%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722185747+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722185747+01'00') /Title (A History of Medieval Political Thought, 300-1450) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4322 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A History of Medieval Political Thought, 300-1450)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joseph Canning's preface acknowledges a debt to his research supervisor Walter Ullmann, whose Penguin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Political Thought: the Middle Ages, )] TJ ET BT 260.684 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in 1965 \(revised edition 1970\) has remained a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standard introduction for anglophone readers. A new short guide is timely, and the ex-student's will bid fair )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to replace the master's. Like Ullmann's, this book is admirably clear in presentation and exposition. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judiciously summarises a good deal of the research done over the past thirty years, and has an up-to-date )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography, including much in Germ. an. Specialists will be grateful too for end-note citations of texts in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the original Latin. The book's division into four well-defined chronological chapters of virtually equal length )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a solid structure: the first chapter goes from Late Antiquity to the eighth century; the second covers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Carolingian and post-Carolingian periods; the third opens with a clear account of the Investiture Contest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and traces church-state conflicts through the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, as well as discussing the impact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on political ideas of 'the revived legacy of antiquity' in law and philosophy; the fourth pursues church-state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflicts, and also conflict within the church, in the late Middle Ages, specifically through their exposition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the writings of jurists. Lines of substantial continuity are picked out and followed up consistently. Thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ten lucid pages in Chapter 1 on the Code of Justinian provide a reference-point for the discussion in Chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3 and 4 of the revived study and application of the Code in the central and later Middle Ages; and evolving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(33)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 November, 1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joseph Canning)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415013499)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.routledge.com/books/A-History-of-Medieval-Political-Thought-isbn9780415013499)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Janet Nelson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8289 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas of papal government are dealt with successively in all four chapters. This is, in one important sense, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(go with the grain of the subject: ideas do have a life of their own, as one writer copies, modifies and refines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another's work, takes up the old terminological tools, while putting them to new uses.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet if anachronism is, as Lucien Febvre said, historians' cardinal sin, it is one most seductively besetting for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the historian of ideas. Canning chides \(fairly gently\) Ullmann himself for sometimes having read early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval texts through later medieval spectacles, with distorting results. Readers are firmly warned that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passages from Justinian's Code, or the letters of Gregory I, were extrapolated from their original context in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later centuries, and assigned rather different meanings from what their original authors intended. Canning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stresses at the outset the need to treat thought in historical context, to view ideas 'against the background of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the societies, institutions, conflicts and intellectual milieux in which they were produced and with which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were concerned'. To historians of ideas, this is a congenial if familiar mission statement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A comparison of Canning's work with Ullmann's not only provides a useful reviewer's entre but seems at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first to fit Canning's own agenda. In Chapter 1, he repeatedly sets out Ullmann's interpretation on a particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point, then proceeds to qualify, or even dissent from, it: the notion of Caesaropapism is rejected on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grounds that the Byzantine emperor was never a priest \(pp. 13-14?though the potentially misleading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expression 'priest-king' continues to be used from time to time by Canning himself\); a homogeneous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Germanic kingship' is discarded \(following P.D. King\) as 'a myth' \(p. 16\); the claim that earlier medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governmental power was conceived unilineally, as 'descending' from on high, is challenged on the grounds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it privileges the question of origin \(where does power come from?\) and underplays that of purpose \(what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is power for?\) \(p. 19\); the account of the ruler's tutorial function as straightforwardly 'theocratic' is attacked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as partial \(p. 21\); the centrality of legislation to theocracy is seriously qualified by a counter-emphasis on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of the 'people' in the application of legal custom \(pp. 23-24\); the reading of Leo I's 'plenitude of power' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a jurisdictional sense is rejected as anachronistic \(p. 32\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some features of the book's structure too mark a break with Ullmann's. Beginning Chapter 1 in the fourth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century rather than the mid-fifth allows Canning to appreciate the importance of Constantine's reign, and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(set Justinian's ideology of Christian Empire in its full Late Antique context. It also means the inclusion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Augustine \(pp. 39-43\), and this provides the basis for consideration of 'I'augustinisme politique' in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carolingian period. Though he accords no recognition to the work of Peter Brown \(Beryl Smalley ed., )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Trends in Medieval Political Thought \( )] TJ ET BT 224.684 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1965\), including indispensable papers by Brown and others, is quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most surprising omission from his Bibliography\), Canning writes with benefit of )] TJ ET BT 441.680 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cambridge History )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Medieval Political Thought \( l 9F\) )] TJ ET BT 215.012 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edited by J.H. Burns, and makes good use of the sections by Donald )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicol on Byzantium, and by P. D. King on the barbarian kingdoms: the notes to Canning's Chapter 1 contain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seven references to )] TJ ET BT 128.972 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cambridge History. )] TJ ET BT 248.972 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 2 is clearly seen by Canning himself as an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and distinctive feature of his book: the period from the eighth century to the eleventh was, he writes \(p. 44\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('of crucial significance because it witnessed the consolidation of characteristic medieval ideas about both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of organised society and its structures of authority and power. Many of these concepts ... were to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remain basic for the remainder of the Middle Ages'. Such an appraisal contrasts with that implicit in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ullmann's 1965 book and in the text and source-books of John Morrall, Ewart Lewis and Brian Tierney, all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of similar vintage and all consigning the earlier medieval period to relative, or total, neglect.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet if Canning's emphasis on the Carolingian period is in some ways welcome, it must be said that a close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading of Chapter 2 suggests an incomplete account of the period's importance \(the influence of Augustine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is underestimated, particularly in relation to Hincmar of Rheims, and the notes to this chapter, in striking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast to Chapter l's, reflect a lack of any substantial reference to )] TJ ET BT 357.092 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cambridge History\) )] TJ ET BT 478.088 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncomfortable juxtaposition of interpretations rather than a synthesis. The problem here is not that ninth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century people themselves entertained diverse, even contradictory, ideas: in fact, a more or less coherent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and certainly usable, set of principles of government can be elicited from such texts as Hincmar of Rheims' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quierzy Letter of 858 and )] TJ ET BT 161.648 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De divortio )] TJ ET BT 219.644 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 860 \(both unmentioned by Canning\) and the )] TJ ET BT 448.292 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Deordine palatii )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(mentioned by Canning only in passing in n. 53 to p. 63\), as well as from coronation )] TJ ET BT 441.992 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ordines )] TJ ET BT 480.992 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usefulness as evidence is well noted\). Canning's problem stems, l think, from his reluctance to rethink )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radically Ullmann's notions of theocratic and feudal kingship, set out most forcefully in )] TJ ET BT 456.800 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Principles of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 35.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Government and Politics in the Middle Ages \( )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 4540 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1961\), which was the calque for the 1965 text-book. )] TJ ET BT 287.636 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ullmann's own discovery, as it were, of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carolingians' importance for the formation of theocratic monarchy \(from 800, empire as well as kingship is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevant\) came in the later 1960s, and was unveiled in )] TJ ET BT 295.628 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Carolingian Renaissance and the Idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kingship )] TJ ET BT 80.360 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1969\). If research since then, as Canning rightly stresses, has highlighted the role of consent in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carolingian government, this does not mean that Carolingian kingship should be seen, instead, as feudal. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canning's difficulties over this are evident. On p. 60, he struggles to identify the origins of fidelity \(a clearer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinction between the royal )] TJ ET BT 176.000 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(comitatus )] TJ ET BT 225.668 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the aristocratic assembly would have helped\). On p. 61, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of whether the Carolingian regime was feudal ends on a note of uncertainty \(Susan Reynolds' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fiefs and Vassals )] TJ ET BT 121.688 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1994\), referred to fleetingly in n. 91 to p. 163 in the context of the academic law of fiefs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but by no means fully done justice to, really ought to have been taken on board in this context as well\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Through out this section, the term 'signorial', introduced on p. 60 as a synonym for aristocratic, and used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere apparently as a synonym for feudal, rephrases the problem without resolving it. We arrive at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar impasse to that reached in Chapter 1 \(pp. 23-4\), in the context of barbarian codes, where Canning, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after remarking, '...the king gives them legal force, yet they remain in a profound sense the people's law', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes: 'At a deep level there is co-operation between ruler and people. This can be seen as an ambiguity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or a discrepancy within this conception of monarchy; but to view it this way is really to impose too rigid an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretative structure on the complexity of medieval ideas of rulership and to complain when apparent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inconsistencies result... [I]f applied too rigorously it [i.e. 'the theocratic thesis' has the defect that it is ... too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simple. The problems involved in the theocratic ruler's relationship to existing law only received overt and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed attention far later in the Middle Ages with the development of scientific jurisprudence when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties were clearly perceived'. The appeal to 'complexity' \(are medieval political ideas peculiar in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respect?\), and the last sentence's )] TJ ET BT 192.128 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(non-sequitur, )] TJ ET BT 259.460 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest that Canning has washing his hands of the problem as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far as the earlier Middle Ages are concerned. Yet it is precisely in that earlier-medieval context that the idea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of consent and?neglected by Canning in this chapter?the closely related ideas of community and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation need close attention, preferably with reference to a number of works by G. Althoff, T. Bisson, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O.-G. Oexle, E. Peters and S. White, and most of all to Susan Reynolds, )] TJ ET BT 382.988 440.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kingdoms and Communities \( 1984\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(all absentees from Canning's Bibliography\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8464 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To say that such ideas were 'not nearly so noticeable in the sources' as theocratic ones, and 'remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predominantly at the level of word and action rather than written record' is to beg the question of what count )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as 'sources'. 'Before the mid-eleventh century the raw materials for political ideas in the west were relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restricted', Canning asserts \(p. 84\). Even on a narrow definition of such materials, there is more than he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allows. He never mentions the Theodosian Code, for instance, whose importance to earlier medieval legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and political thinking parallels that of Justinian's Code for the later period. Cicero's political writings, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boethius's )] TJ ET BT 86.516 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Consolation of Philosophy, )] TJ ET BT 220.532 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were known and used by writers from the ninth century onwards. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among the 'raw materials' for political ideas are, surely, records and reflections of the lived experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political activity. Of that, there is a very great deal of evidence in a wide range of documentary and narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and literary texts, th works not of legal professionals \(this remains true even after Canning's scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jurisprudential watershed c. l l 00\) but, directly or indirectly, of men, and occasionally women, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledgeable in public business and affairs of the realm, in disputing and in dispute-settlement, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mediation and arbitration, and in such serious entertainments as reading, or listening to, tales of the past in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(song or history. Nor was intellectual endeavour hermetically sealed off from all this 'real life': Hincmar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced his most penetrating political analysis in considering King Lothar's divorce, and King Alfred's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(version of Boethius' )] TJ ET BT 133.172 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Consolation )] TJ ET BT 194.852 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embodied reflections on his own exercise of power )] TJ ET BT 442.796 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(anweald\) )] TJ ET BT 494.456 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over praying-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men, fighting-men and working-men. Given the abundance and variety of materials, it is questionable at this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point whether 'the importance of legal )] TJ ET BT 219.476 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and especially juristic )] TJ ET BT 328.472 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources my stress] was paramount' in all or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even most political debate and thinking in the Middle Ages. This is not to deny such sources' importance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even for the earlier period and especially for the later, nor to underestimate Canning's expertise in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expounding them: but his avowed intention \(p. XI\) to provide 'elucidation of political assumptions, attitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and mentalities' would have been best served had he cast his evidential net as wide as possible. In the case of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 2, why exclude )] TJ ET BT 150.992 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beowulf, )] TJ ET BT 196.328 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dhuoda's )] TJ ET BT 244.148 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Manual; )] TJ ET BT 288.476 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the letters of Einhard or Filbert of Charters; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical writings of Region, Richer, Thietmar; and unassuming charter-records of dispute-settlement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(including some involving peasants\)?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The point about range of evidence can be made in spades for the period from the mid-eleventh century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covered in Chapters 3 and 4. It is a period not only much better documented than the earlier Middle Ages in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of treatises explicitly concerned with political ideas, but also offering a far wider range of other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevant texts, and increasingly, now, and not only in England, in vernacular languages as well as in Latin. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, the later medieval period is Canning's own research area. Unfortunately, his chronological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even-handedness has entailed a self-denying ordinance: devoting only half his book to the most evidence-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rich period, Canning has had to be much more selective here, drastically paring down his treatment of such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(congenial themes as sovereignty and corporation theory. Even so, might room not have been found for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Magna Carta, or for )] TJ ET BT 132.320 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Song of Lewes )] TJ ET BT 225.656 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Jean Dunbabin comments illuminatingly on this in )] TJ ET BT 475.328 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cambridge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History\), )] TJ ET BT 80.012 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or for Aquinas's Advice-Letter to the Duchess of Brabant about the right to tax? If Christine de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pisan's absence may not surprise all Canning's academic readership, Fortescue's undoubtedly will. So too, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surely, will the absence of any reference to Marc Bloch's )] TJ ET BT 309.764 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Royal Touch \( )] TJ ET BT 401.756 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1924, English translation 1973\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or to \(Georges Duby's )] TJ ET BT 142.820 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Three Orders )] TJ ET BT 231.812 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1978, English translation 1980\), or to anything by Alain Boureau. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More disappointing?since the history of thought is a matter of themes as well as individual writers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts?is the lack of direct and sustained discussion of: secular representative institutions; counsel; office-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holding; public opinion; the legitimacy or otherwise of taxation; the king's two bodies; the genesis and utility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the term 'sovereignty'; force as a constituent of power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The scope of the second half of this book seems, sadly, to be narrow by design. Canning has opted for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delineation of his subject that may be less accurately called traditional than Ullmannesque. The texts chosen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for more detailed discussion are largely those Ullmann chose, and though new scholarship is often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned, the readings offered seldom diverge from Ullmann's. It's true that more recent views of Innocent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(III as pastoral carer are set against Ullmann's picture of the arch-hierocrat \(p. 123\), but where is there any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention of Innocent's activities as territorial prince confronting representative assemblies in central-Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towns? Some aspects of ideas about the state and sovereignty are certainly dealt with effectively in these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters, and the section on conciliarism is notably good, but all is generally presented along tracks laid by )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 8166 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ullmann. When Canning lays such stress on juristic sources, when he writes \(p. xi\) that '... [B]ecause of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of the church, ecclesiological questions assumed a political significance which they would have lacked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a more secular age', when he hails the twelfth-century growth of legal science as bringing 'a permanent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development in the language of political thought' \(p. 114\), or uses the repeated \(and insidiously teleological\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motif-metaphor of seeds being sown, or evokes the mysterious sonorities of the organological, we hear his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(master's voice.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ullmann's influence on the way medieval political thought is approached and conceived of, that is, on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form as well as the substance of a whole academic sub-discipline, remains pervasive in the anglophone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world even now, a generation after his main works were published. Whether or not that influence is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beneficial, and in some respects it certainly has been, it needs, in the late 1990s, to be reappraised, not just in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parts? Canning does indeed tackle some parts?but as a whole. For if ever a scholar produced a body of work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that hangs together, it was Ullmann. The one critic to have paid Ullmann the compliment, a genuine one, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confronting his whole )] TJ ET BT 142.340 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(oeuvre )] TJ ET BT 177.992 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been Frank Oakley, in a paper published nearly a quarter of a century ago )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in )] TJ ET BT 46.352 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past and Present )] TJ ET BT 131.348 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60 \(1973\). The important challenge that paper represented has simply not been taken up, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even by those best able to do so. There was a total silence on Oakley's paper in )] TJ ET BT 415.436 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cambridge History, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including the two chapters which were Canning's very substantial contributions to it; and now Canning is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(silent still. Yet Oakley's critique had and has extensive implications for the way historians 'read' and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periodise medieval political ideas. Oakley argued that the rediscovery of Aristotle in the central Middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ages, far from destroying 'traditional' theocratic modes of thought, permitted them to be restated and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reaffirmed, not least because Aristotelian 'naturalism' in fact accommodated the supernatural. Oakley's re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading, further, suggested the need to modify traditional periodisation, and particularly to reconsider the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twelfth/thirteenth-century Great Divide in which earlier notions of a sacred and mystical cosmology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allegedly yielded to a secular, rational and legal one, or in Canning's words \(p. 110\), 'purely religious and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oral categories' gave way to 'a physical explanation of nature', but also an essentially monarchist \(theocratic\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political ideal came to be superseded by a constitutionalist one. Interestingly, revisionist periodising looks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more needful now than it did in the '70s, thanks to work on sources hitherto largely neglected in the context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of political ideas: on the one hand by the contributors to Wendy Davies and Paul Fouracre's edited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection, )] TJ ET BT 87.344 399.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Settlement of Disputes in Early Medieval Europe )] TJ ET BT 346.652 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1986\), who insist that earlier medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modes of legal and political thinking were no less, or more, rational than later analogues; on the other hand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Philippe Buc, who showed in )] TJ ET BT 193.016 371.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(L'ambiguit du livre. Prince, pouvoir et peuple dans les Commentaires de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(la Bible au moyen ge )] TJ ET BT 144.332 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1994\) \(another absentee from Canning's bibliography\) that early medieval Bible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentators were often critical of kings and emphatic on original human equality, while later medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentators firmly defended majesty, a shift which reflected the changing relationship between princes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and subjects. If Canning in stressing the theocratic aspect of earlier medieval kingship underplays ideas of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collective action \(which are quite distinct from the individual obligations of man to lord\), he also underplays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the re-evaluation of late medieval secular monarchy. To be sure, he is right about the significance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advent of professional lawyers, but even in the late Middle Ages lawyers were not the only political thinkers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and when they formulated political ideas they generally responded to demands from the powers that were.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All historians learn these days that the past is another country; and many great medievalists have insisted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that we fully register the strangeness of the medieval world. If the Middle Ages look too familiar, we fear a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lapse into our cardinal sin.... In the end, though, it should be possible to make that world, and the workings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of power within it, intelligible to, say, a student of modern political thought, or a political scientist wishing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to learn something s/he can relate to, and compare with, other ideologies and systems. For such a non-expert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or non-insider, Canning's book may make the Middle Ages look stranger, odder, more baffling, than they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need or should. For this is the effect not only of Canning's Ullmannesque focus on 'legal and especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(juristic sources', but of his Ullmannesque prioritising of church-state relations, and his insistence that from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Carolingian period on, 'a central and defining problem for the rest of medieval political thought [was] the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between temporal and spiritual power, and in particular that between the papacy and the empire', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, further, that '[i]t was the prominence of this question which above all was to single out the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought of the Middle Ages as being different from that of subsequent periods' \(p. 74\). Of course these were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important issues; and, yes, they generated political thinking because?and Canning could have said this )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 4666 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(louder and more clearly?they were essentially struggles about power and property. But in towns and villages, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in castles and courts, in counsels and councils, power and property were discussed, negotiated and argued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over: the idiom was in part distinctively of its time \(privileges might, for instance, be credited to half )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mythical kings; saints might be invoked as protectors\) and place \(the king might be Athelstan, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charlemagne; the saint, a national or an urban totem whose power was literally on site\), but many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantive issues were such as to be recognisably political )] TJ ET BT 320.312 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tout court. )] TJ ET BT 373.316 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Without succumbing to anachronism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students of medieval political thought can read, and 'read', evidence of claims about rights, affirmations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities, beliefs about community, ideals of original equality, assertions about the responsibilities that go )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with power, critiques of bad rulership, justifications of resistance, demands for representation jostling with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only apparently contradictory requests to be represented, calls for justice, and last but not least assumptions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about gender and patriarchy, which are more or less \(and in some cases all too\) familiar.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What, then, if anything, is distinctive, or in Canning's phrase 'specifically medieval' about medieval political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas? In his Conclusion, Canning offers, in effect, three traits. Of these, theocratic monarchy only half-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualifies, given its hellenistic and late-Roman roots and early modern derivatives; and Susan Reynolds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(Ideas and Solidarities of the Medieval Laity \(1995\), )] TJ ET BT 289.664 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but already in )] TJ ET BT 358.652 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kingdoms and Communities\) )] TJ ET BT 501.656 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cogently questioned the contribution of corporation theory to the development of ideas of the state as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abstract entity. We are left with constitutionalism, and ideas of individual and collective rights. Here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canning, and Ullmann before him \(and before him, Mcllwain, and before him, the good old brothers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carlyle\) surely have, and had, a point of very great importance. It needed amplifying, and setting in social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and political contexts that were secular, lay and pervaded by custom. Canning has spent long with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastics and jurists. But those men had lay patrons, and secular governments as paymasters, and every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patron and paymaster too had to answer to a constituency, a public, with political ideas and priorities and, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the last resort, some power, of its own. Canning has not spent long enough with courtiers, counsellors, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guildsmen, citizens, knowledgable neighbours. That is why his book, for all its virtues of concision and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clarity, may leave a new generation of readers asking for more.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 397.087 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 379.307 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 379.307 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/33)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 377.913 m 316.316 377.913 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 352.936 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.536 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/313)] TJ ET BT 34.016 324.136 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 378.2275 316.3157 390.1075 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/33) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000566 00000 n 0000000648 00000 n 0000005022 00000 n 0000005131 00000 n 0000005241 00000 n 0000005350 00000 n 0000008911 00000 n 0000009039 00000 n 0000009123 00000 n 0000009188 00000 n 0000017530 00000 n 0000017595 00000 n 0000022188 00000 n 0000022253 00000 n 0000030770 00000 n 0000030835 00000 n 0000039054 00000 n 0000039138 00000 n 0000043857 00000 n 0000043985 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 44079 %%EOF