%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 31 0 R 54 0 R 77 0 R 100 0 R 122 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140917081219+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140917081219+01'00') /Title (Arthurian Myths and Alchemy: the Kingship of Edward IV) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4135 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Arthurian Myths and Alchemy: the Kingship of Edward IV)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reign of Edward IV, as Jonathan Hughes points out, is unique in English history; it was the first ? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(last ? time a king of England lost his throne, went into exile, invaded his own kingdom and regained his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crown, enabling him to destroy his rivals and to reign in relative peace and tranquillity for another thirteen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years. The extraordinary nature of these years \(1461-1483\) is made even more extraordinary by Hughes?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researches, which reveal a ?hidden? world of alchemists, relatives and ?personal advisers? helping to direct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward?s policies, propaganda and indeed, his own self-image. Of course, Edward?s reign is also interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in terms of its structure, as it appears to divide neatly into two distinct halves \(1461-9 and 1471-83\), with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short period of exile in Burgundy at its centre.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hughes argues that the different requirements of each ?phase? of Edward of York?s life and the challenges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he faced are characterised by the development and use of different forms of royal propaganda and self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation. At the outset, Edward?s ?image? was founded upon Arthurian themes, and the alchemical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests of those who surrounded him and acted as his advisers, such as the Augustinian canon of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bridlington, George Ripley. The justification for Edward?s seizure of the throne from Henry VI was also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based upon his British ancestry, with specially-produced genealogies, accompanied by prophecies and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical material proclaiming him to be the ?second Arthur?, who would unite the kingdoms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain, thus fulfilling the prophecy made by the Angelic Voice to Cadwallader, last king of the Britons, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(335)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 June, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Hughes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(750919949X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(354pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sutton Publishing)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stroud)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lesley Coote)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8510 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the end of Geoffrey of Monmouth?s )] TJ ET BT 210.644 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historia Regum Britannie)] TJ ET BT 335.312 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once king, Edward IV drifted away from his original purpose into lassitude and avarice, causing him to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abandoned by many who had previously viewed him as the well-balanced man who could heal the nation?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(body. During the period of exile and conflict at the centre of his reign, Edward regained his bodily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equilibrium and his kingdom, returning to the Galfridian propaganda and imagery that had characterised his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumption of power in 1461. In the second period of his reign, Edward and his advisers inclined more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards the Roman, imperial models of rule favoured in the past by Henry V. This period witnessed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translation of many works of Roman history, philosophy and statecraft into English. However, the Treaty of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Picquigny in 1475 signalled a downturn in Edward?s health and attitudes, in particular a disastrous reliance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the pension given by Louis XI as a result of the treaty. This caused the kingdom to slide once again into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Arthurian ?wasteland? of political uncertainty and turmoil, culminating in the usurpation of the throne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and murder of Edward V by Richard, duke of Gloucester. Hughes gives 1475 as a watershed for Richard, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after which he abandoned his unquestioning loyalty to his brother; in the following years, the seeds of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events of 1483 were sown.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 162.320 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 162.320 597.747 m 176.312 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 176.312 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Alchemists such as Ripley switched their allegiances to Henry Tudor, refusing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(when they were aware of the deaths of Edward V and his brother\) to accept the Saturnine influences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard; the imagery of the marriage between the red rose and the white, culminating in the red and white )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tudor rose, owes much to their influence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hughes reveals the alchemical influences that shaped much of Edward?s propaganda at its point of origin. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Symbols such as the ?sun in splendour? and the ?three crowns?, by which Edward was known, had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alchemical meanings, however else they came to be perceived by contemporaries. This raises questions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about how such symbols were perceived by different sections of the community ? they could be heraldic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(natural, alchemical, astrological, mythological or simply be associated culturally with ideas such as ?the sun )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of majesty? \(as with Richard II in Clement Maidstone?s account of Richard?s reception in London in 1392\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 443.187 m 48.008 443.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Few people, as Sydney Anglo has pointed out, ever saw the king; but they ?saw? him in the symbols by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which he was represented.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 160.640 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 160.640 428.931 m 174.632 428.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 174.632 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The ?perception history? of such symbols is clearly important not only for this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, but for other reigns, and the alchemical origins and understanding of some of them has implications )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the study of prophecy. Whilst it is not true that all images used in prophecy had their origins in alchemy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this set of meanings needs to be examined, and some prophecies, such as )] TJ ET BT 386.960 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Adam Davy?s Dreams about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Edward II)] TJ ET BT 83.012 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, most certainly offer themselves for this type of explanation.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 375.968 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 375.968 371.907 m 389.960 371.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Also evident from Hughes?s account is the sheer amount of propaganda that accompanied Edward of York?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seizure of the English throne \(that is, during the early 1460s\). The many examples he gives \(and he does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claim to be fully comprehensive\) reveal the extent to which this propaganda, including its associated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagery, penetrated all areas of England, both geographically and culturally. This type of material had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used before, but not in such proportions ? it might almost be said that Edward?s supporters )] TJ ET BT 472.976 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(saturated)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England with his royal claims. This has important implications for the organs of propaganda in fifteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century England. Were these created by Edward, or were they already in place? The speed with which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material was disseminated suggests the latter, but if so, why was such saturation not in evidence before the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1460s? Edward IV?s government seems to have been able to destroy and replace the ?person? of Henry VI )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with some measure of efficiency.\( Hughes, p. 231\) What were the spiritual and secular instruments for this, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who were the personnel, and how did they operate locally?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second aspect highlighted by Hughes ? and this is the book?s greatest strength \(indeed, its centre\) ? is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward IV?s own interest in alchemy, his close relationship with George Ripley and others with similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests, and the influences which this had upon Edward?s own ideology and self-belief. Also really )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting is the connection between Ripley, Thomas Norton \(alchemist and ?prophet?\) and George Neville, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archbishop of York. Hughes?s knowledge of the nature of fifteenth-century alchemy enables him to offer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting new perspectives on the motivations of this group, and the fluctuating nature of their relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with their royal patron. Particularly striking is the revelation that to men such as Ripley, the rise and fall of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kings was seen in the nature of an alchemical experiment.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 311.288 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 311.288 77.043 m 325.280 77.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 325.280 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Hughes also relates some stories which, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although they carry political resonance, are simply delightful in themselves, such as the story of Thomas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dalton, who threw his supply of ?red medicine? down the privy in order to keep the means of manufacturing )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 162.3197 598.0615 176.3117 609.9415 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 443.5015 48.0077 455.3815 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 160.6397 429.2455 174.6317 441.1255 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 375.9677 372.2215 389.9597 384.1015 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 311.2877 77.3575 325.2797 89.2375 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 37 0 R 40 0 R 43 0 R 46 0 R 49 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 8726 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gold ? and doubtless his own person ? away from King Edward.\(pp. 199-200\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The person of George Ripley himself stands out from the pages like a fifteenth-century Merlin, a role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which he obviously perceived himself. Ripley enters the story as one of the alchemists concerned with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued illness of Henry VI. He ?supervises? \(or, perhaps, rationalises\) the meteoric rise of Edward IV, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abandons him in 1469, then rationalises the king?s renewal in 1471. He then admonishes Edward for turning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away from his former, life-giving principles after 1475, opposes Richard III, and provides the justification )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and alchemical imagery that accompany the accession of Henry VII. Like the original Merlin in relation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vortigern, to Uther Pendragon and to Arthur, he frequently appears much more fascinating than the king )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself, and it is something of a pity that he is not even more prominent in the book.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 440.336 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 440.336 669.027 m 454.328 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The presence of Ripley and his fellow alchemists, and their connection with senior churchmen such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Neville opens up the possibility that such networks, peripheral and yet connected to the royal circle, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were not necessarily new. Hilary Carey has noted the presence of astrologers on the periphery of earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval courts, and J. H. Wylie relates the story of how Stephen Courtenay introduced Henry V, on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way to the Agincourt campaign, to the astrologer/experimental philosopher Jean Fusoris. Courtenay had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consulted Fusoris in Paris concerning the future success of the campaign, and of Henry?s proposed marriage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Catherine of Valois. Fusoris gave Henry some books and an astrolabe, and was rewarded with thanks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a gift of forty gold nobles by Henry and Courtenay.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 301.640 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 301.640 542.979 m 315.632 542.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 315.632 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Courtenay was a close friend of Henry, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bishop of Norwich; he appears in this case to be acting as a ?go-between?, as George Neville appears to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(done.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Was a similar group of men active in and around the court of Henry V, and did they exercise a similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence upon his self-representation? Were they related, or connected, to the men who advised the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(councillors of Henry VI on his illness, and who subsequently advised Edward IV? Perhaps Edward inherited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than an interest in the Roman past from Henry V. This must surely, now, be considered a possibility.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 545.300 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 545.300 445.443 m 559.292 445.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hughes notes the importance of the king?s health ? or lack of it ? during Henry VI?s maturity, and describes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a meeting of ?alchemists? in 1456 at which the consequences of this for the kingdom were discussed, and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solution sought. What is surprising and important, is that the alchemical multiplication of coin by turning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(base metals into gold was seriously considered as a means of remedying the chronic financial situation, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that an increasingly metaphysical, mythological view was being applied to politics.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 433.316 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 433.316 374.163 m 447.308 374.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 447.308 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It may be that, after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the victories of Henry V \(or maybe even those of Edward III\), the English were ?living the myth? ? hence its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectiveness as propaganda.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ripley, of course, was not the first Yorkshire Augustinian to be interested in prophecy and experimental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science. Hughes mentions John Erghome, canon and regent master at York during the second half of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fourteenth century.\(p. 147: see also note )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 229.976 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 229.976 290.883 m 249.968 290.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 249.968 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Ripley and Erghome are connected by Erghome?s books. At )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some point, Erghome bequeathed his library to the Augustinian canons of York. The catalogue of this library )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is still extant, with Erghome?s books listed separately. This includes, in a section entitled ')] TJ ET BT 467.156 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(prophecie et )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(supersticiosa)] TJ ET BT 97.352 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(', many works of astrology and astronomy, mathematics, tables and )] TJ ET BT 423.140 249.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(calendaria)] TJ ET BT 475.136 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, with works of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prophecy, geomancy, the properties of minerals and ?natural philosophy?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 389.612 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 389.612 233.859 m 409.604 233.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 409.604 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It cannot be doubted that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these books would have been used by the young Ripley, a member of the same order living about a day?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journey down the road in Bridlington.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the works listed is )] TJ ET BT 160.004 180.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(excerpiones prophetie Fr. Johannis de rupescissa)] TJ ET BT 398.636 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Ripley?s knowledge of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a connection ? albeit tangential ? with the east window at Tattershall. \(Hughes, p. 42\) )] TJ ET BT 490.940 166.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rupescissa)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states that the great apocalyptic king who will reconquer the Holy Land and rule the world in the Last Days )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(by Edward IV? s time also associated with the second Arthur, and therefore a present or future king of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England\) will be aided by an Angelic Pope.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 243.320 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 243.320 122.067 m 263.312 122.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 263.312 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The central panels of the Tattershall window depict a king )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a pope, identified by the surrounding images as Edward IV and Pope Pius II. This does not depict a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical, but a prophetic event; a meeting of the Great King and the Angelic Pope, surrounded by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heraldic/alchemical images as described by Hughes in his book. The image is both a prophecy \(for those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who understand it\), and a religious icon \(for those who don?t\). It represents what Hughes has outlined as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feature of Edward IV?s propaganda; it not only bends the religious into the service of the state, but )] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 440.3357 669.3415 454.3277 681.2215 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 301.6397 543.2935 315.6317 555.1735 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 545.2997 445.7575 559.2917 457.6375 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 433.3157 374.4775 447.3077 386.3575 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 229.9757 291.1975 249.9677 303.0775 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 389.6117 234.1735 409.6037 246.0535 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 51 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 243.3197 122.3815 263.3117 134.2615 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 57 0 R 60 0 R 63 0 R 66 0 R 69 0 R 72 0 R 75 0 R ] /Contents 55 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Length 8879 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secularizes religion itself.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 156.992 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 156.992 795.075 m 176.984 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The revival of Arthurian associations and Galfridian prophecy did not, of course, begin with Edward IV. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This was a feature of the reign of Henry VI, largely due to what was perhaps the greatest legacy of Henry V )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the rest of the century, Edward IV included ? the prophetic resonance of his success in France, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?accident? of Henry VI?s birthplace.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 210.284 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 210.284 726.051 m 230.276 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 230.276 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Henry was born at Windsor, the birthplace of Edward III, the ?boar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Windsor? in the prophecies, and the king, according to the Bridlington verses, whose sinless successor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be the great, apocalyptic, crusading ?second Arthur?. Henry V?s infant son was expected to fulfil this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prophetic destiny. Henry?s government used genealogies with claims to British ancestry as propaganda, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is an upsurge in the number of Galfridian prophecies in the early part of Henry?s reign. The first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English translation of the French Arthurian cycle was made by Henry Lovelich in the reign of Henry VI.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 535.916 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 535.916 654.771 m 555.908 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Fisher King was healed by divine intervention. Hughes says that Ripley originally hoped that Henry VI )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be reborn and renewed \(as, indeed, Edward IV was ? spectacularly ? in 1471\). This is true also of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Hardyng, another of the examples given in the book, and is supported by the evidence of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prophecies from the 1450s.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 164.660 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 164.660 597.747 m 184.652 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 184.652 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( A belief in Arthurian myth would lead the majority of the aristocracy, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least, to support Henry rather than York?s son.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 258.308 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 258.308 583.491 m 278.300 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 278.300 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This is precisely why the great propaganda effort of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1461, described by Hughes in diligently-researched detail, was necessary. If a ?young man? were to heal the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation, it was expected to be Edward of Westminster - born ?miraculously? in 1453, after eight years of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage, when his father was mentally ill ? not Edward of York. This young man?s death at Tewkesbury in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1471 was crucially important. The line of Henry V had been extinguished, enabling the house of York to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take up the ?Roman legacy? of Henry V \(as Hughes notes\), and establishing the peace that enabled this to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happen. Edward IV did, indeed, portray himself as ?the second Arthur?, and his family members \(and those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the families with which he was associated\) did have links with romance legends, some of them Arthurian. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They did possess books of Arthurian romance, and attempted to conform to the same chivalric way of life as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicated in Arthurian, and other romance, literature. However, this is simply to say that they were fifteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century aristocrats; Edward of York and his family were no different in this respect from other great families )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their day. The difference lies in the British ancestry of the Mortimer family, which Hughes describes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail. In their case, unlike that of the house of Lancaster, the Welsh ancestry was ?genuine?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hughes?s book is very well researched, very well written, and extremely readable. It opens up a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different view of the person, and the reign, of Edward IV. As is hopefully apparent from this survey, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presents many new ideas for further research in fifteenth-century studies. The appendices are extremely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful, in particular the list of manuscripts and the section on alchemical texts. Although the descriptions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the manuscripts are terse, this is a very useful research tool. The ?sample genealogy? given in Appendix III )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is interesting, and is designed to be explanatory for the reader. Overall, this book forms an essential addition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to existing work on the life and times of Edward IV.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 284.984 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 284.984 300.627 m 304.976 300.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are only two real problems, both concerned with referencing. First, secondary sources are not always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cited where the seriously committed reader needs them. For example, the passages on Henry V?s adoption of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roman models and Lydgate?s Troy Book, the use of Hardyng?s )] TJ ET BT 344.972 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chronicle)] TJ ET BT 392.972 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in ?The Legacy of Henry VI?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the assessment of Malory?s )] TJ ET BT 189.656 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Morte Darthur )] TJ ET BT 264.320 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are accompanied by few, or no, references to secondary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources.\(pp. 25-31 \(Lydgate\); pp. 48, 72, 168 \(Hardyng\); pp. 205-10 \(Malory\)\). These are the places at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the reader really wants to know what the writer has been reading. Relevant literature is cited in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography, but the connection between this and the main text is frequently not made. This may be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publishing, rather than an authorial, decision; but if this information is not given, how is the reader to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?follow up?? Manuscript references are of no use to the general reader, who does not ordinarily have access )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to manuscript collections.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second problem is the giving of ?new? names to manuscripts, or collections of manuscripts. )] TJ ET BT 498.956 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prophetic History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 169.688 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is actually two manuscripts, each of which contains an anthology of prophecies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a political context.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 135.344 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 135.344 91.299 m 155.336 91.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 155.336 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The two manuscripts are not, however, the same in either contents or in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearance, nor do they contain chronicles, or ?histories?. This is confusing, in that the reader must )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continually check the endnotes in order to see which manuscript is meant, and the name conveys the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impression that this is a single ?work?, which it clearly is not. The name also conveys a message about the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 56 0 obj [54 0 R /Fit] endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 156.9917 795.3895 176.9837 807.2695 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 59 0 obj [54 0 R /Fit] endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 210.2837 726.3655 230.2757 738.2455 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 62 0 obj [54 0 R /Fit] endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 535.9157 655.0855 555.9077 666.9655 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 65 0 obj [54 0 R /Fit] endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 164.6597 598.0615 184.6517 609.9415 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 68 0 obj [54 0 R /Fit] endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 70 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 258.3077 583.8055 278.2997 595.6855 ] >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 71 0 obj [54 0 R /Fit] endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 73 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 284.9837 300.9415 304.9757 312.8215 ] >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 74 0 obj [54 0 R /Fit] endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 76 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 135.3437 91.6135 155.3357 103.4935 ] >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 80 0 R 82 0 R 84 0 R 86 0 R 88 0 R 90 0 R 92 0 R 94 0 R 96 0 R 98 0 R ] /Contents 78 0 R >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Length 8898 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of the material in these manuscripts \(that this is a ?prophetic )] TJ ET BT 359.300 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(history)] TJ ET BT 392.636 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?\) which does not truly reflect the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contents. It may be that this has been done to make them more memorable for a general audience, but it may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in fact cause the general reader confusion, and lead to wrong assumptions being made about the nature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscript. Shelfmarks may convey an impression of ?scholarly stuffiness?, but they are neutral, and still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the best way of referring to manuscript sources and anonymous texts without compromising the contents.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Hughes describes Edward IV as an ?intelligent, charismatic, fascinating but deeply flawed man?.\(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20\) The book proves the thesis. The main impression given is of Edward, with his interest in alchemy, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(craft, his love of display, his valour and military ability, his opportunism, and on occasion his cruelty and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfairness, his avarice, his lasciviousness and his other vices, as a Renaissance prince, to be compared with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the princes of Italy ? the Medici, the Sforza, the Borgias ? rather than with his Plantagenet forebears, or even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the kings of France. As a usurper and an adventurer, Edward needed to employ similar methods.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 496.592 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 496.592 640.515 m 516.584 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hughes?s work reveals a king who was never really secure on his throne, except perhaps in the years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediately after the death of Henry VI and his son; his ?Roman? years. Yet Edward never lost his sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-belief, until perhaps the last years of his reign.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his summing-up of Edward and his legacy, Jonathan Hughes says that he was ?the first English king to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harness the combined influences of alchemical medicine, myths and prophecies to weld together a nation?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Later, he says that Edward laid the foundations for the nation-state of the Tudors. This pinpoints two sides of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same equation. Edward IV took the myths, the prophecies, the alchemical medicine \(and even religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself\) and used them in the service of the centralized state that he and his advisers created out of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aftermath of a bitter civil war. What Hughes is describing is the arrival of the Renaissance ruler, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Renaissance nation-state, over half a century before Thomas Cromwell. As far as England is concerned, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?medieval? ended in 1461.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(June 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.939 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 381.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a more detailed assessment of this, see L. Coote and T. Thornton, ?Richard, son of Richard: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard III and political prophecy?, )] TJ ET BT 238.640 367.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Research)] TJ ET BT 334.964 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 73 \(2000\), 321-30.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 430.952 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 430.952 365.667 m 484.940 365.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 352.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(T. Wright, ed., )] TJ ET BT 137.672 352.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Political Poems and Songs relating to English History)] TJ ET BT 398.684 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Rolls Series 14 \(2 vols, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Longman, Green, Longman and Roberts; London, 1859-61\),1, pp. 282-99.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 421.640 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 421.640 337.155 m 475.628 337.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 324.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Anglo, ?British history and early Tudor propaganda?, )] TJ ET BT 336.980 324.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bulletin of the John Rylands Library)] TJ ET BT 512.648 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 44 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1961\), 17-48.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 133.004 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 133.004 308.643 m 186.992 308.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 295.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(F. J. Furnivall, ed, )] TJ ET BT 154.688 295.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Adam Davy?s Dreams about Edward the Second)] TJ ET BT 389.324 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, EETS OS 69 \(N. Trbner and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Co.; London, 1878\). The first dream takes place in front of the altar in Westminster Abbey. Edward, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standing on the Cosmati pavement installed by his grandfather, receives blows from two knights, from )] TJ ET BT 64.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which he receives no hurt. The knights withdraw, and red and white light issues from Edward?s ears, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reaching out across his kingdom. The author is probably a cleric writing under an assumed name ? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does this represent an alchemical attempt to influence the new king? See L. Coote, )] TJ ET BT 463.280 224.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prophecy and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Public Affairs in Later Medieval England)] TJ ET BT 263.684 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Woodbridge: York Medieval Press/ Boydell and Brewer, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000\), pp. 85-91.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 147.008 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 147.008 194.595 m 200.996 194.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 181.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With the exception of places such as York Minster, where Henry?s statue was revered as that of a saint.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 166.083 m 118.004 166.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 153.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is to be hoped that the book is forthcoming.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 283.340 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 283.340 151.827 m 337.328 151.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 138.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. H. Wylie and W. T. Waugh, )] TJ ET BT 213.320 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Reign of Henry the Fifth)] TJ ET BT 351.644 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(3 vols, Cambridge University Press; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge, 1914-29\), 1, pp. 504-507.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 246.332 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 246.332 123.315 m 300.320 123.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 110.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The links with the Papal Curia under Henry V also need to be investigated, in the light of Hughes?s )] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statements: Hughes, p. 238.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 196.676 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 196.676 94.803 m 250.664 94.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 81.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1455, Henry?s government owed large sums of money to Richard, duke of York, Edward?s father. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the financial situation of 1455-6, see R. A. Griffiths, )] TJ ET BT 337.988 67.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Reign of King Henry VI)] TJ ET BT 472.976 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Sutton; Stroud, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1981\), pp. 754-6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 147.008 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 147.008 52.035 m 200.996 52.035 l S endstream endobj 79 0 obj [77 0 R /Fit] endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 81 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 496.5917 640.8295 516.5837 652.7095 ] >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 83 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 430.9517 365.9815 484.9397 377.8615 ] >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 85 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 421.6397 337.4695 475.6277 349.3495 ] >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 86 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 87 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 133.0037 308.9575 186.9917 320.8375 ] >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 88 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 89 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 147.0077 194.9095 200.9957 206.7895 ] >> endobj 89 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 90 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 91 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 166.3975 118.0037 178.2775 ] >> endobj 91 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 92 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 93 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 283.3397 152.1415 337.3277 164.0215 ] >> endobj 93 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 94 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 95 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 246.3317 123.6295 300.3197 135.5095 ] >> endobj 95 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 36 0 R >> endobj 96 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 97 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 196.6757 95.1175 250.6637 106.9975 ] >> endobj 97 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 39 0 R >> endobj 98 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 99 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 147.0077 52.3495 200.9957 64.2295 ] >> endobj 99 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 42 0 R >> endobj 100 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 102 0 R 104 0 R 106 0 R 108 0 R 110 0 R 112 0 R 114 0 R 116 0 R 118 0 R 120 0 R ] /Contents 101 0 R >> endobj 101 0 obj << /Length 10845 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Erghome cannot have written the verses known as the Bridlington prophecies, which were in existence )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before 1338. He was, however, connected with John Thweng, ?St John?, prior of Bridlington, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although Erghome himself was living and working in York when he wrote his commentary on the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prophecies. A. G. Rigg, ?John of Bridlington?s Prophecy: a new look', )] TJ ET BT 405.476 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Speculum)] TJ ET BT 452.132 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 63 \(1988\), 596-613; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coote, )] TJ ET BT 98.684 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prophecy and Public Affairs)] TJ ET BT 235.676 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 138-140.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 302.672 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 302.672 738.051 m 362.660 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 725.194 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. R. James, ?The catalogue of the Library of the Augustinian Friars at York?, in )] TJ ET BT 458.948 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fasciculus Joanni )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Willis Clark dicatus )] TJ ET BT 163.028 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge University Press; Cambridge, 1909\), pp. 2-96; K. W. Humphreys, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The library of John Erghome and personal libraries of the fourteenth century in England?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Proceedings of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society)] TJ ET BT 355.664 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 361.664 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18 \(1982\), 106-23. This ?scientific? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition in York and Bridlington may very well have influenced Neville, as archbishop of York, but )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly would have influenced the Percy family \(the lords of Holderness\), one of whom owned )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Library MS Cotton Vespasian E VII. Extracts from )] TJ ET BT 348.656 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rupescissa)] TJ ET BT 401.984 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( can be found in other English )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?prophecy? manuscripts, although very infrequently, from c.1350 \(Cambridge, Corpus Christi College )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MS 138\) onwards.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 153.008 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 153.008 609.747 m 212.996 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 596.890 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Reeves,)] TJ ET BT 118.340 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( The Influence of Prophecy in the Later Middle Ages: A Study in Joachimism)] TJ ET BT 487.292 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Clarendon )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Press; Oxford, 1969\), pp. 320-32; E. F. Jacob, ?John of Roquetaillade?, )] TJ ET BT 409.976 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bulletin of the John Rylands )] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Library)] TJ ET BT 100.688 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 106.688 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(39 \(1956\), 75-96; Coote, )] TJ ET BT 228.680 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prophecy and Public Affairs)] TJ ET BT 365.672 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 136-8.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 420.668 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 420.668 566.979 m 480.656 566.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 554.122 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry V would not have gone this far. Henry, being an extremely religious man, might view the state )] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as part of his religion, but he undoubtedly saw himself as a great religious )] TJ ET BT 421.640 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(reformer)] TJ ET BT 464.300 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. His task was to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make the Church more holy \(hence his proposed reform of the Benedictine order, his new religious )] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(houses, his support of the reforming Emperor Sigismund at the Council of Constance, and his attempt )] TJ ET BT 64.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to have Henry Beaufort elected Pope\), not to secularize it. Interestingly, I arrive at a similar view on )] TJ ET BT 64.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry V to that of Hughes, but using somewhat different evidence: Coote, )] TJ ET BT 424.628 482.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prophecy and Public )] TJ ET BT 64.016 468.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Affairs)] TJ ET BT 96.692 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 172-82.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 157.688 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 157.688 467.187 m 217.676 467.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 454.330 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coote,)] TJ ET BT 95.684 454.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Prophecy and Public Affairs,)] TJ ET BT 238.676 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( pp. 177-216.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 302.672 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 302.672 452.931 m 362.660 452.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 440.074 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(F. J. Furnivall, ed, )] TJ ET BT 154.688 440.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Henry Lovelich: The History of the Holy Grail, Englisht, ab. 1450 AD by H. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 425.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lovelich, from the French prose of R. de Borron)] TJ ET BT 296.660 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, EETS OS 20, 24, 28, 30, 95 \(3 vols, Kegan Paul, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trench, Trbner; London, 1874-1905\). Also see J. W. McKenna, ?Henry VI of England and the dual )] TJ ET BT 64.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy: aspects of royal political propaganda, 1422-32?, )] TJ ET BT 352.292 397.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of the Courtauld and Warburg )] TJ ET BT 64.016 383.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Institutes)] TJ ET BT 108.020 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 28 \(1965\), 145-62; J. H. Rowe, ?King Henry VI?s claim to France in picture and poem?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 368.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Library)] TJ ET BT 121.688 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 4th series 13 \(1932\), 77-88.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 260.336 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 260.336 367.395 m 320.324 367.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 354.538 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the first version \(pre-1461\) of Hardyng?s )] TJ ET BT 277.628 354.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chronicle)] TJ ET BT 325.628 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the arms of Arthur occur after an address to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry VI imploring him to take care of England, and the association of the Round Table with the last )] TJ ET BT 64.016 326.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supper also occurs in the first version. The only difference after 1461 is the association of Winchester )] TJ ET BT 64.016 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the Table?s site. Although Hardyng chastises Henry VI for allowing law and order to break )] TJ ET BT 64.016 297.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down, he depicts Henry as a king who is able to take command of this and to help his people, in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same manner as his glorious ancestors. The prologue is dedicated to Henry VI, Queen Margaret and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 268.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prince Edward, so that Edward, too, can learn from his great ancestors. Henry?s simplicity is only )] TJ ET BT 64.016 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned in the )] TJ ET BT 147.680 254.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(second)] TJ ET BT 181.004 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(post-1461\) version. I am very grateful to Sarah Peverley, of the University )] TJ ET BT 64.016 240.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Hull, for her comments on this; she has just completed an edition of Hardyng?s )] TJ ET BT 460.640 240.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chronicle)] TJ ET BT 508.640 240.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 511.640 240.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 511.640 239.091 m 551.636 239.091 l S BT 64.016 226.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 224.835 m 84.008 224.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 211.978 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 211.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A problem for historians in general is that of ?party? labels. If the head of a faction is the king, he will )] TJ ET BT 64.016 197.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be supported by both partisans and those who support him simply because he )] TJ ET BT 437.648 197.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(is)] TJ ET BT 445.652 197.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the king \(and who )] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may immediately change sides after a change of ruler such as those of 1461, 1469 and 1471\). Thus, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 169.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before 1461 it is only possible to speak of ?loyalists? and ?Yorkists?, and after 1461 ?loyalists? and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 154.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Lancastrians?. It is misleading to speak of ?Yorkists?, or of ?Yorkist prophecies? after 1461, as the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 140.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(head of the House of York was the king.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 258.308 140.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 258.308 139.299 m 318.296 139.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 126.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Presumably, this is on the grounds that genealogies are confusing documents, even when they have )] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been illustrated and explained as well as they are in the book. Compilations, of course, have their )] TJ ET BT 64.016 97.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limitations for researchers.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 192.320 97.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 192.320 96.531 m 252.308 96.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 83.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 83.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These are British Library MS Cotton Vespasian E VII and Bodleian Library MS Bodley 623. Both )] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contain anthologies of prophetic texts, and several of the prophecies are the same or similar. Others, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, are not. Cotton Vespasian E VII contains the )] TJ ET BT 328.964 55.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Calendarium)] TJ ET BT 392.300 55.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of John Somer, the Fifteen Signs )] TJ ET endstream endobj 102 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 103 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 302.6717 738.3655 362.6597 750.2455 ] >> endobj 103 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 45 0 R >> endobj 104 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 105 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 153.0077 610.0615 212.9957 621.9415 ] >> endobj 105 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 48 0 R >> endobj 106 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 107 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 420.6677 567.2935 480.6557 579.1735 ] >> endobj 107 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 51 0 R >> endobj 108 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 109 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 157.6877 467.5015 217.6757 479.3815 ] >> endobj 109 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 56 0 R >> endobj 110 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 111 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 302.6717 453.2455 362.6597 465.1255 ] >> endobj 111 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 59 0 R >> endobj 112 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 113 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 260.3357 367.7095 320.3237 379.5895 ] >> endobj 113 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 62 0 R >> endobj 114 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 115 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 511.6397 239.4055 551.6357 251.2855 ] >> endobj 115 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 65 0 R >> endobj 116 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 117 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 225.1495 84.0077 237.0295 ] >> endobj 117 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 65 0 R >> endobj 118 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 119 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 258.3077 139.6135 318.2957 151.4935 ] >> endobj 119 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 68 0 R >> endobj 120 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 121 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 192.3197 96.8455 252.3077 108.7255 ] >> endobj 121 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 71 0 R >> endobj 122 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 124 0 R 126 0 R 128 0 R ] /Contents 123 0 R >> endobj 123 0 obj << /Length 3414 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the Judgement, the genealogy of Joseph and Mary, and a ?man of signs?, showing the impact of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the zodiac on the body. Bodley 623 contains a Calendar for London and a chronology of the world )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Creation to 1464. It also has far fewer prophetic texts than the Vespasian manuscript. Names are )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also given to genealogies, presumably to help distinguish the different versions from one another. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is a better justification for this, but the problem is that readers in future may forget that the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(names were not those given by the )] TJ ET BT 232.988 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(medieval)] TJ ET BT 276.308 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?authors?. See K. Busby, )] TJ ET BT 402.956 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Faux Titre, Volume 1: Codex )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Context: Reading Old French Verse)] TJ ET BT 261.320 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Narrative in Manuscript)] TJ ET BT 378.656 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Rodopi; Amsterdam, 2002\), for )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples of possible consequences \(in the case of Old French )] TJ ET BT 364.616 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(fabliau)] TJ ET BT 398.624 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( manuscripts\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 466.616 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 466.616 695.283 m 526.604 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hughes vividly depicts Edward charming people into contributing ?benevolences? to his French )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expedition of 1475, being crafty, skilful, feared and a charismatic leader on his progress through )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England to regain his crown in 1471, being resourceful and courageous in battle at all times, yet also )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being vengeful, cruel and avaricious in the late 1470s. His career, his interests, and his turbulent life, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mirror those of contemporary Italian princes. 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