%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140921140514+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140921140514+01'00') /Title (Middle-Class Culture in the Nineteenth Century: America, Australia and Britain) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4082 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Middle-Class Culture in the Nineteenth Century: America, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Australia and Britain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is an ambitious and in many respects singularly brave book which adds a further dimension to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing understanding of middle-class life that has prompted the research of increasing numbers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians in the last decade or so. The ambition, much of which is realised, lies in the attempt to make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparisons which cross the usual national boundaries which have restricted most social or cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians with the singular exception of Peter Gay's multi-volume study of European bourgeois identities. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the only other field where scholars might have laid claim to a similar width of approach has been the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Empire. Linda Young's book uses part of that empire but adds on a country which escaped from it, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the United States. The common links, middle classes apart, depend on language; this is a study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anglophones and, almost by definition, anglophiles whom Young classifies somewhat broadly throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book as 'Anglos'. At the heart of this group were of course the emigrants and apostles who came out to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these countries or sent their ideas from the homeland. This raises an immediate problem that the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather avoids. This is a discussion mainly of the British impact on middle-class hopes and expectations but it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(runs the risks of being trapped in the customary translation of 'British' as 'English', not something likely to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeal particularly to the Scots or Irish whose imperial and American impact was considerable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two other issues need to be unpicked immediately. The first is the time span, which is flexible: not so much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(330)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 31 May, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linda Young)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(333997468X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(264pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Lowerson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8181 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'long nineteenth century', as a short one occasionally lengthened. Most of the emphasis is on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment of certain expectations and patterns of behaviour in a period roughly from the late-eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century to the 1860s, which poses some problems for working out the ramifications of the further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(percolation of the main developments under discussion. Moving the boundaries in this way rather raises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some barriers for an assessment of time lag in the local take-up of new ideas in the areas under study. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second issue also arises from the title - just what is the 'middle-class culture' we are expecting to read about? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Now that 'cultural history' seems to have replaced 'social history', in many cases with little actual shift in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodology or interpretation, it can take some time to come to an understanding of what is on offer when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('culture' is not qualified in the title. This is not a book about the arts and their consumption except as fringe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elements. It is instead a text dealing with material culture along some of the lines familiar in recent works on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-Renaissance Europe and raises questions about changing patterns of consumption and the objects being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traded in, as well as the values they were held to represent. Linda Young is a museum specialist with a track )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(record of studying country houses and bourgeois domestic interiors, examining the colonial context in terms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the take-up and modification of essentially English models. So a great deal of the empirical evidence in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book deals with domestic artefacts and the circumstances and expectations of their use, both in simple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physical terms and as sites of ritual interchange.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Her use of 'culture' shifts meanings slightly at different points in the work, although Young usually makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the current emphasis clear. Largely responsible for this is the author's interrogation of the theoretical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frameworks that inform her approach. For once, and thankfully, Foucault is not invoked. Instead there is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rigorous interrogation of Norbert Elias's )] TJ ET BT 229.148 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Court Society)] TJ ET BT 315.812 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(trans. Edmund Jephcott: Blackwell; Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1983\) and )] TJ ET BT 85.340 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Civilizing Process )] TJ ET BT 197.012 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2 vols, trans. Edmund Jephcott: Blackwell; Oxford, 1982\); although she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges somewhat uneasily the tensions in bourgeois-aristocratic relations, she criticises Elias for an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overemphasis on aristocratic models. Yet she admits the place of aristocratic inspiration in both Australia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where it might just have been expected, and in the States where it was more problematic. There are some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties in the treatment of the 'Anglo' upper classes because of the rather taut metropolitan-outwards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diffusion model that informs the study. The extent to which both British and American societies were also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influenced by European shifts in taste, French-derived in particular, are rather passed over. Having said that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she is profoundly and very fruitfully influenced by Bourdieu's models of cultural consumption, particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by his discussion of what constituted legitimacy in determining acceptable taste. Her use of his theories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about 'symbolic capital' is sensitive but there are some difficulties when she refers to both artefacts and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(values surrounding their acquisition and display as forming part of bourgeois 'cultural capital'. This is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat different usage from that employed recently by Tracy Davis in her discussion of the export of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English theatrical expertise in the later nineteenth century which may be more convincing.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 468.272 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 468.272 326.883 m 482.264 326.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 482.264 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is perhaps an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indication that cultural history is at present as raw as the societies in which Young sets her investigation; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there are boundaries and definitions to be worked out as we conduct our own intellectual rituals. At times )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bourdieu's 'symbolic capital' would be a rather stronger peg on which to hang her arguments than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('cultural capital' she prefers. But her doing so does not weaken her case significantly.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Much of the book is taken up with useful and rigorous discussions of secondary literature but social ritual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the ceremonies of territory related to physical possessions provide its empirical basis. So Young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes and illustrates a whole range of goods, ranging from knives and forks to wardrobes, chamber pots )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and toothbrushes. Some of the strictures Thorstein Veblen uttered against conspicuous consumption are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken back into the earlier nineteenth century, but at times the book uses the sort of listings of domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property that historians of Tudor England from forty years ago would recognise from )] TJ ET BT 446.276 173.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(post mortem)] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inventories; the established scholarly tools are not vitiated by the interpretations to which the material is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjected. Much depends on such sources as manufacturers' catalogues and descriptions which come from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pre-railway age so there can be little discussion of the impact of such outlets as the Army and Navy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stores in Britain and some of its dependencies, let alone the models offered by Sears catalogues in the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States. One of the most interesting passages concerns the physical and spatial requirements of organising a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dinner party, the correct layout of eating and drinking utensils according to the extent of the meal being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided. Such issues emerge as the availability of cheap electro-plating as distinct from sterling silver; and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what level of ceramic excellence was appropriate for display and emulation. The illustration used comes )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 468.2717 327.1975 482.2637 339.0775 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7820 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from an edition of )] TJ ET BT 124.004 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Footman's Handbook)] TJ ET BT 248.564 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, designed presumably for the professionally ambitious servant. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Several possible lines of discussion spring from this, pointers for future thought rather than being explored )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this book. The existence of a supposed market for footmen's industrial reading suggests great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility being placed on the employee rather than employer in terms of providing the ritual setting. An )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastical analogy would be with the sacristan's laying out an altar for a somewhat detached senior cleric, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who would then be guided through the rituals by a supposedly inferior master of ceremonies. It leaves open )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for discussion the issue that the senior servants in more ambitious households were themselves the arbiters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of etiquette as much as their social superiors \(rather as many regimental non-commissioned officers regulate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the traditions of their regiments and their onwards transmission, with the commissioned frequently being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarded as not particularly competent temporary guardians\). We are given some sense, particularly for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain, of the range of income necessary for the employment of servants but it lacks the context of actual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numbers to give it scale.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The invention and diffusion of domestically-based traditions is of key importance in Young's discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the development of etiquettes, without which the material affluence would have been little more than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(utilitarian or eccentric collection of objects. Her discussion of gender relations in this process is first-rate, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the role of married women in particular seen as expressions of an acute form of social power, as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(filters of what and who would prove acceptable. The idea of women as the civilising arbiters of insecure and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rapidly changing social situations is crucial here because this was not so much the transmission of the norms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a settled society to distant outliers, as it was a dynamic process whose own fashion shifts raised questions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the extent to which lags in take-up were important. What is not attempted very much in this study, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, is an analysis of the possibilities of reciprocity; yet historians of, say, British India and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('ornamentalism' have begun to realise the importance of this)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 322.292 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 322.292 483.699 m 336.284 483.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 336.284 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Max Weber is called on to discuss the issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of borderline overlaps and there is an almost Gramscian consideration of how supposedly total packages of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideal domestic provision had to be adapted to fit non-London situations and slightly different local class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expectations. Young sets the origins of etiquette in seventeenth-century France, as is usual, but leaves the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France contemporary to her subjects to one side. One is also left asking about the rituals of Tudor and early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stuart court life. Teaching oneself manners for those who had not learned them either at the mother's or, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more likely for many, upper servant's knee produced an industry that still thrives, although it is as likely to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be about internet etiquette rather than about visiting acquaintances these days. Ironically, at the time of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing this review English television is broadcasting a series of 'fly-on-the-wall' programmes in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dinner parties are observed and dissected mercilessly by a pair of self-proclaimed experts \()] TJ ET BT 469.568 356.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Dinner Party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Inspectors)] TJ ET BT 84.008 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Channel 4\); at least early nineteenth-century hopefuls had only text or the minefields of reading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(body language to cope with.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Body language, or its careful control and discussion, plays a major part in Young's social rituals and here the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicators sometimes seemed confused. Nose-blowing is discussed at several points, as much in terms of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(availability of spare handkerchiefs and the possibilities of cleanliness as determining social sanctification, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in health and aesthetic terms. Excretion and masturbation are also explored but it is somewhat surprising in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view of feminist writing in recent decades and of the necessary development of a veiled language for making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian social interaction possible that menstruation is not. Body shape is also considered, particularly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of its modification by clothing fashions such as men's trousers and the female corset. In terms of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter and Young's use of Veblen it is a little surprising to find no consideration of his ironic strictures on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what eventually were referred to as 'foundation garments', a recognition of both bodily and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architecture. Nor is there any extended discussion of one key issue related to cleanliness and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intercourse - the often quite firm class differences indicated by body odour and the disguising as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status-indicating role of different perfumes. The good honest sweat of the muscular Christian was certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not acceptable in the drawing or dining room and Tracy Davis, in her discussion of the theatre, has made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear the role of social and miasmatic differentiation that the careful separation of seating played. Many late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian theatre programmes gave open advertising for the local firms whose products perfumed each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Binding these considerations together is Young's central concept of 'gentility', used as a positive against the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 322.2917 484.0135 336.2837 495.8935 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7934 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mildly derogatory 'genteel'. Her usage of it is rather closer to the modern French approbation of the 'trs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gentile' but there is a harder edge, relating to how gentility could be bought as much as earned or even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inherited. She makes a careful distinction between gentility and 'respectable' which she identifies as a word )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more likely to apply to the white-collar/manual boundary groups than to her chosen middle and upper-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle classes. To a certain extent she is right, not least because it questions the respectable/rough divide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that still occurs in some writings on British history. Certainly, at least at first sight, the idea of gentility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(melds more easily with the notion of social flux, whereas that of respectability assumes a rather greater fixity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of codes and expectations than it perhaps possessed. Treated as an internal class division, her chosen concept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasserts what is also important to her argument, the assumption that social classes, described in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perception rather than function and structure, remain a significant focus of and tool for historical enquiry; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postmodernist simplicities are sent on their way whilst the essentially fluid boundaries of her subject are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given due regard.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bourdieu is also borrowed for the locating of mannered intercourse in the 'habitus', the codes that determine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour and the fineness of distinctions within them. Some of the implications of this are illustrated by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very selective use of fiction, most notably )] TJ ET BT 237.992 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pride and Prejudice)] TJ ET BT 335.312 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, where Jane Austen's irony is somewhat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played down. Young's skilful use of this work does raise some issues though, not least in her assumption that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Bennett family is middle-class. Surely lesser gentry would be more appropriate and her interpretation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arises perhaps from some uncertainty over the precise role of aristocratic titles; there is a confusion between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('barony', the bottom rung of the hereditary peerage and the much larger 'baronetcy'. The author is not alone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this - it was for clarifying these differences in such a raw society that the various guidebooks to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic lineage and precedence were such successful products of Victorian publishers, including )] TJ ET BT 518.228 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Who's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Who)] TJ ET BT 56.012 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, not mentioned here, for those who did not know who was who without looking them up. Young also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uses some Dickens and the 'knife and fork' novels to make her point; it could have been strengthened even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further by exploring George Eliot's )] TJ ET BT 205.148 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Middlemarch)] TJ ET BT 269.804 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, possibly the most brilliant study of social ambition and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncertainty the nineteenth century produced. Some of Trollope's wry observations would have helped as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well, not least his character from )] TJ ET BT 194.312 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Barchester Towers)] TJ ET BT 285.308 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, La Signora Neroni, whose languid hogging of sofas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have fitted in beautifully with Young's discussion of the tension between illness and eroticism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portrayals of reclining women.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But to ask that would be to extend this quite short book into a much heavier work. Within its prescribed time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limits and a geographical coverage that is rather more restricted than the sub-title suggests, it offers some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable explanations and pointers for further work. Just how long etiquette revision remained dynamic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whilst its codes became quite rigidly fixed within the 'respectability' of white-collar groups whose influence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained considerable until the late 1950s could be thought through in new work for which this is a sound )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(starting base. While revision of etiquette texts continued, the main consumers of such texts did not find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves in situations for which such etiquette directions had any validity. To give one example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Manners and Rules of Good Society . by a Member of the Aristocracy)] TJ ET BT 368.300 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which ran through many editions over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nearly a century from the mid-nineteenth, was updated to cope with such new activities as private cinema )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows in country houses. Yet this was something quite alien to the majority of its readers; similarly how did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the servants cope? Perhaps we should be told. This book, with its study of a form of globalization that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predates the current assumption that it is necessarily a form of American dumbing-down, will help those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose research is now turning to the field of daily life as a new and rich seam for cultural history to engage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 153.075 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 122.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tracy C. Davis, )] TJ ET BT 143.000 122.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Economics of the British Stage)] TJ ET BT 311.996 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge University Press; Cambridge 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 106.803 m 118.004 106.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 93.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Cannadine, )] TJ ET BT 153.668 93.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ornamentalism)] TJ ET BT 228.332 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Allen Lane: London, 2001\). For a review of this book on these )] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pages, please click )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 156.656 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 156.656 78.291 m 177.308 78.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 180.308 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 194.300 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.300 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.300 78.291 m 251.288 78.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 53.429 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 39.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net Reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 107.1175 118.0037 118.9975 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 156.6557 78.6055 177.3077 90.4855 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/paper/marshallPj.html) >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.2997 78.6055 251.2877 90.4855 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 999 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 795.075 m 240.992 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 791.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 773.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 773.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/330)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 772.569 m 322.316 772.569 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 747.592 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.192 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1587)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.792 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/paper/marshallPj.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.392 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=12064)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 795.3895 240.9917 807.2695 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=12064) >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 772.8835 322.3157 784.7635 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/330) >> endobj xref 0 38 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000588 00000 n 0000000670 00000 n 0000004804 00000 n 0000004913 00000 n 0000005023 00000 n 0000005132 00000 n 0000008693 00000 n 0000008821 00000 n 0000008905 00000 n 0000008989 00000 n 0000017223 00000 n 0000017253 00000 n 0000017381 00000 n 0000017417 00000 n 0000017501 00000 n 0000025374 00000 n 0000025404 00000 n 0000025532 00000 n 0000025568 00000 n 0000025666 00000 n 0000033653 00000 n 0000033780 00000 n 0000033835 00000 n 0000033961 00000 n 0000034087 00000 n 0000034213 00000 n 0000034268 00000 n 0000034359 00000 n 0000035410 00000 n 0000035537 00000 n 0000035638 00000 n 0000035766 00000 n trailer << /Size 38 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35861 %%EOF