%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721112851+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721112851+01'00') /Title (Undertaker of the Mind John Monro and Mad-Doctoring in Eighteenth-Century England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4000 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Undertaker of the Mind John Monro and Mad-Doctoring in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Eighteenth-Century England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Monro was not, I suspect, an interesting man. He was the solid representative of his profession, and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his dynasty, during a substantial portion of the eighteenth century, the first name to be thought of in treating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mad, the physician to the first hospital to be thought of in housing the mad, as his father had been before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him, and as his son was to be after him, and his grandson after that. But he was not in himself, apparently, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkable, either for his exceptional energies, or for introducing changes in professional practices, or for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being a terror to his patients or an outrageous profiteer. He seems to have had no more than standard ? for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his day ? political views of a Tory cast, and to have conducted himself in his private and domestic life in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manner acceptable to his family, his friends and to society at large. His father, James, had been censored in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(print by one of his own patients, Alexander Cruden, as a Jacobite and an adulterer, but not John, who also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treated Cruden and was also portrayed by him, generally favourably, in print. John was what he should be, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no more and no less.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If John is interesting, it is rather as a pane of glass is interesting, more for what is seen through it than for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself. John Monro?s career ? and he was physician at Bethlem between the death of his father in 1752 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own effective retirement in 1787 ? coincided with a remarkable period in mad-doctoring: the increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(328)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 January, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Andrews)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Scull)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(520231511X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(386pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of California Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berkeley)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allan Ingram)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7243 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professionalisation of the ?mad-business?, the slow progress towards legislation in housing the mad, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginnings of innovations in treating mad patients and the emergence therefrom of the management )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement, and above all changes in social attitudes towards the insane, all of which substantially realigned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pressures and assumptions under which the mad-doctor worked. Of these, John Monro certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participated in the first, as did most of his prominent contemporaries. He had financial connections with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several private London madhouses, up to the time when he became licensee of Brooke House in Chelsea, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and conspicuously shared in the lucrative proceeds of this business. With regard to the other great shifts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his time, however, he appears to have been either neutral, a recipient of whatever legal or social changes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were in progress, or else a passive impediment, as with therapeutic innovation. After decades of stagnation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something was happening with the mad, but it was not because of Monro.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here is the context for Jonathan Andrews? and Andrew Scull?s )] TJ ET BT 341.276 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Undertaker of the Mind)] TJ ET BT 454.928 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Having discovered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Monro?s private case book for 1766, which is published as part of a separate volume, )] TJ ET BT 472.604 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Customers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Patrons of the Mad-Trade: The Management of Lunacy in Eighteenth-Century London )] TJ ET BT 453.656 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Berkeley and Los )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Angeles: University of California Press, 2003\), in this same series, they decided to draw on this material for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a second volume, describing not only Monro?s own practice but also setting him within this rich period. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monro in his own right does not sustain a second volume so much of the substance of the book depends on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rehearsal of that wider view. The preface makes the case. Monro?s career ?played itself out on a larger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stage, and attending to his activities in the public sphere permitted us to develop a broader and more wide-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranging perspective on Unreason and those who undertook to combat it in Augustan England?. \(p. xii\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monro is therefore to be assessed ?as one among a number of emerging specialist practitioners of the mad-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade, closely reading his career through the broader lens of contemporary medical practice and culture?. \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(xiii\) That lens is constituted by ?an astonishing array of sources? \(p. xii\), and includes diaries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence, poetry and painting, cartoons and ballads, the daily press, archives, wills, treatises and trial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papers. But at the same time, and not sitting quite easily, there is a thesis: ?that other historians had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simultaneously underestimated and misconstrued Monro?s importance in the development of eighteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century mad-doctoring?. \(p. xi\) So we have twin intentions, both to see Monro as himself a case study within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his time, and also to correct our assessment of him.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The case against Monro, it has to be said, is weighty and Andrews and Scull have an uphill task if they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genuinely want us to accept that Monro has been ?underestimated and misconstrued? by historians. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make that case effectively themselves. Apart from profiting largely by his profession, Monro seems to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accomplished nothing exceptional apart from having the career he was likely to have had. Over several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portions of the opening chapter, ?John Monro: The Making of a Mad Doctor?, the inertia at Bethlem, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monro?s share in it, is detailed. There is ?the singularly unadventurous approach toward the treatment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patients that he and other medical officers continued to practise there for decades?, with the regular round of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seasonally administered ?purges, vomits, and bleeding? \(p. 28\); there is the lack of interest in medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change or in activities intended to develop knowledge of the insane, for example post-mortem investigations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where Monro ?failed to take advantage? of available facilities, unlike, for example, Bryan Crowther and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Haslam \(p. 34\); there is his apparent passivity with regard to the now appalling practice of displaying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?madness as spectacle?, with ?scant evidence? during his long tenure as physician ?that he himself exerted, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or attempted to exert, much influence over the practice? \(p. 24\); and there is the retrospective cloud that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1815?6 Parliamentary Enquiry?s conclusions cast on his entire Bethlem career:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gross negligence in the care and management of patients, and heedlessness of the conditions in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which they were housed; decided medical apathy toward therapeutic innovation; excessive )] TJ ET BT 64.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restraint employed by design and default, and as a means of coping with under-staffing; and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inadequate medical supervision of dishonest, and often brutal, ancillary staff - and it goes )] TJ ET BT 64.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without saying that these practices had very deep roots that date back to John Monro?s time and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to that of his own father, James. \(pp. 40?1\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To ?dishonest? and ?brutal? we might add sexually exploitative, according to the charges against a keeper of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6585 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the name of ?King? that were raised during the Committee?s questioning of John Haslam and which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned the pregnancy of a female patient. While Haslam hedged, he did concede that appointing male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keepers to the service of female patients was established practice when he took up his own post in 1795, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another stigma of the Monro legacy. Strong charges, especially for one whose ?importance?, it is claimed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been ?underestimated and misconstrued? by historians of madness, and when, as it emerges elsewhere, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those historians include ?scholars ranged across an extraordinarily wide ideological spectrum? \(p. 66\): Ida )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macalpine and Richard Hunter in the 1950s and 1960s, Denis Leigh in 1961, Klaus Doerner, Dora Weiner, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Rousseau and Stanley Jackson in the 1980s, Roy Porter and, singled out as ?capping the concensus?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(myself \(pp. 66?7\). Strong support.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The defence, certainly in this first chapter, is not convincing and at best piecemeal. Monro was on, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might have been present at, Bethlem committees where resolutions were taken towards improving various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of inmates? lives. \(pp. 25?6, 35, 37?8\) He expressed himself as firmly opposed to the practice of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?blistering? \(p. 28\). The amount of time he actually gave to his \(underpaid\) duties at the hospital \(?just three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times a week and for roughly two or three hours at a time?\) was in accordance ?with the customary model )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for hospital service? \(p. 18\). And he was on a committee that annually rewarded the reforming steward, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry White, who enlarged the provision of sheets for patients, which, along with other measures, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?more effective provisioning of stoves and fires?, ?probably still marginally improved patients? comfort? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite seeming ?somewhat minimal? to modern eyes \(p. 37\). On Monro?s acquiescence in the continuation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the entry of paying spectators at Bethlem ? unlike the new St Luke?s asylum across the road, where the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice was banned from the outset ? Andrews and Scull, admitting that such regulations as there were, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarding for example access to nude and semi-nude patients, were regularly flouted, can only speculate, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when visiting was restricted after 1770:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet perhaps, after all, this may be a misplaced criticism. Impolitic as it may seem to raise the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question, one must ask to what extent Bethlem?s patients benefited from the adoption of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new exclusionary policy. For the mob seeking their entertainment and show were only one )] TJ ET BT 64.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portion of Bedlam?s visitors. Just how harmful to patients? interests, on the other hand, were )] TJ ET BT 64.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those friends who were barred from the hospital after 1770 because they visited too often \(p. 27\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The point here, surely, is not that the mob was a fair price to pay for continued access by friends and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations, but that Bethlem, with or without Monro?s support, got it wrong again.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When Andrews and Scull turn in the second chapter to the Battie-Monro controversy, that angry exchange of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pamphlets in 1758 that followed the founding of St Luke?s a few years earlier, then at least there is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written evidence, and the responses of contemporaries to go by to assess the extent to which Monro has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?underestimated and misconstrued?. Here, again, the case for Battie is convincingly made. Not only was he a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man from a non-medical background whose career was not ?pre-ordained? \(p. 50\) by family, influence and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inherited ways of doing things, but he was instrumental in setting out, and in putting into practice, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenging new agenda for the insane, one which Monro, partly in defence of his father?s reputation, felt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obliged to contradict. Whatever the waxing and waning of the bad feeling between the two men, these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pamphlets stand as their major battleground. But, as others have pointed out before \(to Andrews? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scull?s irritation\), the battle is simply not equal, or being fought across the same territory. Even Battie?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agenda is in many respects extraordinary to a modern reader, but the crucial thing about it was the attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(move medical attitudes towards the insane out of the rut in which they had been lodged, owing in part, Battie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed, to the restrictive, secretive and backward-looking attitudes of Bethlem. Monro, on the other hand, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presents no medical agenda at all; his pamphlet follows Battie?s in point-by-point refutation and mockery. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ground on which Monro chooses to enter the lists is family honour:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My own inclination would never have led me to appear in print; but it was thought necessary for )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7152 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(me, in my situation, to say something in answer to the undeserved censures, which Dr. Battie )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has thrown upon my predecessors \( pp. 54, 55\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rebuttal and sarcasm are appropriate methods for this engagement, which means that the two pamphlets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differ stylistically as radically as they differ in medical outlook. Andrews and Scull praise the sarcasm, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generously designating it as ?at times ? positively Swiftian? \(p. 58\). This would be a matter of literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judgement, of course. Even if one were to concede the point \(and one only has to read a page of real Swift to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feel the need to demur\), it would be unhelpful in our reassessment of ?Monro?s importance in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of eighteenth-century mad-doctoring?. Andrews and Scull themselves virtually concede defeat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as they close this second chapter. ?Practically speaking?, they admit, Monro?s)] TJ ET BT 64.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obduracy only went to consolidate retrenchment at Bethlem itself, which implemented barely a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single reform in response to the example set at St. Luke?s. Monro and Bethlem?s governors )] TJ ET BT 64.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resisted a further twelve years after St. Luke?s foundation before following its example and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proscribing the indiscriminate admissions of visitors. Even more tellingly, while Monro clung to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Bethlem physicianship until his death, his erstwhile rival gracefully resigned his office in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1764 with a view to improving ?medical Knowledge.? Medical progress, Battie )] TJ ET BT 64.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristically remarked in his own resignation letter, could only be hindered by ?men )] TJ ET BT 64.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing old in confirmed Habits and Opinions?, and failing to make way for ?some younger )] TJ ET BT 64.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Physician? \(pp. 71?2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 467.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By a small irony, an exchange took place in 1997 on these review pages concerning Andrew Scull?s attitude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards biography, an approach, Scull rightly asserted, ?which is not centrally about good and bad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intentions?, the statement being prompted by a review of )] TJ ET BT 309.980 439.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Masters of Bedlam)] TJ ET BT 400.640 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, written by Jonathan Andrews.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 423.699 m 48.008 423.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Reading the first two chapters of )] TJ ET BT 210.980 425.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Undertaker of the Mind)] TJ ET BT 324.632 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, one wonders how far this principle has slipped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with regard to their treatment of Monro?s relations to Battie. The reassessment of a career is one thing, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the defence of ?obduracy? is the stance of champions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is not, of course, necessary, and should not be allowed to detract unduly from what is, after all, a rich and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rewarding book, not least because of the substantial amount of research that has been conducted over the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twenty years on different aspects of the history of insanity, not least by Andrews and Scull themselves. That )] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research is drawn on, and drawn together, in the four remaining chapters to give, less restricted by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obligation to reconstruct a reputation, a tellingly highlighted canvas of late eighteenth-century society?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment of those it designated as mad. Successive chapters cover madness and religion, with particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus on the fascinating figure of Alexander Cruden; madness and rank, dealing here with Horace Walpole?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nephew, Lord Orford; the development of the private madhouse; and madness and the law, not least the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases of the murderer Earl Ferrers and the would-be regicide Margaret Nicholson. If Monro?s relation to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(main actors in these dramas is often oblique that is as it should be, in taking the ?broader and more wide-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranging perspective on Unreason? that was promised at the outset. Regarding the mad, or sometimes mad, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lord Orford, for example, Monro?s own voice is rarely heard. The information we have comes from other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, not least through the correspondence of the more famous uncle. Walpole?s concerns are, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandably, more centred upon his family?s, and his own, reputation and the well-being of the property, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than on the portrayal of John Monro. But that angle, with the mad-doctor \(one among several called in\) only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a single piece in the jigsaw, is itself a telling fact in placing the response to insanity in the eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. The Walpole, too, who dominates these pages at the expense of Monro, is a slightly different one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(to adapt John Perceval?s later, tantalizing, phrase\) to the Walpole we encounter elsewhere. Similarly, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the stories of Earl Ferrers, who unsuccessfully claimed the defence of madness when tried for the murder of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his steward, and Margaret Nicholson, who was concluded insane while not thinking to claim it for herself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after damaging George III?s waistcoat with a kitchen knife, are familiar, they are less so when seen through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the lens of mad-doctoring, particularly when that lens includes not only Monro?s traditional practice and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(casebook, but the wealth of cultural and medical details the book has brought together. Andrews? and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 424.0135 48.0077 435.8935 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 4278 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scull?s debts here are considerable: to Joel Peter Eigen for his work on insanity defences in the courts; to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then-unpublished research by Elizabeth Foyster on the legal position of women, and on the Earl Ferrers case; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Roy Porter, of course, in most places, but particularly with regard to the development of private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(madhouses; to Akihito Suzuki; and to their own valuable earlier work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet there are some curious omissions in those consulted: Sander Gilman, for example, for discussions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visual representation of insanity \(and a bonus of the book is the generous and revealing illustrations\), as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as for his several volumes on the culture of sickness; William Parry-Jones, for his early work on the trade in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lunacy; R. A. B. Houston, for detailed discussion of madness and the law, albeit in Scotland; Helen Small, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the change in the cultural representation of female insanity; and Clement Hawes, for religious mania. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And while on the subject of omissions, or minor cavils, James Boswell, mentioned several times in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course of the text, appears only once in the index, where he is cited as ?Thomas? \(there was a Thomas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boswell, but this was James? younger brother, who changed his name from David: this is not he\); and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Nicholson is generally referred to as ?Nicholson? or ?Margaret? during the account of her offence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and examination, but tends to become, a little patronisingly, ?Meg? \(p. 239\) once installed in Bethlem.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That said, and my earlier objections notwithstanding, this book is, not unexpectedly, given the credentials of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its authors, a rewarding and well-conducted account of a fascinating and significant period, painstakingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researched and richly annotated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 509.475 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 478.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 70.016 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Review of )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 70.016 477.459 m 122.672 477.459 l S BT 122.672 478.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Masters of Bedlam. The Transformation of the Mad-Doctoring Trade)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 122.672 477.633 m 455.672 477.633 l S BT 455.672 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Andrew Scull's )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 455.672 477.459 m 555.152 477.459 l S BT 64.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 463.203 m 106.004 463.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 109.004 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 122.996 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 128.996 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 128.996 463.203 m 182.984 463.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 438.341 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 419.359 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 401.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 401.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/328)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 400.185 m 322.316 400.185 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 375.208 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 360.808 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1581)] TJ ET BT 34.016 346.408 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/paper/masters.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.008 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 70.0157 477.7735 222.1517 489.6535 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/paper/masters.html) >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 122.6717 477.7735 455.6717 489.6535 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/paper/masters.html) >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 463.5175 106.0037 475.3975 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/paper/masters.html) >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 128.9957 463.5175 182.9837 475.3975 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 400.4995 322.3157 412.3795 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/328) >> endobj xref 0 35 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000591 00000 n 0000000673 00000 n 0000004725 00000 n 0000004834 00000 n 0000004944 00000 n 0000005053 00000 n 0000008614 00000 n 0000008742 00000 n 0000008826 00000 n 0000008891 00000 n 0000016187 00000 n 0000016252 00000 n 0000022890 00000 n 0000022974 00000 n 0000030179 00000 n 0000030209 00000 n 0000030335 00000 n 0000030371 00000 n 0000030483 00000 n 0000034814 00000 n 0000034941 00000 n 0000035064 00000 n 0000035192 00000 n 0000035315 00000 n 0000035442 00000 n 0000035565 00000 n 0000035693 00000 n 0000035748 00000 n 0000035876 00000 n trailer << /Size 35 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35971 %%EOF