%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141128135123+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141128135123+00'00') /Title (Half the Battle. Civilian Morale in Britain during the Second World War) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4034 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Half the Battle. Civilian Morale in Britain during the Second World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a long time after 1945, as Basil Fawlty famously discovered, it was almost impossible to avoid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioning the war. It has occupied a unique place in the national imaginary, manifesting itself at all levels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of discourse from personal reminiscence, to boys comics, films and TV sitcoms, to the rhetoric of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders ? ad infinitum, and almost, for those of us who grew up in its shadow, ad nauseam. A lot of this was, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of course, down to an obsession with a lost, and perhaps imagined, national greatness. But possibly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uniquely, the collective memory of this war tended to focus as much on the experience and mentality of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilian population as on military exploits. The tales told were not just about the Battle of Britain, El )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alamein and D-Day, but about rationing, the Dunkirk Spirit, the Blitz, ITMA. And it was out of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of the home front, rather than the military exploits, that the post-war generation fashioned a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way of thinking about the nation, which Angus Calder \(who thinks it was a bad thing\) has labelled the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Myth of the Blitz?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to this story, the war brought out the best in the British people. They responded to the challenge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with fortitude, adaptability and resolve, breaking down barriers of class and culture, and generating a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collective sense of social solidarity leading to a more caring society after the war, epitomised in the Labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victory of 1945 and the foundation of the NHS. This story was widely accepted in the immediate post-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(332)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 June, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Mackay)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(719058937X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(49.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Baxendale)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7707 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years, and arguably, all the rival interpretations of the nature and trajectory of post-war British politics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society took it as their starting-point, whether they approved of it or not. Mainstream Labour and one-nation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatives saw it as the founding moment of Keynesian welfarism and the mixed economy; left-wing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anti-reformists such as Calder himself saw it as the point where the left was captured by a backward-looking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Englishness; while for the Thatcherite right in the shape of Correlli Barnett, the mirage of the ?New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jerusalem? was the origin of all our subsequent woes. But all started from the understanding that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of war, or the way it had been manipulated and depicted, shaped the post-war nation, for good or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ill. \(Interestingly, New Labour seems to be the first major political formation without a story to tell about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war.\) Historians too tended to accept 1945 as a pivotal date, and the changed social relations of wartime as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its essential precursor: ?England had arisen all the same? were the famous last words of A J P Taylor?s 1965 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survey )] TJ ET BT 69.008 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English History 1914-1945)] TJ ET BT 199.676 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Clarendon Press; Oxford\). It is hard for the ?generation of ?45? to read )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those words without feeling some emotional tug.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But history is cruel, and the end of the much-debated ?post-war consensus? brought the post-war mythology, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(along with the ?consensus? itself, into question. It was Thatcher and Blair who unwittingly put the home )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(front back on the historical agenda. From the early 1990s, historians such as Angus Calder, Harold Smith, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and those whom James Hinton has labelled the Apathy School \(Tiratsoo, Fielding, )] TJ ET BT 432.656 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al.)] TJ ET BT 456.656 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), began to revisit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war, to emphasise negative aspects of wartime experience ? looting, panic, bigotry, conflict ? and to cast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubt on the orthodox story of wartime solidarity and popular radicalism. The revisionists have not gone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unchallenged, but one thing remains constant: our understanding of the British people at war is inextricably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linked to our interpretation and reinterpretation of the post-war era.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this context, Robert Mackay?s book is most welcome. He is not, of course, the first historian to deal with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the home front, nor is this his first foray into the territory, but the particular contribution of this book lies in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its focus on ?civilian morale?: the state of mind and behaviour of the populace under the stresses of war, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was understandably such a preoccupation of government. In adopting this focus, the book tackles both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the revisionist arguments and the ?apathy school? on their home ground, in a reading of the hearts and minds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the people. Mackay tracks morale and its manifold indicators through a wide range of sources ranging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Mass Observation and Home Intelligence reports through contemporary newspapers and BBC Listener )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Research, to post-war memoirs. His conclusion is that the old story has more truth in it than many recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians have allowed. The picture was not all rosy: there were wobbles, and there was panic, profiteering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and social conflict, but on the whole morale stayed firm and social solidarity and commitment to the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effort remained higher than politicians and officials before 1940 would have dared to hope. The book depicts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?a people who became actively committed to the project their leaders put before them, who cooperated with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the drastic re-ordering of daily life that this entailed, and who, on the whole, did so in a spirit of stoical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endurance that did not exclude good humour?.\(p. 248\) In a short but incisive survey of the literature, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mackay is sharply critical of those whom he considers to have presented an unjustifiably bleak view of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home front, in some cases by the simple expedient of omitting the positive evidence. This could therefore be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described as a counter-revisionist book, seeking to re-correct what the author believes to be the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overcorrection applied by the revisionists to the facile optimism of the post-war myth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Is Mackay?s picture a convincing one? His approach is systematic. The book is divided into two halves. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first half is chronological, assessing the state of civilian morale through the four distinct phases of the war: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Phoney War, the emergency of 1940, the ?Britain alone? period of 1940-1, and then the long haul to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victory, 1941-5. The second half is thematic and explanatory, examining a range of relevant factors, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including propaganda, air-raid precautions, recreation and leisure, and ?Beveridge and all that?, which might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explain why morale remained relatively high. But first it is necessary to define what ?morale? means. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bravely ? some would say recklessly ? Mackay quotes on his very first page Paul Addison?s observation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?civilian morale? was ?the woolliest concept of the war?, and then goes on to write a book about it. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, in essence, he follows in the footsteps of Mass Observation and Home Intelligence. Adopting their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definition of morale as a fusion of specific attitudes and behaviour, he observes what they observed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplementing it with the additional insights and evidence available to the historian.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the first half of the book the strains to which the civilian population was subjected are described in detail, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7530 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their responses evaluated as far as possible on the basis of Mass Observation and Home Intelligence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reports, social surveys and reminiscences, contemporary sources and facts and figures where appropriate. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The picture that emerges is little different from the more sophisticated version of the myth which was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional wisdom for the first half-century after the war: ?Overall, the traditional picture of a spirited and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resilient people is a valid one? \(p. 134\) ? though with some reservations. Morale seemed to dip when there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was nothing much going on, as in the Phoney War of 1939-40, and during the long concluding phase after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mid-1941. At moments of acute crisis ? the summer of 1940, the subsequent heavy blitz ? despite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imminent prospect of invasion, the threat of sudden death and the strains of sleep deprivation and physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destruction, morale seems to have been surprisingly good. The predicted panic failed to manifest itself, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did the expected epidemic of mental illness and, despite persistent reports of looting and ?trekking? out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beleaguered cities \(in many ways a rational response rather than an act of panic\), troops who had been on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standby to help keep order were not needed and were stood down. Although morale did tend to fluctuate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the war news, a substantial majority of the population seems to have believed throughout that the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be won. By the long final phase, people had settled down to wartime conditions, just as in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous decade many of them had settled down to unemployment. Boredom and frustration were the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems: a few even confessed to enjoying the air-raids for the excitement and interest they added to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humdrum life. The war was not a good experience, but Mackay argues that only by focussing on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disaffected minority and an unrepresentative selection of incidents can it be made to appear unremittingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So if morale was on the whole so good, why? The second half of the book seeks an explanation. What about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda? The government believed throughout the war that morale could be lifted by news manipulation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts to stimulate patriotism, Churchill?s speeches and Priestley?s broadcasts, and films showing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exemplary behaviour of ordinary people at war. To what effect? The BBC carried out detailed listener )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response surveys, but with inconclusive results. Many people said they could spot propaganda a mile off, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and resented it: Britain was not the kind of culture to swallow whole what its rulers offered. The impact, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mackay concludes, was bound to be ?at best marginal?, and he repeats approvingly Tom Harrisson?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observation that morale was operating on a whole other level, untouched by propaganda.\(p. 182\) This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion mirrors the similarly inconclusive debate about the impact of jingoism in late Victorian and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwardian popular culture: one can make all kinds of assumptions about what its effects )] TJ ET BT 461.948 385.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(must)] TJ ET BT 484.616 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( have been, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one can?t get inside people?s heads to find out. Mackay?s cautious conclusion is surely justified.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 5, entitled ?Easing the Strain?, discusses a variety of strategies that were implemented in the hope of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making life more acceptable for the population, including air-raid precautions, rationing, improved welfare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and working conditions, and leisure initiatives, ranging from ENSA and the BBC to the provision of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?inessentials? like beer, tobacco and cosmetics. Some strategies that might appear purely military in intent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as anti-aircraft barrages and bombing raids on Germany, were really undertaken to boost home morale. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And despite Chamberlain?s crass assumption in 1939 that cinemas and radio would have to be closed down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the duration \(which certainly tells us something about elite attitudes in the late 1930s\), the government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quickly reached a sensibly permissive attitude to the small pleasures of life ? Churchill himself intervening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to ensure a reliable supply of cut flowers. Other measures addressed the issue of fairness, so that those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made the sacrifices were cushioned as much as possible against the impact of scarcity, and the rich were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(able to buy themselves out of the tribulations of war. The realisation that small, ordinary comforts, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mundane playground principle of fairness were more important from day-to-day than national pride or grand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principles was an important stage in the wartime education of officialdom. As to whether it helped to win the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war, we can only assume, like them, that it did.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, the book discusses the impact of ?Beveridge and all that?: the promise of post-war reconstruction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and no return to the Thirties that gathered strength after 1941, culminating, arguably, in the election result of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1945. Steven Fielding has argued that the war left people disengaged and cynical about politics, but even he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not deny the popular support for the Beveridge Report and the desire for its implementation after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war. More importantly, people believed it would be implemented. While in 1941, people were generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pessimistic about the post-war future, by 1943, as both Gallup and MO discovered, they were firmly )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7684 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expecting improvement, in the shape of more state intervention and better social services; this seemed to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justified, not just by what politicians had said, but by what the wartime coalition had actually done in terms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of welfare provision. Whether the 1945 vote was pro-Labour or simply anti-Conservative, no one seems to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubt that it was pro-Beveridge. Mackay argues that the solid, and justified, expectation of post-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improvement, by contrast with the pessimism of the 1930s, was a major influence in maintaining people?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitment to the war effort.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So, the overall wartime picture is of a population less anxious and panicked, more stable and committed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than anyone had anticipated in 1939. The war may indeed have developed the consciousness of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people, but it was even more of an education for the British elite. At its outset, not knowing what to expect, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they had expected the worst. As the conflict drew on, they learned that war would not shatter the fabric of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilisation, that ordinary people were just as committed to preserving that fabric as they were. Here, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churchill?s romantic nationalism and Priestley?s leftist populism came together: they both thought one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could trust the people, while Chamberlain did not, and even Orwell had had his doubts. From another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standpoint, one could say that the imposed dominance of the 1930s, when people were expected to put up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with what they got, was replaced by an expansive hegemony in which people had been won over to active )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation in the serious and costly project of winning the war. Explanations of how this happened, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Mackay acknowledges, are not simple, and in the end he falls back on a fairly familiar list of factors, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public and private, but all ?operating within a mental framework of common identity and shared destiny? ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?invisible chain? which Orwell said bound the nation together.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And invisible chains are surely what it is all about. Addison was not far wrong in his scepticism about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?civilian morale?. ?Morale?, after all, was a term invented to apply to soldiers. But soldiers on active service )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are bound together by training, military discipline and hierarchy, and a group life apart from the rest of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society. How do we apply the same concept to the immensely varied and unstructured, indeed virtually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unknown, mass of the civilian population, held together, if at all, by altogether different forces? Orwell was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the right lines when he tried, in )] TJ ET BT 201.668 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Lion and the Unicorn )] TJ ET BT 329.336 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Secker & Warburg: London, 1941\), to explain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime solidarity in terms that went beyond the war itself and into the roots of British culture. The very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term ?civilian morale? is itself a cultural artefact, the product of unspoken beliefs, which serves to organise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our thinking in certain ways rather than others. It identifies wartime as being a different form of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence, in which we speak of civilians with the same language we normally apply to soldiers. But it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also the product of a psychological theory and a political culture. To win the war, the state needed people to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behave in certain ways; to do certain things \(working hard, volunteering, cooperating\) which would help the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war effort; and to avoid doing others \(looting, rioting, fleeing\) which would hinder it. ?Civilian morale? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proposes that these behaviours arise from a state of mind, and that the best way to influence the behaviour is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to address that state of mind. This view is, of course, part of an overall conception of the self, but it is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profoundly shaped by the values of a particular culture. Some states, it implies, may be able to coerce people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into behaving as they wish, but in a democracy, if you don?t win hearts and minds for a big project like the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second World War, then you have already failed. The popular mentality is not simply a means to an end: it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is in a way what is being fought for. Hence, the war has to be defined, not as an elite, ?king and country? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project in which the populace dutifully play their part, but as one which is wholeheartedly shared by all: as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much Nella Last?s war as Winston Churchill?s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book gives a broad and convincing picture of the attitudes and behaviour of the British people at war, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to my mind it effectively rebuts the single-minded pessimism which some find seductive \(though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps this is my post-?45 romanticism speaking\). But at the same time it suffers from a certain narrowness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of focus, which is often the case when well-established issues and debates are being addressed. Perhaps we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need to break out of the framework set by these issues and debates. To discuss wartime civilian morale is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really to discuss the mentality \(dare one say )] TJ ET BT 247.316 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mentalit)] TJ ET BT 291.980 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?\) of a particular population at a particular time: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unspoken shared beliefs and attitudes ? if any ? which unite \(or divide\) them. This indicates the need to set )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war within a much broader chronological and conceptual framework of British cultural history. We also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need a broader geographical context. One of the surprising aspects of this book, and other studies of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilian morale, is that they rarely draw on studies of the only comparable population to undergo comparable )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 1557 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences, which is, of course, Germany. How did German civilian morale differ from the British, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why? Only with a comparative approach can we start to identify what specific characteristics of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture may have given rise to this particular set of responses, and only with a broader timeframe can we set )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them within the context of the development of British culture as a whole. The mentality of wartime is too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important for its study to be confined to the six years when the war was actually going on. But then, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easier to say these things than to do them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 679.951 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 662.171 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 662.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/332)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 660.777 m 322.316 660.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 635.800 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.400 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1593)] TJ ET BT 34.016 607.000 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 661.0915 322.3157 672.9715 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/332) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000581 00000 n 0000000663 00000 n 0000004749 00000 n 0000004858 00000 n 0000004968 00000 n 0000005077 00000 n 0000008638 00000 n 0000008766 00000 n 0000008850 00000 n 0000008915 00000 n 0000016675 00000 n 0000016740 00000 n 0000024323 00000 n 0000024388 00000 n 0000032125 00000 n 0000032209 00000 n 0000033819 00000 n 0000033947 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34042 %%EOF