%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R 25 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818231702+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818231702+01'00') /Title (Recent Works on the Reign of Peter the Great) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3111 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Recent Works on the Reign of Peter the Great)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not so long ago, Peter the Great was commonly portrayed by historians on both sides of the Iron Curtain as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a proto-)] TJ ET BT 71.672 73.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Homo Sovieticus)] TJ ET BT 152.660 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: an icon of muscular masculinity, giant in both frame and achievement. According )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to this tradition, it was Peter's distinctive genius to drag a backward and xenophobic Muscovy, kicking and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(331)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 May, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Bushkovitch)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(521805856X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(497pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lindsey Hughes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(300094264X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(303pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon Dixon)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7955 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(screaming, into the rational modern world. Led by the tsar himself, his troops thrust Russia onto the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European stage, guided by borrowed tactical manuals and armed with muskets made in the factories Peter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had built expressly for the purpose as part of a new command economy, itself designed to drive the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of an increasingly bureaucratic state. Though the tsar's curiosity about Protestantism and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(features of Western culture could hardly pass unnoticed, the emphasis of most twentieth-century accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was overwhelmingly materialist: 'pig iron figured strongly', as Professor Hughes reminded the audience at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her inaugural lecture at the University of London in 1998.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Over the last fifteen years, three scholars have done most to reinvigorate study of the subject and shift the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balance of interpretation. Two beautifully illustrated books by James Cracraft - )] TJ ET BT 416.612 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Petrine Revolution in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russian Architecture)] TJ ET BT 135.008 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \( Palo Alto; University of Stanford Press, 1988\) and )] TJ ET BT 390.656 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Petrine Revolution in Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imagery)] TJ ET BT 74.000 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \( Palo Alto; University of Stanford Press, 1997\) - were the first to place the accent firmly on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture. But since a comprehensive assessment of Cracraft's achievement must await the appearance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final volume in his projected trilogy, attention here is focussed on the remaining two historians: Lindsey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hughes herself and Paul Bushkovitch. Hughes's new book pares down the detail from her earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monograph, )] TJ ET BT 94.676 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia in the Age of Peter the Great)] TJ ET BT 268.328 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven and London; Yale University Press, 1998\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rearranges it in roughly chronological order, and adds new chapters on Peter's legacy and posthumous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(iconography.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 97.004 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 97.004 554.979 m 110.996 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 110.996 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Adamant that the earlier work was not a biography, she has now, as her subtitle makes clear, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placed the tsar himself centre-stage. Bushkovitch, writing in a different register for a different readership, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributes a detailed monograph, focused on the balance of power at court, which is intended to transform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the way we think about Russian politics in this period. It is a crucial part of his argument that the tsar is only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of the story.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unlike Cracraft, both Hughes and Bushkovitch convincingly place Peter in the context of Muscovite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political culture. Bushkovitch is almost halfway through his narrative by the time he reaches the death of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tsar's mother in 1694, an event that left him 'alone, his own man for the first time in his life'.\(p. 180\) 'Many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(things which Peter's own publicists and later historians included among the achievements of the Petrine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('revolution', Hughes reminds us, 'had their roots in his father's and even his grandfather's reign, including a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional army based on infantry, subjugation of the church, use of foreign specialists and imported )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technology and culture'.\(p. 11\) The two scholars nevertheless differ somewhat in their verdicts on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persistence of the Muscovite legacy. Bushkovitch, here concerned exclusively with the elite, notes that Peter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at his death in 1725, 'left a country that had in many respects changed beyond recognition'.\(p. 442\) Even the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Old Russian' group at court derived their conception of Muscovy from 'European tracts on aristocracy or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Polish experience, not from Russian reality' \(p. 443\), and the 'cultural' opposition to Peter was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complicated by the fact that his aristocratic critics owed more to Ukrainian mediation of both Catholic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant ideas than they did to 'traditional' Muscovite Orthodoxy. Hughes's chapter on Peter's legacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarly emphasises that there was no way back to Muscovy in eighteenth-century Russia. No less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuaded than Bushkovitch of the tsar's power to transform, or of his contempt for the past, Hughes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nevertheless allows room for the resilience of old ways of doing things among the Russian people. And she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is also interested in some decidedly anti-modern elements of Petrine rule.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In particular, she draws attention to the significance of the tsar's 'mock court' - the All-Drunken, All-Jesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Assembly, presided over by a 'Prince-Pope', a role filled by the tsar's former tutor, Nikolai Zotov, until his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death in 1717, and subsequently by Peter Buturlin. Devoted to elaborate \(and notoriously bawdy\) parodies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious ceremonies, possibly inspired by the election of the real patriarch, Adrian, in August 1690, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assembly symbolised Peter's lasting fascination with charades, already demonstrated by the formation of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two 'play' regiments at Preobrazhenskoe in the 1680s. This fascination found further expression during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grand Embassy to the West \(1697-8\) when Peter sought in vain to conceal his identity as the humble )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bombadier Peter Mikhailov, a ruse that merely served to intensify public interest in his outsize person. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hughes plausibly claims, the tsar's 'love of play-acting and "pretendership"' was so pronounced that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('verged on a desire actually to be someone else'.\(p. 41\) Yet, for all his efforts to divert attention towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others, there is no doubt that the central playmaker in this bizarre coterie was the tsar himself, abnormally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tall at six feet seven inches, but by no means the Charles Atlas figure of popular mythology. As the life-size )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 97.0037 555.2935 110.9957 567.1735 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7520 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rastrelli waxwork now in the Hermitage Museum shows, Peter's elongated body was oddly proportioned. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The same distorted image, echoed in Valentin Serov's 1907 portrait, was reinforced in 1991 by the Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migr sculptor, Mikhail Shemiakin. His statue, symbolically placed at the heart of the Peter and Paul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fortress in St Petersburg, portrays the tsar as 'an ill-formed freak, unnaturally small-headed, bald, bug-eyed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and spindly-limbed'.\(p. 245\) And these were not Peter's only physical peculiarities. 'Sometimes,' a Swiss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traveller reported in 1698, 'his eyes roll right back until only the whites are visible . He even has a twitch of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the legs and can't stand in the same place for long.')] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter, then, was not only fascinated by the human monsters that he had pickled for preservation in his new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kunstkammer)] TJ ET BT 100.676 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but was himself a freak of no mean proportions. However one might characterise his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extraordinary reign, surely no-one has ever thought of it as a 'stagnant pool of routine autocracy', an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation Bushkovitch \(p. 11\) implicitly ascribes to the nineteenth-century 'state school' of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography, of which the emphasis on institutional development is said \(p. 2\) to have guided the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach of a remarkably heterogeneous group of historians, from Bogoslovskii to Riasanovsky and from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marc Raeff to Hughes herself. Nor is this the only curious judgement in the brief 'Introduction'. Hughes's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work alone gives grounds for wondering whether the history of elite women has been quite so grievously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglected as Bushkovitch claims.\(p. 6\) Though his decision to sidestep detailed historiographical debate \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11\) is fully understandable, it occasionally seems involuntarily to have generated summaries of existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship that are less persuasive than the fine analysis of the primary sources that make his book such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resounding success.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bushkovitch is concerned above all to uncover the extent to which Russian rulership was a joint venture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the tsar and his boyars, and to determine the changing balance of forces over time, problems that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lead him, in turn, to probe the nature and strength of aristocratic opposition to Peter. At the heart of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation lies an attempt to trace the development of a vigorous high politics, and to show how, allowing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for phases of relative stability, power was subject to more or less continuous renegotiation in the light of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fluctuating domestic and international circumstances. To complement \(and occasionally challenge\) the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structural accounts produced by recent historians of Muscovite political culture, Bushkovitch takes a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resolutely chronological approach. He aims to provide 'a new narrative of Peter's reign' that 'makes clear the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informal rules of the political game, the need of the monarch to balance factions at court and to compromise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even when carrying out radical changes'.\(p. 11\) As the author acknowledges, not everything he says is novel. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But reading even the more familiar parts of his story is like hearing for the first time a favourite symphony )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played on original instruments. It is an exhilarating and revelatory experience, dependent not only on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author's avowed determination to strip away the accretions of anecdote and falsification perpetrated by later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mythmakers \(Bushkovitch is surely not the first to give battle against anachronism\), but even more on his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use of a range of previously untapped archival sources to reshape our understanding of key decisions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(episodes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The main challenge facing any attempt to 'put the people in' to an account of Russian politics in this period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lies in the dearth of sources capable of transforming even the best-known actors from two-dimensional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures into believable characters. Unlike many of their Western contemporaries, the Muscovite elite left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little personal correspondence. How has Bushkovitch filled the gap? Even his Sisyphean labours in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intractable service records of the )] TJ ET BT 193.628 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Razriad)] TJ ET BT 231.632 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( - the Muscovite military chancellery - seem to have yielded only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moderate dividends. Though there are, as he promises, genuine nuggets in his copious footnotes \(some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which are themselves miniature works of scholarship\), the uncertain linkages between lineage, rank and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political influence necessarily force some conclusions to remain speculative. \(See, for example, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the implications of changes in the composition of the Duma for the fall of Matveev in 1676: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 84-6.\) More directly persuasive - and more immediately appealing to the reader - is the testimony drawn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the dispatches of the Dutch, Swedish, Danish and Saxon envoys, overlooked by the compilers of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(148-volume miscellany published by the Imperial Russian Historical Society between 1867 and 1916, in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(era when it seemed more natural to focus on Russia's relations with Britain, France, Austria and Prussia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(though there is more to say about them, too\). How much confidence can we place in these reports? Later in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the eighteenth century, when the tsarist court had expanded, foreign ambassadors found its secrets so hard to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7876 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(penetrate that their accounts are rarely to be trusted at face value. Despite his friendship with Potemkin, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain's Sir James Harris laboured under the misapprehension that Catherine the Great was no more than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(puppet whose strings were pulled from Potsdam. Under Peter and his predecessors, however, the circle of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intimates was smaller and in some ways easier to access. Foreign envoys were able to gather accurate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligence - sometimes in advance of events - because they were close either to the tsar's entourage \(as was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Dane, Magnus Gje, who relied in the 1670s on Matveev's confidant, Paul Menzies\) or to an influential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic family \(as was the Prussian, Johann Georg von Keyserling, to the Sheremetevs in the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century\), or simply \(as in the case of Peter's denunciation of Aleksei Petrovich\) because the tsar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliberately left the Senate windows open in order to be overheard. Bushkovitch makes no attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceal the potential limits of such sources. To take only one example, his discussion of opposition to V. V. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Golitsyn's ill-fated Crimean campaign in 1687 \(pp. 152-3\) incorporates in close succession the phrases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('supposed to have been', 'supposed to be', 'seems to have been', 'it is said that', and 'it seems that'. Time and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again, however, an unanswerable case is made for the plausibility of these newly discovered materials, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least because the munificence of Cambridge University Press has permitted the author to include generous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translated extracts in his text and to provide in his footnotes still more extensive passages in the original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(languages. Such gobbets simultaneously allow readers to sample for themselves a wide range of new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary material, and to see how closely Bushkovitch has relied on it in framing his own narrative \(for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples, see p. 201, n.78; p. 202, n.79\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though it is part of the author's point to show that this complex narrative defies simple summary, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates clearly enough that periods of domination by favourites - Matveev between 1671 and1676, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Golitsyn in the mid-1680s, Golovin and Menshikov between 1699 and 1708 - were punctuated by periods in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which decision-making had to allow for wider consultation among the great families of the Muscovite elite. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By no means monolithic, these boyar clans were just as capable of dividing on policy lines, as they did over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign affairs during Sofiia's regency, as they were over the personal quarrels that dominated the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1690s. It is not always clear why one set of divisions succeeded the other. But it is plain enough that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlying cause of Russian political instability was lack of trust. Boyars resented the gradual accumulation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of power by favourites; tsars thought it prudent to develop a nose for disloyalty. Peter was notoriously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mistrustful. In the wake of the Streltsy revolt of 1698 \(which took place while the tsar was abroad on his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Grand Embassy'\) and mounting rivalries amongst the boyars \(which were all too evident on his return\), it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemed that all his fears had been justified. As the imperial ambassador, Ignaz von Guarient, reported in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(January 1699, 'the tsar finds daily, more and more, that in the whole empire not one of his blood relatives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and boyars can be found to whom he can entrust an important office; he is therefore forced to take over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heavy burden of the empire himself, and pushing back the boyars \(whom he calls disloyal dogs\) to put his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand to a new and different government'.\(p. 210\) Peter then embarked on what was probably 'his most anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic' period \(p. 442\), when, ignoring the great families, he embarked on the war against Sweden and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduced a series of radical domestic reforms by means of personal decree. Because war was expensive, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even victory was insufficient to quell rising resentment at various levels of society. Bushkovitch's greatest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievement is to demonstrate, in unprecedented detail and with unprecedented conviction, how aristocratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition \(and with it, domestic politics as a whole\) began to revolve round the person of the tsarevich. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brilliant reconstruction of the Aleksei Petrovich affair marks the culmination of the book. Though the brutal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation that resulted in the death of Peter's son produced no real evidence of widespread )] TJ ET BT 487.088 214.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(conspiracy)] TJ ET BT 539.744 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the evidence of widespread )] TJ ET BT 167.972 199.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(opposition)] TJ ET BT 218.648 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was overwhelming. Since it was impossible to conceive of ignoring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostile aristocrats, as he had tried to do between 1699 and 1708, the tsar 'once again reset the balance among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factions at court' \(p. 426\), surrounding his critics with favourites and bureaucrats, and driving forward the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pace of change. 'The case of Aleksei was the greatest spur to Peter's reform in the history of the reign, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater even than the Northern War'.\(p. 425\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is studded with all manner of individual insights. A detailed discussion of the Tsykler affair of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1697 - 'the first serious case of opposition to Peter on the part of the court elite' \(p. 188\) - demonstrates, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrary to some accounts, that the investigation 'turned up nothing about Old Belief and the subject was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even mentioned'.\(p. 197\) A particularly cogent section \(pp. 280-92\), linking the vicissitudes of internal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics, as reported by the foreign ambassadors, to the progress of the Great Northern War, shows how )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 6964 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles XII's fateful decision to turn south towards the Ukraine in September 1708, though 'in retrospect a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fatal error' culminating in the defeat at Poltava, was 'a perfectly logical move for man counting on revolt and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treason within Russia to bring him victory'.\(p. 286\) Nor is all the most interesting material confined the later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years. The implicit analytical thrust of the early chapters consists in a provocative attempt to puncture the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pretensions of both the Miloslavskii faction and those scholars who have stressed its importance in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muscovite politics from the 1670s to the 1690s. Because the much-vaunted rivalry between Naryshkin and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Miloslavskii clans 'only dates from the winter of 1676-77', when Bushkovitch attributes it to 'concrete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions by Ivan Mikhailovich Miloslavskii', 'the struggle of the Naryshkins and Miloslavskiis before 1676 is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a myth'.\(p. 57\) 'During the last five years of the life of Tsar Aleksei, after his marriage to Peter's mother, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most important sources for Russian court politics, the reports of the various resident ambassadors, make no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention of a Naryshkin faction'.\(p. 63\) During the regency between 1682 and 1689, 'the Sofia-Golitsyn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faction was not really a 'Miloslavskii' faction in that Ivan Miloslavskii played no role. The only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Miloslavskii' was Sofia herself'.\(p. 136, n.20\) There is much for historians to chew on here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though it seems churlish to ask for more, one wonders whether the argument might have been expanded \(or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps reshaped\) in three inter-related ways. The first concerns the 'mock court' of the All-Drunken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Assembly. Perhaps because its freakish machinations were beyond the comprehension of, distasteful to, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partly hidden from the foreign envoys on whose reports he relies, Bushkovitch mentions the assembly only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in passing as 'a sort of drinking society that parodied church and state'.\(p. 179\) For Hughes, however, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drunken antics in which Peter played the part of humble bombardier or deacon in attendance on the Prince-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pope 'demonstrated his ability to set the rules and choose his own roles'.\(p. 32\) Was this because he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggled to set the rules in the 'real' world? Was the mock court the only place where he could be sure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyalty? 'All the mock post holders were absolutely loyal', Hughes notes, 'all close to the tsar. This was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential, because Peter made himself vulnerable by posing as their humble subject or pupil and had to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confident that none of them would take advantage of his assumed "weakness"'.\(pp. 107-108\) If it was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mere escapism, the mock court - by no means a passing phenomenon - may deserve greater prominence in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the study of Petrine high politics than it has so far received. It certainly gives pause for thought about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of that politics, which was no more a conventional factional system than it was a stagnant pool of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(routine autocracy. 'The machine seemed to be working smoothly', Bushkovitch remarks in passing \(p. 184\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but he never quite tells us precisely what sort of machine he thinks it was, and the mechanical image sits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat uncomfortably with his overall emphasis on fluidity. A final point concerns change over time. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While his magnificent opening chapter on the 'structures and values' of Muscovite political culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates that narrative is not the only historical form that Bushkovitch has mastered, it is not quite held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in balance by the 'Epilogue and conclusion, 1718-1725'. How stable was the Petrine regime by 1718? The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Mons affair is but one indication that simmering under the surface of these later years lies a further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative that might reveal them as an integral part of Bushkovitch's story, rather than as the appendage to it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they are made to seem.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Observations such as these are not so much criticisms as reflections on the continual stimulation to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(derived from a close reading of an outstanding work of scholarship. The scale of the achievement is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enviable: by scouring European archives and applying his forensic intelligence to a daunting range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published sources in several languages, Paul Bushkovitch has given us a wholly refreshing view of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics of Peter's reign, rich in texture and all the more attractive for being expressed in plain English. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though the detail is demanding, there is not a dull page in the book. Provided that they are prepared to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrate, readers at almost every level of sophistication have much to learn from it. And they will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appreciate the importance of its insights all the more if they read Lindsey Hughes first. Her readable, wide-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranging, and exceptionally well-balanced biography, not only has much to teach the expert, but also offers an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellent introduction to the reign.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(May 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 69.795 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 1762 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a review of )] TJ ET BT 140.660 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia in the Age of Peter the Great)] TJ ET BT 314.312 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on these pages, please click )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 452.612 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 452.612 795.075 m 473.264 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 476.264 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 490.256 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 493.256 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 493.256 795.075 m 547.244 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Hughes thanks Professor Dixon for his generous review, and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 724.975 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 707.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 707.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/331)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 705.801 m 322.316 705.801 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 680.824 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 666.424 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1589)] TJ ET BT 34.016 652.024 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1591)] TJ ET BT 34.016 637.624 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/paper/hellie.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 623.224 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 452.6117 795.3895 473.2637 807.2695 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/paper/hellie.html) >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 493.2557 795.3895 547.2437 807.2695 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 706.1155 322.3157 717.9955 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/331) >> endobj xref 0 33 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000561 00000 n 0000000643 00000 n 0000003806 00000 n 0000003915 00000 n 0000004025 00000 n 0000004134 00000 n 0000007695 00000 n 0000007823 00000 n 0000007907 00000 n 0000007991 00000 n 0000015999 00000 n 0000016029 00000 n 0000016156 00000 n 0000016192 00000 n 0000016257 00000 n 0000023830 00000 n 0000023895 00000 n 0000031824 00000 n 0000031889 00000 n 0000038906 00000 n 0000039004 00000 n 0000040819 00000 n 0000040947 00000 n 0000041069 00000 n 0000041197 00000 n 0000041252 00000 n 0000041380 00000 n trailer << /Size 33 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 41475 %%EOF