%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 26 0 R 31 0 R 44 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150705061141+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150705061141+01'00') /Title (The Changing Reputations of Elizabeth I and James VI & I) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2802 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Changing Reputations of Elizabeth I and James VI & I)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(334)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 June, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pauline Croft)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(333613953X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(228pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carole Levin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(333658655X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(158pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan Stewart)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.995 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(701169842X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.483 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.227 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 42.971 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6346 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Few figures in British history have such storied reputations as Elizabeth I or James VI & I. The three books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewed here represent recent contributions to changing and evolving approaches to these rulers. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(none of the authors offers a bold new interpretation, Pauline Croft most successfully draws together twenty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years of revisionist scholarship to present a new composite portrait. Alan Stewart's ambitious attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(write the first 'modern' biography of James since David Harris Willson \(1956\) produces a decidedly mixed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result. Carole Levin's rather inaptly titled )] TJ ET BT 234.488 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reign of Elizabeth I)] TJ ET BT 330.152 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( offers less a new overview than selected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topical essays. Christopher Haigh's revised edition of )] TJ ET BT 292.148 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth I)] TJ ET BT 344.480 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Longman; London, 1998\) still remains the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best choice. Academic books on controversial individuals are bound to find scholarly readers, but Levin's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Croft's books are aimed at students while Stewart targets the popular audience who appreciated his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books on Francis Bacon \(co-authored with Lisa Jardine\) and Philip Sidney.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James VI & I has been thoroughly reassessed in the past twenty years. The obvious target was David )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Willson's toxic treatment in )] TJ ET BT 169.508 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(King James VI & I)] TJ ET BT 259.496 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Jonathan Cape; London, 1956\). Jenny Wormald's seminal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(article 'James VI and I: Two Kings or One?' \()] TJ ET BT 251.948 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 287.948 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 68 \(1983\), 187-209\) challenged the hostile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography which enveloped James, pondering how it was that the Scots and English held such different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views of the same monarch. Wormald deconstructed the contemporary \(primarily printed\) sources that had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaped historians' treatment of the king, particularly polemics by Anthony Weldon, Arthur Wilson, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francis Osborne. She emphasised their inherent English xenophobia, designed to further a project of Stuart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vilification which began in the 1620s and rose to a fever pitch in the 1650s. Having set scholars the task of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recovering the authentic James, many took up the call. The results have cast in a more favourable light )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James' effectiveness with religion, diplomacy, patronage and finance, and the governance of multiple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kingdoms. The missing element in this revisionist project has been a full-length study of James capable of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplanting Willson.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pauline Croft's )] TJ ET BT 108.176 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(King James)] TJ ET BT 164.504 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( now offers the best overview. Croft brings two substantial strengths to her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political study of James in his three kingdoms: an understanding of the period grounded in extensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience as a published archival historian; and practice coming to grips with her subject in the classroom. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Croft has published widely on the first decade of James' reign, with particular emphasis on parliament, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finance, and Robert Cecil - her 'modern' study of Cecil is forthcoming. The devil is in the details with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects like these and those details are in the Jacobean archives that Croft knows well. At the same time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while acknowledgments like Croft's which thank her students sometimes appear clichd, no one who has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taught James' reign can fail to appreciate how valuable the classroom or lecture hall is for working through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an understanding of such a 'dauntingly complex' subject. Drawing on these strengths, Croft has produced an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretive synthesis which is confident, agile, and judicious.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A generation of Scottish historians have fashioned an increasingly nuanced picture of James as king of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scots. We now have assessments of his education and formative years, the politics of his minority, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolving notions of imperial kingship, and the long struggle to translate his political ideas into practice in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secular, religious, and territorial realms. This is Croft's starting point, which produces a credible assessment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of James:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(448pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chatto and Windus)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Cramsie)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7674 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The pragmatism of 'little by little' was coming to characterise his style of governance. At the same time, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curious combination of ability and complacency, idleness and shrewd judgement, warm emotions and lack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of discretion so well described by Fontenay remained typical of James throughout his life. \(p. 20\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beyond James' personality and style, Croft helps us appreciate how much his Scottish kingship centred on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the expansion of royal power: simultaneously subordinating the nobility and drawing them into a ruling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partnership \(with the rising literate laymen\), fashioning a workable royal supremacy over the reformed kirk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(including the reintroduction of bishops\), and attempting to expand royal authority across the 'Highland line'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What emerges from her synthesis of work by historians like Roger Mason, Alan MacDonald, Michael )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lynch, Julian Goodare, and Wormald is a Scottish king with a practical sense of his )] TJ ET BT 439.628 658.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(imperium)] TJ ET BT 485.624 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( - the claim to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unchallenged royal authority in secular, religious, and territorial matters - entirely in keeping with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pretensions of his Stewart predecessors and Tudor cousins. We are far better equipped to understand James )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his three kingdoms after 1603 when we understand his evolving imperial kingship in Scotland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The traditional narrative of James' reign in England is covered in five chapters whose balanced treatment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will now seem familiar: the heady days of James' accession, the rise of Anglo-Scottish xenophobia and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collapse of his plans for Anglo-Scottish union, troubles with finance and extravagance \(both in parliament )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and without\), the death of Robert Cecil in 1612 and the rise of kingship by favourite with \(successively\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Carr and George Villiers, and James' pro-Spanish diplomacy in the context of renewed confessional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warfare after 1618. Croft examines two significant areas of reassessment in separate chapters: James' rule )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over multiple kingdoms and the religious fissures among his diverse collection of subjects. The chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examining the former opens - rightly - with discussion of his political ideas in )] TJ ET BT 410.660 489.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The True Lawe of Free )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Monarchies)] TJ ET BT 91.340 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 114.668 475.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Basilicon Doron)] TJ ET BT 194.336 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Croft directly ties the territorial component of James' imperial philosophy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed in these celebrated works to his actions authorising the failed colonisation of Lewis, his Highland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy, and his whole-hearted support for the plantation of Ulster and 'legal imperialist' projects of John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davies in Ireland. Croft's assessment - which will certainly be contested - is that James' 'achievements after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1603 as monarch of three kingdoms was both pioneering and impressive'. \(p. 154\) The mixed success of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James' efforts governing the churches in his kingdoms is effectively synthesised and Croft pulls no punches )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in siding with Alan MacDonald's view that James' imposition of the Articles of Perth laid the seeds for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(son's troubles in Scotland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Croft's overall assessment of James is appropriately mixed. She recognises his good intentions in matters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like Anglo-Scottish union, his openness to different points of view, and his agenda of a peaceful foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy within his kingdoms' financial means. His actions moderated frictions between his diverse peoples. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet he also created new ones, particularly by supporting colonisation that polarised the crown's interest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups in Ireland, obtaining insufficient political benefit with his open-handed patronage, an unfortunate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lack of attention to the image of monarchy \(particularly after the image-obsessed regime of Elizabeth\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursuing a pro-Spanish foreign policy that fired religious prejudice and opened the door for Arminians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the English church, and enforcing unpalatable religious changes on the Scottish kirk. Many of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticisms are framed within a longer view of James' reigns, including the legacy - now understood to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more troubled - which he left Charles I. Elements of all these judgments can be debated. With respect to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caroline Scotland, Charles should hardly be forgiven the Act of Revocation, his long-delayed and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglocentric coronation at Holyrood, or the Laudian canons and prayer book of 1636-37. Yet in such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates we begin to approach an authentic appraisal of James that escapes both the hostile historiography of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the past and worn-out frames of reference. We at last assess James on his own terms, as an imperial monarch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governing multiple peoples and kingdoms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Where Croft offers a study of James' reign, Alan Stewart aims for a study of James' life in )] TJ ET BT 468.584 123.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cradle King)] TJ ET BT 549.260 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a richly textured biography ideally crafted for a well-read popular audience. Stewart's style is engaging; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place, personality, and a sense of the times are captured in fine fashion. Stewart incorporates interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topics which contribute to his treatment of James as a human subject in a historical context, including artistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patronage and culture, James' relationships with Queen Anna and their children, lessons to be gleaned from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his poetical works, and the treasure trove of contemporary gossip and rumour surrounding the Stuarts. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7485 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, Stewart does not bring the same strengths to a study of James that Croft does, especially an intimate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiarity with the Jacobean archives. Literary and cultural sources are his mtier. There tends to be a heavy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reliance upon printed primary sources \(some of questionable accuracy or credibility\) blended with old-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashioned historiography, selections of recent scholarship, and avant garde literary and cultural studies. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Together these elements yield an eclectic, uneven, and ultimately unconvincing treatment of James, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly as a political subject.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The least convincing element is what seems to be Stewart's overriding interpretation of James' character. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Willson had his Anthony Weldon, the crabbed Jacobean courtier who penned an 'acid description [of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James] . entirely one-sided including no redeeming features that might permit a more balanced verdict.' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Croft, pp. 3-4\) Stewart finds his Weldon in John Oglander, 'a staunch royalist' whose reminiscence of James )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(in the 1650s\) as '"the most cowardly man I ever knew"' is the prelude to resurrecting perhaps the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discredited imputation against James in the historiography shaped by the likes of Weldon. The violence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James encountered during his formative years, beginning with the storied murder of his mother's secretary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(David Riccio\) while he was still in her womb, left him with a 'fearful nature'. \(Stewart, pp. ix-x\) Thus, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James retreated from people and crowds, covered his timidity with bluster and boasts, clung to trusted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favourites, and never quite mastered the harsher realities of political conflict at home or abroad. As Stewart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite his age, despite his many years on two great thrones, he still uses the present tense - 'Tis true I am a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cradle king' - as if, even now, he remains an infant, an innocent for whom the harsh realities of kingship are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still unimaginable. \(p. 350\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This flawed perspective compromises the ensuing examination of James as a political actor. Unlike his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting close reading of James' poetical works, Stewart treats )] TJ ET BT 346.784 461.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(True Lawe)] TJ ET BT 398.456 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 421.784 461.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Basilicon Doron)] TJ ET BT 501.452 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in cursory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashion, producing nothing like Croft's insightful and informed reading of them and their essential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connection to James' actions as king. The court James initially constructed in 1603 is inconsistently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterised. The assertion that the privy lodgings were depoliticised under Elizabeth because of gender has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been challenged by the studies of her ladies-in-waiting.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 299.300 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 299.300 402.675 m 313.292 402.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 313.292 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Stewart recognises the influence of James' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scottish cronies staffing his bedchamber per Neil Cuddy's work, but fails to incorporate the work of Croft )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Linda Levy Peck which clarifies its influence as chiefly pertaining to patronage, not politics. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paradoxically, when Stewart suggests that the influence of the Scottish earl of Dunbar was negligible \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(173-4\), he misses one of Cuddy's most important conclusions. Dunbar is now acknowledged to have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enormously influential before his death in 1611.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When we move to James' kingcraft, we return to Willson's 'Sylvan Prince' obsessed with hunting and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pathologically uninterested in business:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James did not believe himself to be negligent in his style of government. Indeed, he was continuing very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much in the way he had for the past two decades in Scotland . Complaints about James' hunting were almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always complaints about James' style of government - or, more pertinently, his failure to govern effectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because of his physical absence from court. \(pp. 176, 181\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians like Wormald and Peck questioned assertions like these a decade ago, demonstrating that they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not supported by the archival evidence and arose from historians like Willson misreading the printed sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the period. First, James did spend considerable time outside Whitehall, but this criticism is a 'straw man', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given Elizabeth's perambulations and her own love of hunting or the frequent circuits and progresses of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James' Scottish predecessors. Where James failed was in not exploiting his perambulations to cultivate a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(better rapport with his subjects. Further, the Jacobean archives are filled with volumes of correspondence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and memoranda among James and his courtiers and counsellors. When James was not in London conducting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business face to face, the business of governing found its way on to paper in the form of packets and letters. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is manifold evidence which attests to James secreting himself in his bedchamber with the daily post, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devouring packets, and dictating or personally penning long, detailed responses to them.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 457.964 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 457.964 67.299 m 471.956 67.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 471.956 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Croft's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessment of 'ability and complacency' is surely closer to the mark, though even this understates James' )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 299.2997 402.9895 313.2917 414.8695 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 457.9637 67.6135 471.9557 79.4935 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 8049 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activism as king.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The underlying problem here is the heavy reliance upon printed sources. Both Simon Walker and John Guy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have astutely addressed the interpretive challenges posed by early modern printed primary sources in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respective studies of Henry VIII and Thomas More. The challenge is particularly acute for More, given the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need to 'rely on the legacy of the sixteenth century biographers . [who] were constructing and projecting an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image . refracting or distorting what historians later took to be the "primary sources" for the life and career )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Thomas More.' Guy's conclusion is a dreary one: 'I no longer believe that a truly historical biography of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas More can be written. The sources are too problematic.')] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 337.772 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 337.772 683.283 m 351.764 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 351.764 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sources are more abundant for James' life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the Jacobean printed primary sources are equally plagued by 'spin'. Indeed, the modern reassessment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James grew directly out of Wormald's critique of those sources. What is absolutely essential is to employ )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archival material as the 'critical' companion to printed sources - and vice versa. Neither can stand alone, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen Alford effectively demonstrated in his examination of William Cecil's much-interpreted life in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Early Elizabethan Polity: William Cecil and the British Succession Crisis, 1558-1569 )] TJ ET BT 469.688 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press; Cambridge, 1998\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These problems push )] TJ ET BT 139.004 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cradle King)] TJ ET BT 198.680 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( down an unsympathetic and condescending path. In one instance, we are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asked to consider James growing so jealous of his eldest son Henry's popularity that we might wish to credit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the contemporary gossips - recounted in detail - who suggested that James poisoned the heir to the throne. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Stewart, pp. 216-18\) Stewart's final judgment on James' reign is troubling: 'Twenty-two years of what many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceived as negligent government, a grossly lavish lifestyle, and an unsavoury parade of pretty young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favourites, was at an end, and not before time.' \(p. 346\) This is followed by praise for the chaste court of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new king, but this is hard to swallow given James' favourite, Villiers - the 'grievance of grievances' - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained and Charles's mania for courtly order and decorum left him fatally out of touch with political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reality by the 1630s. Stewart even recounts the gossip suggesting Villiers poisoned James; he argues Charles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owed something of his eventual trial and execution to his opponents' revival of that gossip - 'Charles would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never fully rid himself of the accusation that he owed his throne to murder' - never apparently considering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the context of or motives at work in 1648. 'It is perhaps fitting,' writes Stewart in closing, 'that the death of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King James aroused such speculation and innuendo.' \(p. 349\) Not just his death: James has apparently found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a David Willson for the twenty-first century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carole Levin's )] TJ ET BT 106.832 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reign of Elizabeth)] TJ ET BT 195.500 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is seemingly the 'odd book out' in this review, yet the theme of shifting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputations ties together both James and Elizabeth. While James' star has risen since the 1980s, the brilliance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Elizabeth's is somewhat dimmer these days - though the 'Gloriana industry' seems alive and well on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(400th anniversary of her death! In Elizabeth's case, the primary target has been Sir John Neale's loving study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Queen Elizabeth)] TJ ET BT 116.672 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(I)] TJ ET BT 120.668 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Jonathan Cape; London, 1934\) and the accounts of John Foxe, Robert Naunton, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Camden underpinning Neale's treatment of Elizabeth as a Protestant Gloriana and political genius. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians approaching Elizabeth in a less worshipful train have explored crucial points of conflict in her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reign: religion, court politics, diplomacy, gender, political creeds, even Elizabeth's role in politics and her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship to other political actors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Levin wades into the shifting currents of Elizabeth's reputation having made her mark with the widely read )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Heart and Stomach of a King)] TJ ET BT 175.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(University of Pennsylvania Press; Philadelphia, 1994\) which examined the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics of gender surrounding Elizabeth's queenship. This naturally informs her treatment of Elizabeth - as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does for most scholars now - though it seems oddly muted here. What follows is a book with much the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clarity, accessibility, and judiciousness as Croft's. A very general overview of Elizabeth's life follows a short )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographic introduction. Both are essential reading for students because the ensuing chapters are more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(akin to topical essays. Religion is the first substantive issue addressed. The religious settlement of 1559 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the religious fissures at the elite and popular levels are examined in breathless fashion, though it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undoubtedly too neat to conclude \(on page 37\) that 'England in 1603 had become a Protestant nation'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth's commitment to the 1559 settlement and the authoritarian turn of her regime in the 1590s papered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over but did not resolve either the debate about her )] TJ ET BT 281.300 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(imperium)] TJ ET BT 327.296 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in religious matters or the providential and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(millenarian imperatives to create a godly society felt by more zealous Protestants. England was not a country )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religiously 'at ease with itself' in 1603, the Welsh populace had yet to embrace the reformed church in large )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 337.7717 683.5975 351.7637 695.4775 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 7969 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numbers, and the union of the three kingdoms created new opportunities for religious fissures to open.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 524.948 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 524.948 795.075 m 538.940 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 538.940 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in so many other areas, Elizabeth left her successor a mixed legacy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Religion, diplomacy, marriage, and succession dominate Levin's book. She narrates with admirable clarity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the interaction of these related topics in her core chapters. Indeed, if there is a defining theme in the book it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is that these elements were the ones that defined Elizabeth's reign and they could never be disentangled from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one another in governing her Tudor realms, including Ireland. In constructing these chapters, Levin leans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heavily on the now-standard work by Patrick Collinson, Susan Doran, John Guy, Christopher Haigh, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norman Jones, and Wallace MacCaffrey, but she does not neglect the important work of Nicholas Canny, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jane Dawson, or Hiram Morgan. That said, the perspective here remains very much that of 'enriched English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history' rather than British history: Scottish historians get rather short shrift here and Alford's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aforementioned study of William Cecil and British succession politics in the early Elizabethan regime is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curiously absent.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If not quite seen as her 'second reign', the period 1585-1603 is now recognised by scholars as distinctly more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(troubled than the first half of Elizabeth's long reign. Costly wars against Spain and the Irish, involvement in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Netherlands, socio-economic distress, and an authoritarian turn by the regime all cast a pall over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gloriana's final years, underpinning a weariness with the queen's rule and open criticism of her government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and its failures. Levin closes her book by looking at these troubled times through the perspective of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who were 'different': poor women persecuted as witches, Jews, and Africans. Jews and Africans are studied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both through their place in the cultural record \(Marlowe, Shakespeare, the stage generally and accounts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploration and travel\) and as ethnic communities. This 'take' on the end of the reign will not appeal to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everyone, but it does highlight the consolidation of a chauvinistically Protestant English identity which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exacerbated pre-existing tendencies to see others as 'curious and inferior'. \(p. 118\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tudor xenophobia toward 'foreigners' not only found play among Jews, Africans, and the poor. It inflamed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious, cultural, and ethnic differences in the three kingdoms after 1603. It left its mark on the seventeenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century and the age of empire which followed. Tudor xenophobia and anti-Catholic hysteria informed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polemical fashioning and refashioning of Elizabeth into a Protestant saviour and the vilification of James )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his successor. The aging, irascible, and lukewarm Protestant queen of 1603 was from the 1620s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embraced as the saviour of the reformed church during the mortal struggle with Catholic Spain. By contrast, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the adult male with undoubted Protestant credentials who ensured a peaceful succession was refashioned as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'fearful', debauched Scot who played the willing dupe to Counter-reformation Catholics bent on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('universal monarchy' and the destruction of European Protestantism. As Elizabeth waxed, so James waned in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the seventeenth century. Fortunately, today's appraisals are more evenly balanced, even if James' reputation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has not quite escaped Weldon, Wilson, Osborne, and their descendants.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 269.379 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 238.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pam Wright, 'A change in direction: the ramifications of a female Household 1558-1603', in David )] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Starkey \(ed.\), )] TJ ET BT 131.996 224.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English Court)] TJ ET BT 220.676 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Longman; Harlow, 1987\), pp. 147-172; Natalie Mears, 'Politics in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Elizabethan Privy Chamber: Lady Mary Sidney and Kat Ashley', in James Daybell \(ed.\), )] TJ ET BT 510.440 210.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women )] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Politics in Early Modern England)] TJ ET BT 248.348 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Ashgate, forthcoming\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 366.992 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 366.992 194.595 m 420.980 194.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 181.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have dealt with this at length in my )] TJ ET BT 243.008 181.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kingship and Crown Finance under James VI and I 1603-1625)] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Boydell and Brewer; Woodbridge, 2002\), pp. 50-60 and generally.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 387.956 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 387.956 166.083 m 441.944 166.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 153.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Guy, )] TJ ET BT 116.348 153.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Thomas More)] TJ ET BT 183.344 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Arnold; London, 2000\), pp. x-xi.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 348.332 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 348.332 151.827 m 402.320 151.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 138.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For instance Nicholas Canny, 'Irish, Scottish, and Welsh responses to centralisation, c. 1530-c.1640: a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparative perspective', in Alexander Grant and Keith J. Stringer \(eds.\), )] TJ ET BT 420.092 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Uniting the Kingdom? The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making of British History)] TJ ET BT 187.688 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Routledge; London, 1995\), pp. 147-69.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 382.676 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 382.676 109.059 m 436.664 109.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan Stewart has read Professor Cramsie's review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carole Levin)] TJ ET BT 100.004 57.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would like to thank Professor Cramsie for his thoughtful review and I am most appreciative )] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 524.9477 795.3895 538.9397 807.2695 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 366.9917 194.9095 420.9797 206.7895 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 387.9557 166.3975 441.9437 178.2775 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 348.3317 152.1415 402.3197 164.0215 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 382.6757 109.3735 436.6637 121.2535 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 46 0 R ] /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 1474 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he finds the text clear , accessible and judicious. While I agree that Christopher Haigh's )] TJ ET BT 477.428 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presents an interesting, provocative account of Elizabeth, it is different enough in approach from my study, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly in the final chapter as Cramsie notes, that I would hope readers would find both texts to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 708.463 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 690.683 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 690.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/334)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 689.289 m 322.316 689.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 664.312 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 649.912 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1599)] TJ ET BT 34.016 635.512 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1601)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.112 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1603)] TJ ET BT 34.016 606.712 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 689.6035 322.3157 701.4835 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/334) >> endobj xref 0 48 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000580 00000 n 0000000662 00000 n 0000003516 00000 n 0000003625 00000 n 0000003735 00000 n 0000003844 00000 n 0000007405 00000 n 0000007533 00000 n 0000007617 00000 n 0000007682 00000 n 0000014081 00000 n 0000014146 00000 n 0000021873 00000 n 0000021964 00000 n 0000029502 00000 n 0000029532 00000 n 0000029660 00000 n 0000029696 00000 n 0000029726 00000 n 0000029852 00000 n 0000029888 00000 n 0000029972 00000 n 0000038074 00000 n 0000038104 00000 n 0000038232 00000 n 0000038268 00000 n 0000038380 00000 n 0000046402 00000 n 0000046432 00000 n 0000046560 00000 n 0000046596 00000 n 0000046724 00000 n 0000046779 00000 n 0000046907 00000 n 0000046962 00000 n 0000047090 00000 n 0000047145 00000 n 0000047273 00000 n 0000047328 00000 n 0000047412 00000 n 0000048939 00000 n 0000049067 00000 n trailer << /Size 48 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 49162 %%EOF