%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930072559+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930072559+01'00') /Title (The Oxford English Literary History. The Victorians. Volume 8: 1830-1880) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4446 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Oxford English Literary History. The Victorians. Volume 8: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1830-1880)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Victorians)] TJ ET BT 105.020 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the second volume to appear in )] TJ ET BT 271.664 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Oxford English Literary History)] TJ ET BT 447.668 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a series )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commissioned by the late Kim Scott Walwyn to replace the fifteen-volume )] TJ ET BT 396.968 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oxford History of English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Literature)] TJ ET BT 82.688 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(the last part of which was published as recently as 1997\). The general editor, Jonathan Bate, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims that all the contributors to the )] TJ ET BT 213.008 194.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(OELH)] TJ ET BT 244.340 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( write 'in the belief that literary history is a discipline necessary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the revelation of the power of imaginative writing to serve as a means of human understanding, past, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present, and future'.\(p. vii\) Such a high-minded claim may overstate the value of literary history but it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly takes for granted its status as a discipline of knowledge \(with all the connotations of objectivity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority which that label implies\). In so doing it flies defiantly in the face of David Perkins's observation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made over a decade ago, that literary history is a practice whose 'purposes are unclear' and whose 'traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms, procedures, and concepts have been theoretically undermined'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 368.756 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 368.756 107.985 m 382.748 107.985 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That process of theoretical critique exposed two different orders of problems. The first is to do with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography itself, and concerns a post-modern scepticism about how we know the past, and the status of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that knowledge. The second is to do with what we might term 'literariness' and the attitude of the literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 June, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip Davis)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(198184476X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(72.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(645pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780198184478.do#.Ui73CsakpbV)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Josephine Guy)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 368.7557 108.2995 382.7477 120.1795 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8176 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian towards his or her subject matter. Although the first problem, that of how we know the past, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obviously the more disabling to a project such as the )] TJ ET BT 289.328 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(OELH)] TJ ET BT 320.660 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, its relatively limited impact on history proper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that it can for the moment be set aside. Even Perkins himself acknowledged that however )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compelling post-modern literary historiography, there was still 'a very real question' as to whether it could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('serve the purposes for which histories are written if these purposes are still to organize the past, to make it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensible, to explain why it had the character and tendency it did, and to bring it to bear on our own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 81.824 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 81.824 709.539 m 95.816 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 95.816 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One might add here that it is exactly these sorts of ambitions which will lead most readers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pick up a work such as )] TJ ET BT 146.660 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Victorians)] TJ ET BT 217.664 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More pertinent to Davis's volume, then, is the second kind of problem, the dimensions of which can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(glimpsed via a further series of questions. Is literary history to be an account of authors, movements, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(styles? Is it about defining a canon or contesting a canon? A certain sort of literary history can take as given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a particular definition of literary identity and value and proceed to document and interpret in any one period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those works which answer to such a label; alternatively, another sort of literary history can be conceived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more critically, as a mode of analysis which seeks to undercover the historical processes whereby at any one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moment in time only certain sorts of works come to be labelled and valued as literature. Choosing between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these two possibilities in turn rests upon assumptions about the relationship between literary history and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other accounts of the past, such as social, intellectual, economic or political history. Finally there is also the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vexed question of how literary history relates to cultural history \(and how, in turn, culture itself is to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the opening chapter of )] TJ ET BT 157.652 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Victorians)] TJ ET BT 228.656 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Davis claims that one of the most confounding problems in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society of vertiginously rapid change and seemingly endless 'facts and sequences' was finding what Matthew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arnold termed 'a steadying idea'.\(p. 38\) It is tempting to add that this is also the most intractable problem for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davis himself - as, indeed, for any historian of the period. Given the extraordinary variety, complexity, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as sheer quantity of literary production between 1830 and 1880, what sort of story is it possible to tell in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just 545 pages \(a figure which excludes the 60 pages of author bibliographies and suggestions for further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davis begins conventionally enough with four chapters devoted to what traditionally-minded historians used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to call 'context'. Entitled 'Rural to Urban 1830-1850', 'Nature', 'Religion', and 'Mind', they are designed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(give a sense of what Bate terms, in the General Editor's Preface, 'the relationship between literature and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader historical continuities and transformations'.\(p. vii\) Most of the ground here is familiar: the reader is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken through the various social and intellectual problems posed by industrialisation \(those related to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poverty, over-crowding, mechanisation, and disease\); the rise of a new kind of empiricist science, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly in biology and geology, and its consequences for the conceptualisation of nature and the notion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of what is 'natural'; the decline in religious faith \(as signalled by, for example, the )] TJ ET BT 428.612 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Essays and Reviews)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversy, or the conflict between the Broad Church and the Tractarians\); and the tensions between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific and philosophical theories of the mind \(specifically, in a brief overview of phrenology, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Associationism, Idealism, and mesmerism\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davis makes strenuous attempts to exhibit the relevance of this material to literary works by interweaving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary critical analysis of selected novels \(and much less frequently poems\) with quotations from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary works of non-fiction. For example, Chadwick's famous 1844 )] TJ ET BT 398.456 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Report)] TJ ET BT 431.120 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the pamphlets of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Oastler are set along side Dickens's )] TJ ET BT 247.796 178.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hard Times)] TJ ET BT 304.796 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Disraeli's 'one-nation' trilogy, and Gaskell's )] TJ ET BT 522.080 178.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(North )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and South)] TJ ET BT 82.352 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Davis also finds room for the work of writers now not commonly read. Thus the chapter on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion is broad enough to include John Henry Newman's )] TJ ET BT 316.472 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Apologia Pro Vita Sua)] TJ ET BT 425.480 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as well as )] TJ ET BT 478.136 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Phases of Faith)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Newman's brother, Francis; likewise, a discussion of Mary Ward's novel )] TJ ET BT 399.944 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Robert Elsmere)] TJ ET BT 474.932 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complemented with an examination of )] TJ ET BT 221.660 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oakfield)] TJ ET BT 262.988 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by W. D. Arnold, the younger brother of Mary's much more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(famous uncle.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In these chapters Davis wears his learning lightly, moving elegantly between his various source materials to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide an informative and highly readable narrative. Paradoxically, though, that very elegance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy is also a potential source of weakness. Most obviously, it runs the risk of over-simplification and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 81.8237 709.8535 95.8157 721.7335 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8098 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distortion. For example, Davis states that Oastler 'did not believe in what in 1849 . John Stuart Mill was to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(call 'economic man', but in what Bishop Latimer in 1548 . had called 'the whole man''. \(p. 45\) This statement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not in itself incorrect; the problem is rather that it carries the implication that Oastler's understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanity was more rounded than that of Mill, when it was actually Mill himself who pointed out as early as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1836 that 'economic man' was a mere abstraction, a specialised concept of use only in very limited contexts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in no way meant to represent a complete understanding of humankind. A similar sort of objection might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be made to Davis's mention of Karl Marx. His name is invoked several times in these opening chapters, yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on no occasion is it pointed out that Marx's works were virtually unread in Britain until the late 1880s, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of them began to appear in English translation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These may seem quibbling objections, but they bear on a larger limitation of Davis's fluid technique. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eliding distinctions between different sorts of documents, he implies that when writing about their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment, poets, novelists, political economists, theologians, and journalists were all on the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual footing as each other, so much so that differences in their analyses were the result of personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choices. But social phenomena \(such as poverty, for example\) are never simple 'givens' to which creative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers respond; rather, they are always partly constructed by particular discourses, some of which are more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authoritative or persuasive than others. These in turn constrain the ways in which those phenomena are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceived and understood as)] TJ ET BT 170.312 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( problems)] TJ ET BT 217.976 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. A simpler way of putting this might be to say that Davis is unclear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the thorny question of 'influence', and therefore about the precise nature of the relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary and non-literary documents \(as I hinted earlier, there are a number of different and competing ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to model these relationships\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The General Editor's preface claims that '[l]iterary history is distinct from political history, but a historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of literature cannot be divorced from cultural and intellectual revolutions or the effects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social change' \(p. vii\). This \(perhaps deliberately\) gnomic statement obscures the vexed question of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epistemological role of literary works )] TJ ET BT 217.652 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(qua)] TJ ET BT 235.652 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( literary works. What sort of knowledge or experience, exactly, do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they provide the reader with, and how does literary understanding \(whatever that means\) relate to other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms of knowledge? More pertinently, perhaps, what role do literary works play in those larger 'continuities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and transformations' invoked by Bate in his preface? Davis often hints that Victorian literature - or, more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically, the realist novel - presents a special kind of analysis, that it 'comes into existence to mark and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explore' the gaps, confusions and contradictions in Victorian culture \(p. 132\). In the Introduction he states )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that literature is special because it is 'to do with the closest we can get to individually experienced thoughts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and feelings'; only 'literary language', Davis argues, can offer 'the direct imaginative experience of deep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning that reading constitutes for serious Victorians'.\(pp. 9-10\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some readers will be surprised to find such assumptions at work within a literary history published in 2002, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given that it is exactly this sort of thinking which, as David Perkins noted, has been so vigorously attacked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the past two decades. I should stress here that I am not implying that such views of literariness are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily unsustainable, only that they do require a robust defence, and that )] TJ ET BT 408.608 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Victorians)] TJ ET BT 479.612 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been considerably strengthened if Davis had used some of his Introduction to provide a systematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theoretical justification of his position. Personally, I have sympathy with the idea that there is a quality to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aesthetic experience which cannot be collapsed wholly into the political or ideological. In this respect, one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the undoubted merits of Davis's volume is that the reader is never allowed to forget that literary works are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(special sorts of documents; his attention to questions of form and language, so often forgotten in broad-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stroke literary histories, is especially commendable. At the same time it is exactly this insistence on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('difference' of literature which calls attention to the absence of any sustained explanation of what precisely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutes \(and constituted\) literary experience. Likewise, the question as to whether Victorian readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experienced works such as )] TJ ET BT 165.308 133.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hard Times)] TJ ET BT 222.308 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( differently from modern readers seems implicit in much of what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davis has to say about the 'seriousness' of our forebears. Such a distinction, though, still begs the question as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to what exactly Davis has in mind when he justifies using what he terms an 'extensive amount of direct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quotation' in order, )] TJ ET BT 128.168 90.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pace)] TJ ET BT 150.824 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Arnold, ''to make you )] TJ ET BT 260.468 90.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(feel)] TJ ET BT 277.796 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.'' Feel what exactly? Is the contextual information Davis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplies an attempt to place the modern reader in the same position as the Victorian reader? And even if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a goal is possible - and most recent philosophers have denied it is - what does it mean to imply that an )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 8197 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appreciation of Victorian literature )] TJ ET BT 203.972 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(requires)] TJ ET BT 243.968 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( such positioning? Why is a Victorian understanding of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature preferable to our own?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moving on to the rest of the book: Chapter 5 focuses on 'Conditions of Literary Production', providing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader with information about issues such as changes in printing technology and the institutions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publishing \(which Davis attempts to connect to certain stylistic features of realist fiction\), the rise of women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers, and the significance of the regional novel. A brief Chapter 6 concentrates on 'Drama', recounting, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once again, what is a familiar story about the tension between the social realism attempted by figures such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom Robertson and the light-hearted satire of W. S. Gilbert. Chapters 7-9 are devoted to varieties of fiction, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(categorised as two kinds of 'post-aristocratic' novels, the 'sensation novel', 'fairy-tales and fantasies', and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novels of 'high realism'. In these chapters Davis wisely eschews coverage \(an impossible goal given the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amount of fiction published at this time\), and concentrates instead on analysing the work of pairs of what he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sees as representative writers. Thus, for example, the chapter on 'high realism' proceeds by a pairing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maria Edgeworth and Harriett Martineau, which is followed by one of Trollope and Eliot. Here, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere, Davis exhibits a subtle critical sensibility, providing sensitive and consistently interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations of particular works. The remaining chapters -10 and 11- cover, respectively, 'Lives and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thoughts' \(which includes biography, autobiography, and travel writing\), and 'Poetry' \(which concentrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the most part on the well-known canon of Tennyson, the two Brownings, Arnold, Clough, Hopkins, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rossetti, and Swinburne\). The conclusion compares the novels of Meredith and Hardy, writers who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exemplify what Davis terms 'alternative endings' to the period 1830-80. According to Davis, both writers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inherited a vast, unstable, post-Darwinian world, but where Meredith responds to it with a 'detached comic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spirit', for Hardy the legacy is tragic. Davis goes on to claim that Hardy's pessimism is in fact the 'real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ending for Victorianism', in that '[a]fter Hardy's tragic novels, it is as if nothing is left - save a few small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survivors' \(p. 545\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reason why it is Hardy rather than Meredith who provides Davis with the more appropriate )] TJ ET BT 495.260 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(terminus ad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(quem)] TJ ET BT 60.008 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for his volume is because the story which he has been telling has been that of the rise of fiction or, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more particularly, the rise of the realist novel \(at times one feels that for Davis the realist novel )] TJ ET BT 492.932 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(is)] TJ ET BT 500.936 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature\). For scholars such as Isobel Armstrong and Angela Leighton, who have written so eloquently in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defence of nineteenth-century poetry and poetics, this may be a source of dismay; they may also be surprised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to have to wait until the last chapter before encountering Tennyson's )] TJ ET BT 365.120 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In Memoriam)] TJ ET BT 430.772 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Davis passes over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity to integrate this poem into his discussion \(in Chapters 2 and 3\) of religion and science, despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fact that it contains some of the most famous lines on the relationship between Victorian knowledge and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian belief. The recent proliferation of anthologies of Victorian poetry - Valentine Cunningham's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compendious )] TJ ET BT 101.012 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Victorians: An Anthology of Poetry and Poetics)] TJ ET BT 351.332 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Blackwell; Oxford, 2000\) runs to over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1000 pages - also make Davis's decision a little odd.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is a suspicion here that the effective relegation of poetry to a discrete chapter \(it is only intermittently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed in other parts of the volume\) may have something to do with Davis's tendency to value literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works in terms of their capacity to represent. That is, the reason why the realist novel figures so strongly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his history is because it lends itself much more easily than poetry to a 'contextual' approach. It is probable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that a modern reader who knows nothing of the religious controversies of the nineteenth century will find a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novel such as )] TJ ET BT 101.672 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Robert Elsmere)] TJ ET BT 176.660 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( at best exceedingly dull and at worst incomprehensible. By contrast, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible to enjoy )] TJ ET BT 118.352 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In Memoriam)] TJ ET BT 184.004 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( without knowing anything about Charles Lyell and Robert Chambers. As I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have hinted earlier, such a distinction bears crucially on the question of what literary history is for: the kind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of history which we find in )] TJ ET BT 167.336 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Victorians)] TJ ET BT 238.340 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is necessary only for a particular kind of understanding of what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutes literariness.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A final issue which also bears on the question of literariness is that of periodization. There is no need to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rehearse the general difficulties that attend the concept of the historical 'period' - decisions about where to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cut the historical cake will always create controversy, because they will always privilege one kind of story )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over another. In the case of )] TJ ET BT 167.636 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Victorians)] TJ ET BT 238.640 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the main story which Davis excludes is that of the Aesthetic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Movement, and the role Aestheticism had in contesting the values of high Victorianism. At first glance this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(omission seems strange, for the choice of 1880 as a cut-off date would suggest the inclusion of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 8490 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aestheticism - a movement which is generally understood as centring in Britain on Pater's 1873 )] TJ ET BT 496.460 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in the)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of the Renaissance)] TJ ET BT 163.004 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Pater does appear from time to time in )] TJ ET BT 356.312 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Victorians)] TJ ET BT 427.316 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; so, too, do Swinburne, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rossetti, Mallock, and Robert Buchanan. Yet none of these figures are connected together, and Aestheticism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself does not even merit an entry in the Index.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One reason may be that this topic will be dealt with in Volume 9 of the )] TJ ET BT 377.984 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(OELH, From 'Victorian' to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Edwardian')] TJ ET BT 89.924 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(which is confusingly described as beginning in 1870 on the dust jacket of )] TJ ET BT 452.552 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Victorians)] TJ ET BT 523.556 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1875 in the front pages\). Chronological overlap between volumes - treating 'beginning and ending dates . )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flexibly' \(p. ix\) - is explained by Bate as a pragmatic response to inevitable disagreements about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periodization. Such pragmatism, however, leaves the reader in something of a quandary, for it implies that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for a 'full' understanding of the period from, say, 1870 to 1880, he or she will need to have two volumes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(OELH)] TJ ET BT 83.012 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to hand. The same reader might also wonder whether and how volumes 8 and 9 will dovetail with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each other over that crucial ten-year period. Will there be differing accounts of the same writers, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example? Doesn't attention to the Aesthetic Movement require a radical revision of Davis's notion that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Hardy is the real ending for Victorianism'? Many recent historians have seen Oscar Wilde as the mediating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure between the Victorian and the modern, and his trial of 1895 as marking the moment when - to borrow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davis's terms - 'everything is really over'; except that this notion of 'everything' refers to the very opposite of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nihilistic despair that Davis attributes to Hardy, that 'no )] TJ ET BT 320.492 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(real)] TJ ET BT 339.824 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( order exists in the world' \(p. 545\). It was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence of an order only too real, the criminal court at the Old Bailey, that brought such a swift closure to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilde's career. It is also perhaps worth noting in passing that the 'few small survivors' of the realist novel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included figures as prolific and popular as Wells, Galsworthy and Bennett-a legacy which has tempted other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians, notably John Carey in )] TJ ET BT 195.344 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Intellectuals and the Masses)] TJ ET BT 352.664 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Faber and Faber; London, 1992\), to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest that the death of Victorianism, as Davis defines it, was greatly exaggerated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Further awkward questions might follow, such as why it is that Davis can extend his chronology to include )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jude the Obscure)] TJ ET BT 117.992 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1895\), but not Pater's )] TJ ET BT 230.144 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Marius the Epicurean)] TJ ET BT 335.468 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1885\), a novel which one might argue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a more important literary contextualisation for )] TJ ET BT 303.644 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Robert Elsmere)] TJ ET BT 378.632 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1888\) than, say, )] TJ ET BT 465.284 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oakfield)] TJ ET BT 506.612 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Likewise, it may also seem odd that in a volume which defines the literary history of the nineteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely in terms of 'the rise of prose' \(p. 222\) there is no discussion of Pater's seminal 1889 essay 'Style', and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own reputation as a prose-stylist. \(The only extended discussion of Pater's aesthetics is in to relation his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence on Hopkins.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To raise these sorts of questions is of course to do little more than imply the obvious: that the need for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selectivity means that any one particular literary history will inevitably gesture towards other possible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories. Moreover, the better informed the reader of )] TJ ET BT 292.616 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Victorians)] TJ ET BT 363.620 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the more likely he or she to be irritated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by what has been marginalised, distorted, or left out. In this respect, it is important to end this review by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keeping in mind the target audience for the )] TJ ET BT 243.308 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(OELH)] TJ ET BT 274.640 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. For the student or general reader who is relatively new to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the period, )] TJ ET BT 88.340 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Victorians)] TJ ET BT 159.344 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( offers a lucid, informative, and entertaining account of a richly various and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex literary culture. As such it presents an excellent enticement to further reading, and should thereby )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be judged as having ably fulfilled what ought to be a central ambition for a volume of this kind.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(June 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 186.099 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 155.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. Perkins, ed., )] TJ ET BT 141.008 155.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theoretical Issues in Literary History)] TJ ET BT 322.340 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 328.340 155.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Harvard English Studies)] TJ ET BT 447.008 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 16 \(Harvard )] TJ ET BT 64.016 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press; Cambridge, MA, 1991\), p. 6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 289.004 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 289.004 139.827 m 342.992 139.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 126.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ibid)] TJ ET BT 83.348 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In his later book, )] TJ ET BT 173.672 126.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Is Literary History Possible?)] TJ ET BT 313.340 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(John Hopkins University Press; Baltimore and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, 1992\), Perkins attempted to confront the paradox that although a 'dubious enterprise )] TJ ET BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectually', literary history nevertheless had 'indispensable functions in cultural life and in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading of history'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 154.496 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 154.496 82.803 m 208.484 82.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 57.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip Davis writes: 'I try not to reply to reviews directly. But, lest I seem to be avoiding the intellectual )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 289.0037 140.1415 342.9917 152.0215 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 154.4957 83.1175 208.4837 94.9975 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 1386 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue, I do address some of the concerns outlined here in an article to be published in the new Blackwells )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internet journal, Compass, which will appear in January 2004.' 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