 27707 %%EOF