%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140830183236+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140830183236+01'00') /Title (Recent Scholarship on Jack the Ripper and the Victorian Media) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2940 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Recent Scholarship on Jack the Ripper and the Victorian Media)] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Interest in Jack the Ripper continues to be insatiable. New books, articles and webpages on the subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appear almost weekly - a Google search on 'Jack the Ripper' yields nearly 197,000 online references with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(333)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 30 April, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L. Perry Curtis, Jr.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(300088728X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(354pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stewart Evans)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Skinner)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(750925493X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(306pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sutton Publishing)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stroud)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heather Creaton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7829 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(varying degrees of accuracy and seriousness, the front-runner being )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 361.916 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(www.casebook.org)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 361.916 795.075 m 454.556 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 457.556 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 471.548 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. At least three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periodicals are entirely devoted to the matter, )] TJ ET BT 254.636 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ripperana, Ripper Notes, )] TJ ET BT 380.300 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 400.628 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ripperologist)] TJ ET BT 465.968 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and it has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spawned many films, from Hitchcock's )] TJ ET BT 224.816 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Lodger )] TJ ET BT 283.484 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1926\) via )] TJ ET BT 336.140 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hands of the Ripper )] TJ ET BT 436.136 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1971\) to the more recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From Hell )] TJ ET BT 87.344 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2001\). There have been novels and countless television programmes)] TJ ET BT 422.612 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based upon the case, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the description 'Ripper' is routinely attached to new murder hunts by the tabloid press \('Yorkshire Ripper'; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Camden Ripper' and many more\). Interest is so great that the National Archives finds it necessary to provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a helpful source sheet with a list of the main Metropolitan Police and Home Office references relating to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(murders. Everyone has heard of Jack the Ripper, even if he tends to blend into the world of Sherlock )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holmes, hansom cabs and thick fog. Why does one Victorian murderer still exert such world-wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascination in an age hardly short of its own violent crimes? The Ripper has been outdone many times since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1888, both in terms of his brutality and the number of his victims. Yet the case has taken on a mythic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quality, to be reinterpreted again and again by succeeding generations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The basic facts are easily outlined. In the autumn of 1888 five \(maybe six\) London prostitutes were killed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and appallingly mutilated in the East End by an unknown murderer who struck suddenly and swiftly by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(night, and who was never caught. Public panic spread far beyond the East End and the police, both City and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Metropolitan, were widely criticised for their failure to bring the killer to justice. After four months of media )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frenzy, the attacks stopped. The reason for this is not known, but the theories about it, and the culprit's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity, are legion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Happily neither of the titles reviewed here sets out to unmask the true killer. They are serious attempts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide solid information and analysis in a field too often oversupplied with sensationalism and titillation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jack the Ripper and the London Press )] TJ ET BT 220.328 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breaks new ground in its examination of the role of newspaper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reporting during the police hunt for the first notorious serial killer. Professor Curtis has looked in depth at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the way the case was covered by fifteen London newspapers, most with national coverage, but three of them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local to the East End. The papers are selected, as far as possible, to give a balance of political views. Their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background and standpoints are described and discussed in detail in Chapter six, 'The First Two Murders'; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however it would have been helpful to have a separate list of them as an appendix. The lack of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography and list of sources hinders the reader's approach somewhat here, though the equivalent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information is contained, less accessibly, in the endnotes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Curtis provides an introduction to the existing 'Ripperature', and a useful chapter on 'Images and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Realities of the East End' to establish the background to the murder scene. He stresses the prevailing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outsiders' view that the East End was a crime- and disease-ridden, uncivilised 'jungle' full of semi-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barbarians, so that the Ripper case - though shocking - was perhaps unsurprising. Press coverage tapped into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this pessimistic vision and exaggerated it for dramatic effect, with rewarding results for newspaper sales )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures. It was, of course, the press that enthusiastically adopted the name 'Jack the Ripper', taking it from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the famous 'Dear Boss' letter sent \(almost certainly by a hoaxer\) to the Central New Agency after the fourth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(murder.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapters on the conventions of Victorian journalism generally, and on sensational crime-reporting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly, are an illuminating preparation for Professor Curtis's analysis of press reports on the Ripper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(murders as they unfolded, beginning with Nichols and Chapman and moving on to Stride, Eddowes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kelly. Column inches were extravagantly dedicated to the subject for weeks on end, but the newspapers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(varied in the amount of graphic detail they were prepared to print, and tended to stress the violent rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the specifically sexual aspects of the murders. Chapter ten, 'The Inquests: Reporting the Female Body' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines these reports in some detail, much of it gory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All the papers tried to follow up the latest killing with 'human interest' angles, recycling evidence from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coroner's court, often with contradictory results. Thus the )] TJ ET BT 312.128 109.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(East London Observer)] TJ ET BT 420.788 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( quoted a friend of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victim Annie Chapman telling the court that 'I have seen her the worse for drink', while the )] TJ ET BT 473.600 94.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Western Mail )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rendered the same evidence as 'Farmer asserted that her murdered friend was apparently a sober, steady-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(going sort of woman . who seldom took any drink'.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 361.9157 795.3895 454.5557 807.2695 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.casebook.org/) >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7897 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Naturally the papers had their own agendas to promote while covering the story, so )] TJ ET BT 436.280 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The)] TJ ET BT 457.280 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times )] TJ ET BT 488.948 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 509.276 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Daily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Telegraph )] TJ ET BT 86.348 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stressed the 'danger to law and order' aspect of the case, while )] TJ ET BT 386.252 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Star)] TJ ET BT 430.256 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 450.584 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Gazette )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasised the need for social reform to alleviate the poverty causing crime. An incidental pleasure of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is the light it sheds on contemporary journalistic practice. The modern reader is struck by how rapidly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an edition could be turned around to include the latest horror. Professor Curtis describes how the Sunday )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paper, )] TJ ET BT 66.668 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lloyds Weekly)] TJ ET BT 136.316 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, received information about the murder of Catherine Eddowes at 2.10 a.m., only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twenty minutes after her body had been found on 30 September. By 4.00 a.m. the editor was able to start )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printing an 'extra special edition' so that the sensational news could reach the nation's Sabbath breakfast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tables: an impressive achievement and a gratifying scoop for his paper.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jack the Ripper and the London Press)] TJ ET BT 217.328 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is strong on factual material and very interesting in its blow-by-blow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of the reporting of this sensational case and of the responses to it from readers who wrote to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papers. It is less persuasive in its analysis of the 'cultural politics' of that reporting. What was the cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of the Ripper? No real answer is found here. The final chapter, which attempts to draw a moral from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the whole affair, merely seems slightly desperate in its political correctness: 'we must keep asking just how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complicitous we \(men\) are with the serial killers whom we have so clearly demonized or 'Othered''.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 546.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jack the Ripper: Letters from Hell)] TJ ET BT 211.988 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Stewart P. Evans and Keith Skinner)] TJ ET BT 392.972 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have collated and published all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the anonymous letters sent to the press, police, Home Office and others by people claiming to be the Ripper, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including the 'Dear Boss' letter mentioned earlier. This is a valuable publication for several reasons. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letters are all transcribed and many are reproduced in colour, providing fascinating insights into late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian handwriting and phraseology, as well as educational levels and the psychopathology of hoaxing. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book contains a good bibliography and list of journals and supplies an index of signatories to the letters, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postcards and telegrams. The signatures, predictably, are mainly variations on Jack the Ripper - 'Jack the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Riper', 'jack ripper and son', 'Jack the Skipper', 'Jacky the Ripper', 'J.T. Ripper' - and even overseas claimants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as 'Jack o estripador' \(of Lisbon\). Lesser-known rivals like 'Brumigan Bill the Slaughterman', 'Jim the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cutter' and the 'black brunswick boy' also make their appearance, revealing the sheer quantity and variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence reaching the police at the time, from all over the world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rightly assuming that the background to Whitechapel at the time will be well known to those using the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, the authors move straight into an account of the first of the murders, that of Emma Smith, in April )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1888. Each successive killing is clearly outlined and examined against the development of the police )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation and the arrival of increasing quantities of anonymous mail, some sent directly to Scotland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yard, but much arriving through news agencies or newspapers. Publicity given to the 'Dear Boss' letter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written in red ink and signed 'Jack the Ripper' had led to a proliferation of copycat practical jokes and to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permanent assignation of the Ripper tag to the crimes known earlier simply as 'the Whitechapel murders'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many of the letters taunt the police for their lack of progress; others are clearly fuelled by a personal grudge, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like the letter addressed to 'Mr Boss, Desford Industrial School, Near Liecester [sic]' which read 'Dear Boss, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I write these few lines to you That the ripper is coming over on the 9th Novr. Don't forget'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Later chapters deal with the involvement of the medium and clairvoyant Robert James Lees in trying to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpret the letters, and the interest taken by the alienist Dr Lyttleton Forbes Winslow, who claimed to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(received letters from the Ripper. The authors successfully peel back layers of myth that have gathered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around Ripper writings over the years, revealing the origins of various distortions, pieces of misinformation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and even invention in earlier works, like the surprising elevation of the Queen's distinguished physician Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Gull to the role of Ripper suspect as a result of pure speculation in an article written in 1970.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Who were the hoaxers? A few were discovered and prosecuted, including a young Yorkshire mantle-maker, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maria Coroner, who had written to her chief constable and to a local newspaper announcing in flowery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language the arrival of the Ripper in Bradford, later claiming she had done it 'in a joke'. Asking what she had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been charged with, she was told it was a breach of the peace under the common law, to which she replied 'I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should like to see the common law, it is so common I have never seen it'. Despite this rash flippancy, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was only bound over to be of good behaviour for six months on her own recognisance of 20. Maria's )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 3718 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landlady claimed that the girl was so excited by reading about the Whitechapel murders that she \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landlady\) was afraid to go to bed at night. Miriam Howells, an Aberdare labourer's wife, wrote letters as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ripper threatening to kill two local women, but claimed she 'only did it for a lark'. She, too, escaped with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar sentence. Edward Grover, of Fletching in Sussex, wrote as the Ripper to threaten Lord Sheffield, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who had issued an eviction notice to Grover's mother, but the results of his prosecution are not known. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the great majority of the hoaxers went undetected. As to their motives, the authors do not attempt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to investigate them here, if indeed they can ever be satisfactorily explained.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last section of part one of the book deals with some of the 'usual suspects': Druitt, Tumblety, Cream and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others, briefly setting out the case against each and comparing their handwriting with the hoax samples, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coming to no startling new conclusions. Part two comprises a very clear, useful calendar of the surviving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letters in the National Archives and the Corporation of London Record Office. The book is copiously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrated with contemporary prints, cartoons and photographs as well as the reproductions of the letters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves. It is an admirable example of the imaginative presentation of original source material, and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable interest to cultural and social historians generally, as well as Ripper enthusiasts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2002/feb/09/historybooks.highereducation1)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 542.979 m 407.996 542.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 410.996 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/reviews.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 514.467 m 260.324 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 263.324 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 511.135 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 493.355 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 493.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/333)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 491.961 m 322.316 491.961 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 466.984 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 452.584 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1595)] TJ ET BT 34.016 438.184 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1597)] TJ ET BT 34.016 423.784 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.casebook.org/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 409.384 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2002/feb/09/historybooks.highereducation1)] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.984 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] http://yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/reviews.asp?isbn=9780300088724)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 543.2935 407.9957 555.1735 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2002/feb/09/historybooks.highereducation1) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 514.7815 260.3237 526.6615 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/reviews.asp?isbn=9780300088724) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 492.2755 322.3157 504.1555 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/333) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000564 00000 n 0000000646 00000 n 0000003638 00000 n 0000003747 00000 n 0000003857 00000 n 0000003966 00000 n 0000007527 00000 n 0000007655 00000 n 0000007739 00000 n 0000007823 00000 n 0000015705 00000 n 0000015833 00000 n 0000015909 00000 n 0000015974 00000 n 0000023924 00000 n 0000024022 00000 n 0000027793 00000 n 0000027920 00000 n 0000028045 00000 n 0000028172 00000 n 0000028289 00000 n 0000028417 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28512 %%EOF