%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818071054+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818071054+01'00') /Title (The Structure of Politics at the Accession of George III) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4723 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Structure of Politics at the Accession of George III)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The publication of what is often known simply as )] TJ ET BT 275.000 344.603 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Structure of Politics)] TJ ET BT 392.672 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( transformed the perceived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political landscape of eighteenth-century Britain. Prior to 1929 British political history from 1688 was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadly conceived of as a two-party rivalry of Whig and Tory, underpinning a constitutional monarchy and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern cabinet system based on a party majority in the House of Commons. That was the classic 'Whig )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation' of history for the period, embodied in the scholarly work of Lord Macaulay, W.E.H. Lecky, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G.O. Trevelyan and G.M. Trevelyan, and popularised in Sir Charles Grant Robertson's textbook )] TJ ET BT 498.104 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(under the Hanoverians)] TJ ET BT 144.668 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, reprinted sixteen times since 1911. What Namier did was to cut a cross-section )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the British political system in the middle of the eighteenth century and demonstrate that no such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parties existed. It was as if a zoologist had dissected a creature previously thought to have been vertebrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and shown it to be boneless. Namier, instead of viewing political history as the deeds of great men, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned himself with the behaviour of ordinary MPs, revealing a political system of infinite subtlety, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the great majority of MPs simultaneously seeking favours from government and professing their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence, varying permutations of these two attitudes constituting political reality. Apart from the use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of techniques such is prosopograthy, the study of social and family connections, what distinguished Namier's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work was meticulous attention to detail and emphasis on original sources. Namierisation, a word coined in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his lifetime, was essentially a substitution of accurate detail for the generalisations that had contented earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians. Namier went to the grass-roots of politics. He asked such questions as : what determined the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conduct of individual MPs? Why did men go into politics? What did they get out of it?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This might now seem unremarkable, and Namier was not, of course, the first historian to concentrate his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention on manuscript evidence, but his much-publicised 'paper-chases', as he called them, made such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(32)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 June, 1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lewis Namier)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1957)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(514pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Thomas)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6960 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endeavours henceforth mandatory for serious scholars. Present-day historians, familiar with modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(techniques far more sophisticated than Namier's cruder methods, might well wonder what all the fuss was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about. The initial reception of the book provides part of the answer.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the )] TJ ET BT 64.676 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 190.676 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( D.A. Winstanley, himself the author of two monographs on the 1760s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(graciously acknowledged the significance of Namier's book:)] TJ ET BT 94.016 677.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No previous writer has ever made so thorough and gallant an attempt to discover )] TJ ET BT 94.016 662.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the actual workings of the political system of the eighteenth century .... The result is )] TJ ET BT 94.016 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a very notable contribution to the study of eighteenth-century politics. .... He has )] TJ ET BT 94.016 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shown us that the lucidity we thought we possessed was delusive, and only obtained )] TJ ET BT 94.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by an artificial simplification of an extremely involved system. ... We have thought )] TJ ET BT 94.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Parliament, and in a lesser degree, of the country as being neatly divided up into )] TJ ET BT 94.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whigs and Tories.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winstanley, however, was not entirely convinced, and queried Namier's preface flourish that 'the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life of the period could be fully described without ever using a party denomination'.. This claim Winstanley )] TJ ET BT 34.016 512.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described as 'a point of view of great interest', and more generally he pronounced that 'though some of us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 498.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may not be prepared to accept without further question all of Mr. Namier's conclusions and implications, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is no doubt that all of us will be compelled to revise and modify many of our previous conceptions'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such appreciation of the significance of Namier's findings was not the norm. The review in )] TJ ET BT 474.764 458.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 510.764 458.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 443.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic historian Sir Richard Lodge was a put-down. 'The title )] TJ ET BT 352.484 443.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Structure of Politics)] TJ ET BT 449.156 443.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is perhaps too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 429.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambitious.' Lodge placed the book on a level with the descriptive )] TJ ET BT 349.472 429.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Unreformed House of Commons)] TJ ET BT 505.124 429.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by E. and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 415.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A.G. Porritt published in 1903, and implied that it would be of interest to local rather than general historians. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robertson, in a new 1930 edition of his )] TJ ET BT 226.340 401.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England under the Hanoverians)] TJ ET BT 380.660 401.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( commented that 'there has been a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 386.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tendency to exaggerate the extent and novelty of Mr. Namier's conclusions', and left the old interpretation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 372.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intact in his text, relegating his garbled summary of Namier's book to Appendix XXI.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 346.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Doubtless in part because of the Second World War, a major distraction from scholarship, it took some time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Namier's work to undermine the entrenched orthodoxy; but by the 1950s the implications of his research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 317.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were being adopted in political analyses of eighteenth-century Britain. Hanoverian politics were now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 303.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portrayed in terms not of a party conflict of Whig and Tory, but of an alignment between 'Court' and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Country', government and opposition. Three types of MPs were analytically portrayed : a minority of active )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicians who headed both administration and opposition; another minority of office-holders who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 260.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invariably supported government; and a majority of independents, divided between the two political sides. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 246.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Changes of ministry merely involved reshuffles among the politicians, acting either as individuals or as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of loose groupings centred around a leader. Since all active politicians claimed to be Whigs, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political game was conducted virtually without reference to party terminology. Namier's views were now the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new orthodoxy. In 1962 Dorothy Marshall avowedly wrote her university text-book )] TJ ET BT 439.292 203.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eighteenth Century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England)] TJ ET BT 74.684 189.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, covering the period 1714 to 1784, on Namierite lines, adopting 'the new interpretations' as she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(termed them; and other general surveys by J.S. Watson, J.B. Owen, W.A. Speck and I.R. Christie followed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same approach. The implications of Namier's book, both in methodology and conclusions, extended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronologically before and after his own period of research, into the writing of British history in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 132.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth, early eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. For the reign of George III studies by John Brooke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Ian Christie confirmed the Namierite political analysis for the periods 1766-68 and 1780-82 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 103.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respectively. But there was no further need to demonstrate its validity, and Namier's grand design for a series )] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of such volumes never got off the ground.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That such structural analysis seemed to be all that was being written under Namier's aegis led to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complaint that he had 'taken the mind out of history', and Sir Herbert Butterfield launched a famous )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8563 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical controversy of the 1950s by accusing Namier and his alleged 'school' of removing the ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(content from political history. This attack often confused aims and methods, and lacked logic, as one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Namierite John Owen pointed out in reply. 'The counting of heads does not necessarily mean the discounting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ideas.' The charge against Namier himself was particularly unfair, for it overlooked the circumstance that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own original intention had been a study of the coming of the American Revolution, an aim he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diverted from when he perceived the error of conventional historical interpretations of the politics of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period. Namier never returned to his first aim, but subsequent historians have demonstrated that a Namierite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political framework is no barrier to the discussion of policies and principles.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Criticism of Namier swelled after his death in 1960. In the felicitous phrase of his biographer Linda Colley, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('the former cult figure was transmuted into a bogeyman'. Whereas few had the courage of Butterfield to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attack the great man openly to his face, others now did so when he was safely in his coffin. Some bravely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursued a posthumous vendetta, from real or imagined grievances. Others genuinely disagreed with Namier's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methods and conclusions. But there were broader reasons for this widespread reaction than motives of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal malice or academic revenge. The study of ruling elites became unfashionable. The trend, indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was away from political history altogether, towards social history; and by this was meant the lives of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordinary folk, not Namier's landed oligarchy. The history of ideas came back into favour, and Namier was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought to be the arch-enemy of the roles of logic and principle in human behaviour.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is an irony of historical scholarship that the ongoing revival of interest in political history has produced the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situation that, while the examination of principles and politics has largely been carried out within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Namierite framework, there has been a simultaneous attempt to reclaim the Hanoverian period for traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party history. Some historians have discovered a Tory party in existence until the 1750s. Frank O'Gorman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has linked the Whig governing party of the first two Georges with the Whig party of the early nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. Scholarly challenges have thus sought to limit the significance of Namier's research to the middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades of the eighteenth century. In many respects this controversy is more apparent than real. The Tory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party of the earlier Hanoverian period is not portrayed as the sole opposition to Whig ministers, and can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accommodated among the 'independent MPs' identified by Namierite scholarship. Likewise the Whig party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of George III's reign can be placed among the 'politicians' of the Namierite analysis, and are not depicted as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposing 'Tory' ministers in Lord North and the Younger Pitt, both of whom themselves came from Whig )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(backgrounds.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That the Namier Revolution is an enduring achievement of historical scholarship can be demonstrated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison of G.M. Trevelyan's three-volume )] TJ ET BT 259.796 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England under Queen Anne)] TJ ET BT 393.440 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1930-1934\). with Geoffrey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holmes's )] TJ ET BT 81.176 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics in the Age of Anne)] TJ ET BT 209.504 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1967\). This book, often deemed second only to Namier's )] TJ ET BT 491.624 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Structure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics)] TJ ET BT 70.688 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in modern scholarship on eighteenth-century politics, was avowedly written to counter a Namierite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation of that period by R. Walcott. Yet even this revisionist work on 'the first age of party' is cast in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Namierite mould of categorising MPs as members of political groups, office-holders and independents, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(albeit divided broadly into Whigs and Tories. Destroyed for ever is the notion of 'The Two-Party System in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English Political History' summarised and publicised by G.M. Trevelyan in his 1926 Romanes Lecture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that title, delivered only three years before the publication of )] TJ ET BT 328.292 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Structure of Politics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Notes:)] TJ ET BT 48.816 180.490 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 180.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 190.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 44 \(1929\), 657-60)] TJ ET BT 48.816 166.234 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History, 14 \(1929-1940\), 269-70. The )] TJ ET BT 248.660 166.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 394.664 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( did not review books at the time.)] TJ ET BT 48.816 151.978 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J.S. Watson, )] TJ ET BT 127.016 151.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Reign of George III, 1760-1815)] TJ ET BT 300.320 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Oxford, 1960\). J.B. Owen, )] TJ ET BT 434.300 151.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Eighteenth Century, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 137.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1714-1815 )] TJ ET BT 119.012 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Nelson, 1974\). W.A. Speck, )] TJ ET BT 261.320 137.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Stability and Strife: England 1714-1760 )] TJ ET BT 456.992 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Arnold, 1977\). I.R. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christie, )] TJ ET BT 108.020 123.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wars and Revolutions: Britain 1760-1815 )] TJ ET BT 313.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Arnold, 1982\))] TJ ET BT 385.004 123.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 48.816 109.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. Brunton and D.H. Pennington, )] TJ ET BT 228.344 109.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Members of the Long Parliament )] TJ ET BT 390.668 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1954\). R.R. Walcott, )] TJ ET BT 497.660 109.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English )] TJ ET BT 64.016 94.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics in the Early Eighteenth Century \()] TJ ET BT 264.008 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1956\). G. Nash, )] TJ ET BT 343.328 94.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics in)] TJ ET BT 395.336 94.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Age of Peel )] TJ ET BT 471.320 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1953\). H.J. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanham, )] TJ ET BT 110.672 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Elections and Party Management in the Age of Gladstone and Disraeli )] TJ ET BT 454.316 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1959\).)] TJ ET BT 48.816 66.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Brooke, )] TJ ET BT 116.012 66.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Chatham Administration, 1766-1768)] TJ ET BT 314.024 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1956\). I.R. Christie, The End of North's )] TJ ET BT 64.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ministry, 1780-1782 \(1958\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 5385 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Especially in )] TJ ET BT 129.344 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(George III and the Historians )] TJ ET BT 275.660 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1957\).)] TJ ET BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J.B. Owen, 'Professor Butterfield and the Namier School', )] TJ ET BT 344.300 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cambridge Review)] TJ ET BT 456.956 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 79 \(10th May )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1958\), 528-31)] TJ ET BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H.V. Bowen, )] TJ ET BT 130.340 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revenue and Reform)] TJ ET BT 230.312 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 236.312 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Indian Problem in British Politics 1757-1773 )] TJ ET BT 478.652 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1991\); I.R. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christie, Wilkes, Wyvill and Reform, 1760-1785 \(1962\); P. Langford, )] TJ ET BT 403.988 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The)] TJ ET BT 424.988 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(First Rockingham )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Administration 1765-1766 )] TJ ET BT 194.024 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1973\); L.S. Sutherland, )] TJ ET BT 313.352 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The East India Company in Eighteenth-Century )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics )] TJ ET BT 103.688 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1952\); P.D.G. Thomas, )] TJ ET BT 222.680 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Politics and the Stamp Act Crisis 1763-1767 \()] TJ ET BT 479.360 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1975\); id., )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Townshend Duties Crisis 1767-1773 )] TJ ET BT 263.696 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1987\); id., )] TJ ET BT 320.360 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tea Party to Independence 1773-1776)] TJ ET BT 504.992 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1991\).)] TJ ET BT 48.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linda Colley, )] TJ ET BT 133.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lewis Namier )] TJ ET BT 203.024 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1989\), p.94)] TJ ET BT 42.816 668.170 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linda Colley, )] TJ ET BT 133.016 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In Defiance of Oligarchy: The Tory Party 1714-60 )] TJ ET BT 379.652 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1982\). E. Cruickshanks, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Political Untouchables; the Tories and the '45 )] TJ ET BT 289.580 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1979\). J.C.D.Clark, )] TJ ET BT 390.572 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Dynamics of Change: The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crisis of the 1750s and English Party Systems )] TJ ET BT 288.692 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1982\).)] TJ ET BT 42.816 625.402 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(F. O'Gorman, )] TJ ET BT 132.836 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise of Party in England: The Rockingham Whigs 1760-1782)] TJ ET BT 448.484 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1975\); id., )] TJ ET BT 508.148 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Whig )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Party and the French Revolution)] TJ ET BT 221.996 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1967\); id., )] TJ ET BT 281.660 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Emergence of the British)] TJ ET BT 425.312 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Two-Party System 1760-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1832 )] TJ ET BT 91.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1982\).)] TJ ET BT 42.816 582.634 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R.R. Walcott, )] TJ ET BT 133.016 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Politics in the Early Eighteenth Century )] TJ ET BT 368.684 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1956\).)] TJ ET BT 42.816 568.378 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The lecture may be found in G.M. Trevelyan, )] TJ ET BT 285.632 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Autobiography and other Essays )] TJ ET BT 461.960 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1949\), pp. 183-99. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For broader appraisals of Namier's work see John Cannon 'Lewis Bernstein Namier' in )] TJ ET BT 482.084 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Historian )] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(at Work)] TJ ET BT 102.344 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, edited by John Cannon \(Allen and Unwin, 1980\), pp. 136-153, and Linda Colley, )] TJ ET BT 501.644 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Namier)] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Historians on Historians, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1989\). Both have guides for further reading.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 480.367 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 462.587 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 462.587 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/32a)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 461.193 m 321.644 461.193 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 436.216 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 421.816 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4401)] TJ ET BT 34.016 407.416 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 461.5075 321.6437 473.3875 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/32a) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000559 00000 n 0000000641 00000 n 0000005416 00000 n 0000005525 00000 n 0000005635 00000 n 0000005744 00000 n 0000009305 00000 n 0000009433 00000 n 0000009517 00000 n 0000009582 00000 n 0000016595 00000 n 0000016660 00000 n 0000025276 00000 n 0000025360 00000 n 0000030798 00000 n 0000030926 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31021 %%EOF