%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140819034118+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140819034118+01'00') /Title (Electoral Reform at Work Local Politics and National Parties 1832-1841) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4171 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Electoral Reform at Work Local Politics and National Parties 1832-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1841)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip Salmon took on an ambitious project when he began his study of parliamentary reform and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electoral system. He looked at how the Reform Act of 1832 affected 'the business of obtaining the vote' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1\) and the organisation of those electors into political parties with heightened partisanship at both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national and local level. Salmon wanted to understand 'how the Reform Act's long overlooked constitutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interaction with other institutions of early nineteenth-century government . caused new types of nationally-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oriented party structures to multiply through all levels of British politics.' \(ibid\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The outcome, )] TJ ET BT 103.004 168.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Electoral Reform at Work)] TJ ET BT 227.324 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, does this and so much more. Salmon delves deeper into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implementation of the Reform Act at almost every level that any previous examination. He looks at electoral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behavior before 1832 and re-examines the regional and national implementation of the extended franchise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the December 1832 general election \(which first gave voice to the new voters and the newly-created )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electoral boroughs\). He also explores how political partisanship became more clearly defined with each local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and parliamentary election and with it, the growth of national party affiliation. While these connections have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been examined in other studies, what separates Salmon's research from its predecessors is his balanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of how, precisely, the new post-1832 electoral system and growing partisanship affected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual political consciousness and political party development and platform formation in the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(327)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 May, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip Salmon)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(861932617X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(40.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(312pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nancy LoPatin-Lummis)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 5648 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian age. His simple, but provocative theory - 'that the manner in which people acquired their vote had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a powerful impact on how they perceived and used it' \(p. 2\) - puts all the research on parliamentary reform, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1832, electoral behaviour and voting patterns, and the rise of political parties in the early Victorian era that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he and predecessors have done in a more meaningful and compelling light.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the heart of Salmon's multi-faceted thesis is his 'insistence that the study of voting behaviour cannot be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separated from the physical and constitutional context in which it took place' \(p. 10\), an approach that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contends separates it from earlier works in this field. The Reform Act's greatest impact was not limited to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newly enfranchised who voted for the first time in December 1832, but also resided in the fact that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enfranchisement and redistribution of representation 'helped impose a far more nationally-oriented political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system upon local parochial, municipal and administrative life.' \(p. 10\) Salmon argues that 'the key to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rapid electoral politicization of reformed politics . lay in the practical working of the representative system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself, particularly the legislative ambiguities of the new and imperfect voter registration process.' \(p. 10-11\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In short, Salmon contends that these developments resulted in a post-1832 political world that was 'not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctly 'reformed', but also far more recognisably modern than has previously been supposed.' \(p. 11\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first third of the study examines the implementation of the post-1832 electoral system and how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerging political parties attempted to manage it. Salmon walks the reader through the new voter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(registration system and its new demands. The system was clearly cumbersome and placed responsibility for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(registering on each individual attempting to acquire the vote and allowed for opponents of potential electors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to oppose them, thereby forcing them to prove themselves in a nearly court-like setting. This adversarial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process contributed to the fact that constituencies with uncontested races or with no Tory candidates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standing for a parliamentary seat offered potential electors little incentive to register. Other legal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financial restrictions resulted in the registration numbers falling below expected levels.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This indifference or voter laziness, Salmon argues, contributed to the growing politicization of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(registration process after 1835, when more parliamentary seats were contested and party affiliation had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become more clear-cut. Local registration societies, Salmon demonstrates, grew more vehement in objecting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to voters who supported opposition candidates and otherwise increased partisan tensions. The system of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voter registration itself became adversarial and this only served to produce heightened tensions between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local parties and candidates.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simultaneously, Salmon contends, the development of political party 'ad hoc' committees, commissions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political clubs such as the Carlton and Westminster Reform Clubs, ushered in a new conception of how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political recruitment and 'management' should or could deal with voter registration. Political leaders of both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parties were cautious when seeking any central control over registration. Some extra-parliamentary political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organizations were torn apart by ideological or socio-economic divisions, while others failed to maintain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence over members after the battle for reform was won. Whether local organizations were influenced by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Radicals, Reformers, Tories, former Political Unionists, or Anglican clergymen, all resisted national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centralized party control, at least initially. Salmon's use of the correspondence of Sir Robert Peel and Joseph )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parkes to their respective political allies clearly shows that local mobilisation in registering unregistered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voters became a highly politicized experience.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6847 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Salmon demonstrates that the new post-Reform Act annual voter registrations fostered a competitive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sometimes combative approach to party development, he also argues that that emerging 'modernisation' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Victorian politics maintained many links to the traditional world of electioneering as revealed by Frank )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O'Gorman and others. Polling, canvassing of candidates and other campaign rituals continued, though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(altered slightly, after 1832. There were stricter regulations about where polling could take place and for how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many hours a day. The law standardised the official language of the poll. Canvassing, an expensive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formidable task for any candidate, continued after 1832, as did chairing, but Salmon argues that they became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less and less reliable, a development demonstrated by growing local political protocols and absenteeism of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electors at the events themselves. In larger constituencies, even ceremonial contact became suspect, as local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party activists took greater control of the events and the contact that candidates had with the voters was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reduced.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Salmon makes a compelling case for a very significant development in polling after 1832: that during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1830s and even more so in the 1840s, county constituents could get to the polls more cheaply and easily than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ever before, thanks to the railways. This neglected area of electoral politics, he argues, certainly affected the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between canvassing and polling. Nonetheless, changes and convention went hand-in-hand in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-Reform Act years, with the resulting climate providing)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an important counterpoint to partisanship by offering an alternative way of viewing a candidate's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performance and fitness for representation, and by allowing plenty of space for voter choice, local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence and the politics of negotiation within the electoral process. \(p. 115\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second segment of the book looks specifically at how the post-Reform Act system took shape in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counties. Taking on a challenge made by the late John Phillips more than a decade ago, Salmon undertakes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an astounding assessment of some 50,000 rural voters and presents a series of examinations of voter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(registration and landowner influence in north Devon, south Lincolnshire, Bedfordshire, west Somerset, north )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wiltshire and the West Riding of Yorkshire. \(These particular areas were selected in order to avoid overly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partisan newspaper reporting of accounts of political activity, and as those which offered ample accounts by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local party agents as the chief source of information concerning the electoral registration and polling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process.\) Salmon convincingly shows that rather than being deferential, county electors exhibited the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterns of behaviour consistent with borough electors. There was a decline in unanimity among parish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voters after 1835 in all but one of his selected rural areas, as voters made their opinions known at county )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meetings and through petitions and the provincial press.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While constituency associations began to form in the counties for the purpose of voter registration, political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divisiveness often undermined their effectiveness. For example, Salmon's detailed examination of the West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Riding of Yorkshire, the largest parliamentary constituency with over 30,000 voters in 1839, clearly shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that local Tories were more united in their electoral plans \(objecting to voter registration and organising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative Associations for co-ordinating pro-Tory activity throughout the region\) than Liberals, Radicals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Reformers. Divided amongst themselves as to additional parliamentary reform measures, Church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disestablishment and specific legislation such as the New Poor Law, the new Whig-Liberal alliance failed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work together in objecting to Tory voter registration, instead skewing the powerbase of the alliance towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the more urban and radical elements. While the West Riding experienced the shift differently than the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas studied, they all reveal that another political 'entity' was starting to displace local landowners from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their pre-reform position of influence and mirrored political shifts taking place in the boroughs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another facet of this argument looks at turnout rates for occupiers and freeholders in the counties. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were evidently high, especially in contested elections. Indeed, Salmon shows quite clearly that the 'Chandos )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clause' -targeting the 50 tenant-at-will, supposedly the most susceptible to the influence of landlords - was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ineffective in keeping away voter registrants. While occupiers displayed greater support for Conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(candidates than freeholders, Salmon calculates that such a difference translated into only small percentages )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6618 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the total electoral outcomes. Additionally, out-voters played a critical role in electoral outcomes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprising between 12 and 25 per cent of the total registered electorate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In short, Salmon's work in the counties convincingly identifies common electoral behaviours in rural areas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that are comparable with trends in the boroughs. His contribution to the long-overdue historiographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejection of D. C. Moore's work is irrefutable, in its demonstration of a growing national and declining local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control over political matters in the post-Reform Act.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final section of the study reassesses more familiar territory: the impact of the Reform Act on boroughs. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But here Salmon focuses on 'the process of politicisation . from an institutional as well as an electoral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective.' \(p. 13\) Salmon once again tests the force of 1832, by examining how such bureaucratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions as parish vestries and other localized governing bodies affected the implementation of the New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Poor Law. Obviously, the expansion of the electorate changed the whole process of levying local rates and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administering those monies. The new rate-paying clause of the Reform Bill and its enforcement made voter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(registration even more problematic, as impoverished electors found rate collection tied directly to political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation. Salmon examines the cavalier manner in which the Whig leadership included this clause in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bill, reassuring itself that they would be correcting evident abuses in the old 'scot and lot' constituencies. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also shows that the Whigs and Liberals did not bargain for the potential disfranchisement of supporters, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proof of poor rate payment became routinely pursued by local voter registration committees. Proof of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(payment, rates that were directly linked to the cost of electoral participation, increasing numbers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('oligarchies' of parishioners controlling rates - all affected who could afford to register to vote and go to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polls.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Essential to successful implementation of the reformed electoral system was the Poor Law Amendment Act )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1834. Salmon makes this abundantly clear in his calculations in the chapter aptly titled 'No Representation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without Taxation'. When control of poor relief transferred from parish vestries to boards of guardians who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implemented a uniform system of rates and collections, the significance on electoral practices in boroughs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was self-evident. Using studies of the poor law in local political party development, Salmon discusses the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increased partisanship of poor relief and battles for its control. Election onto boards was as hotly contested in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some regions as were parliamentary seats. Party affiliations took over: as Salmon observes,)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the electoral dynamics of the New Poor Law not only helped to fuel political tensions at the local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrative level and infuse parish affairs with an increasingly sophisticated partisan agenda, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extra-parochial structure of the new unions also physically broadened their psephological impact. Political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflicts, which had previously been confined to a single parish or town, now expanded into surrounding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas. \(p. 199\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This very provocative chapter provides the basis for what is a long-overdue study: the electoral dimension to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the poor relief system.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last chapter extends this kind of inquiry to the Municipal Reform Act. The link between parliamentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electoral reform and municipal corporations has received much scholarly attention, but it is the nature of that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interconnection on which Salmon focuses his research. The reform measure in 1835 succeeded in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implementing a uniform system and eliminating much of the authority - via spending and patronage - of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corrupt and closed corporations. What few expected, Salmon argues, was that the new municipal electorate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was often smaller than the parliamentary electorate, thanks to new rate-paying and residency requirements. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, he shows that the two electorates overlapped considerably, for)] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only were the potential sources of disfranchisement in practice the same - receipt of poor relief, arrears )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of rates, residential mobility - but the adversarial process of claims and objections employed in compiling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both types of register was almost identical and occurred at the same time each year. \(p. 221\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By examining local partisan organisation and polling practices, Salmon shows that identical problems of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partisanship and combativeness emerged at the local as at the national level, when it came to complying with )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 4783 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new voter registration rules. The newly contested nature of voter registration brought political parties into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(municipal as well as parliamentary electoral spheres, changed the composition of both electorates and, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Salmon convincingly argues, had a profound impact on both electoral and bureaucratic politics at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(municipal level.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If Salmon's goal was merely 'to fill an obvious gap in the historiography of the Great Reform Act of 1832, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by examining . "small print"' \(p. 238\), he has certainly succeeded with this outstanding study. With probably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most complete table of registration and polling returns by borough and county in the 1830s, Salmon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides all the numerical evidence a reader could wish for in support of his work. His bibliography reveals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tremendous local record office archival material, well beyond the polling book. He has examined dozens of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscript collections, provincial newspapers, broadsides, Parliamentary bills and papers, as well as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prerequisite municipal and parliamentary poll books in the writing process.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is for achieving his second objective, to 'relate the widely-noted emergence of more modern types of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voting behaviour after 1832 . [and add] a further layer of sophistication to the ideological and sociological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanations of politics provided in more conventional accounts' \(p. 238\), that Salmon deserves real kudos. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He beautifully weaves the newly contentious nature of post-1832 voter registration with the myriad ways in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which that contentiousness could translate into partisanship. Objections to an individual registering to vote, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enforcing rate-paying, supporting extra-parliamentary organizations, polling, voting at the local level after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1835 - all are reflections of the growth of modern political partisanship and party organisational goals of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delivering votes out of the framework which structured the registration process for new parliamentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electors after 1832. Salmon fully acknowledges that ideological arguments and commitment to principles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still played a role in early Victorian politics in Great Britain, but an undeniably national system of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(action and political behavior emerged. It is a truly outstanding contribution to the field of parliamentary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electoral history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many historians, myself included, have put forward the case that 1832 was critical in understanding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolution of modern British politics. Salmon's book affirms that interpretation with a wealth of evidence that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raises new questions about the interconnections between national and local modern political identities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour. One can only hope that Dr. Salmon chooses to answer some of these very questions in his future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is pleased to accept this review and welcomes further comments)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 304.063 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 286.283 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 286.283 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/327)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 284.889 m 322.316 284.889 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 259.912 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 245.512 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1578)] TJ ET BT 34.016 231.112 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 285.2035 322.3157 297.0835 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/327) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000580 00000 n 0000000662 00000 n 0000004885 00000 n 0000004994 00000 n 0000005104 00000 n 0000005213 00000 n 0000008774 00000 n 0000008902 00000 n 0000008986 00000 n 0000009051 00000 n 0000014752 00000 n 0000014817 00000 n 0000021717 00000 n 0000021782 00000 n 0000028453 00000 n 0000028537 00000 n 0000033373 00000 n 0000033501 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33596 %%EOF