%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 33 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140830051829+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140830051829+01'00') /Title (This Meager Nature. Landscape and National Identity in Imperial Russia) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3858 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(This Meager Nature. Landscape and National Identity in Imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Russia)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The genesis of this fine monograph occurred in a moment of confounding cultural confrontation when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Ely first viewed Russian landscape painting of the nineteenth century. Perplexed, he jotted down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a question for himself. Why, he asked, were these works so 'consciously unbeautiful'? Gazing at one dreary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(canvas after another, he wondered, 'What was this fascination with mud?' \(p. ix\) Not only a young American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(graduate student in the late twentieth century found these works curious; a century earlier, the Itinerant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painter Ivan Kramskoi reported that Russian viewers at a major exhibition stood before Fedor Vasil'ev's 'Wet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meadow' with 'the expression of crushed peas; they were stupefied about how to treat this phenomenon.'\(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(185\) Ely's study explains both the source of that stupefaction and the meaning of Vasil'ev's and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarly 'unprepossessing' landscapes - they were the culmination of a century-long search for images of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian land that the Russian public, poets, prose authors, and artists could embrace as essential statements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a positive national identity. By 1872, when Vasil'ev's image of weeds in mud under a leaden sky )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provoked 'comic distress', Russians were well on their way to loving their country's 'meager nature.')] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(337)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 May, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Ely)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780875803036)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(31.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(278pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Northern Illinois University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.niupress.niu.edu/niupress/scripts/book/bookResults.asp?ID=131)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(DeKalb, IL)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cathy A. Frierson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 5171 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ely's title, )] TJ ET BT 85.184 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(This Meager Nature)] TJ ET BT 182.516 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, comes from Fedor Tiutchev's poem of 1859, 'These Poor Villages':)] TJ ET BT 34.016 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These poor villages,)] TJ ET BT 34.016 731.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This meager nature:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 705.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Long-suffering native land,)] TJ ET BT 34.016 679.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Land of the Russian people!)] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Proud foreign eyes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 626.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Will not notice nor grasp)] TJ ET BT 34.016 600.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The light that shines through)] TJ ET BT 34.016 574.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Your humble barrenness.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Worn by the weight of the cross,)] TJ ET BT 34.016 521.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Heavenly King in the guise of a slave)] TJ ET BT 34.016 495.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Has passed through all of you,)] TJ ET BT 34.016 469.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Native land, blessing you. \(quoted on p. 139\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 443.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These lines capture much of the process Ely describes, as he examines the development of Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landscape painting, poetry, and prose from the late eighteenth century through to the end of the nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 414.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. Drawing on poetry, novels, painting, travel literature and literary and art criticism, Ely argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 400.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the articulation of a specifically Russian landscape in art and literature contributed to the construction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 386.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian national identity. Further, he argues that this process entailed learning both to view Russia without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European aesthetic filters and to love the very features of Russian land and nature that seemed impoverished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 357.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by comparison with European landscape conventions. 'Proud foreign eyes', so important in the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 343.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth-century approaches to Russian landscape imagery, would cease to hold authority by the end of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 329.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nineteenth. At the turn of the twentieth century, Russia's 'meager nature' and 'humble barrenness' were no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longer dull and tedious for Russian viewers, but highly valued, even a 'blessing'. The meagre, humble, barren )] TJ ET BT 34.016 300.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and suffering land gave birth to the special strengths, endurance, and soul of the 'Russian people'. 'This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 286.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meager nature' thus became a font of national celebration. As Ely states in his 'Introduction':)] TJ ET BT 34.016 260.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That the Russian landscape was inherently bleak and unattractive, many Russians with the leisure to care did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 245.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not doubt in the early nineteenth century. By the latter third of the century, few were not convinced that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 231.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia's landscape possessed merits unmatched in any other land.\(p. 25\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 205.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ely employs a straightforward methodology to develop this argument. He structures the study along two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 191.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lines: chronological and thematic. Within the basic chronological framework, he organises each chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 176.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around a predominant approach or school of landscape painting or writing in each period. He examines both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 162.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('brilliant' and 'mundane' works that depicted the Russian land. A key criterion in his selection is whether the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 148.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work in question 'aestheticized' the natural setting. With a nod to culture studies \(mercifully brief and devoid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 134.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of esoteric, benumbing jargon\), Ely reminds his readers that 'human perception of nature is not direct and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 119.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unmediated; it is not 'natural' . perceptions of the natural world are culturally constructed'.\(p. 9\) In choosing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 105.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which authors, painters, and works to analyse, he excludes those which did not employ pictorial language to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 91.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describe the Russian land or to frame it into a scene or view. Gleb Uspenskii's )] TJ ET BT 411.452 91.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vlast' zemli)] TJ ET BT 467.024 91.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obvious example of this principle of exclusion. The resulting body of works constitutes a broad and deep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 62.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survey of Russian writers' and painters' Russian landscapes. Students of Russian art, literature, and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8305 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophy will find much that is familiar here, from Karamzin's )] TJ ET BT 347.144 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poor Liza)] TJ ET BT 394.820 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to Dostoevsky's )] TJ ET BT 476.648 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Diary of a Writer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Isaak Levitan's )] TJ ET BT 129.152 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(At the Pool)] TJ ET BT 183.152 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ely acknowledges in his conclusion that he has also excluded some major works that offered alternative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images of the Russian land and departed from the direction he has identified. Tolstoy's )] TJ ET BT 452.456 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anna Karenina)] TJ ET BT 526.124 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( falls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within this number. The three competing images of the Russian land he identifies as absent from his study, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but worthy of further examination are 'the breadbasket image of the Russian land'; 'Russia as a land of ice, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(snow, and tundra'; and Russia as 'a landscape of peoples rather than nature, the image of Russia as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection of interconnected populations.' \(p. 227\) These alternative images would make excellent topics for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(student work in Russian culture courses using Ely's monograph as a common reading. Instructors could also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point to Ely's choices and the tight thesis they enable him to present as a model of focused historical writing. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For graduate students, his study also serves as an excellent illustration of financial constraints on academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publishing, which necessitate that scholars limit the scope of their research and argument in order to fit into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a limited number of pages. Ely's monograph demonstrates that wise choices and effective writing make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantial scholarship possible within fewer than 250 pages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ely situates his work at the intersection of comparable studies in European, Chinese and U.S. history and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous studies of national identity, Russian art, and representations of the Russian countryside in Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. For the comparative approach, he refers to such works as Simon Schama's )] TJ ET BT 432.440 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Landscape and Memory)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Harper Collins; London, 1995\), Barbara Novak's )] TJ ET BT 275.468 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nature and Culture: American Landscape and Painting, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1825-1875)] TJ ET BT 86.012 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Thames and Hudson; London, 1980\))] TJ ET BT 269.324 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 275.324 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 295.652 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Barrell, )] TJ ET BT 360.644 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Idea of Landscape and the Sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Place, 1730-1840)] TJ ET BT 119.336 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge University Press; Cambridge, 1972\). Among many other historians of Russia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he draws connections with Hans Rogger's study of national consciousness, James Cracraft's study of Peter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Great's revolution in imagery, Dmitrii Likhachev's analysis of Russian gardens, Elizabeth Valkenier's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of Russian realist painting, and my work on representations of the Russian peasantry. He also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identifies the recent work of Mikhail Epshtein, )] TJ ET BT 261.320 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nature, the World, the Mystery of the Universe)] TJ ET BT 486.956 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET BT 493.952 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Priroda, mir, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tainik vselennoi)] TJ ET BT 109.676 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [Moscow, Vysshaia Shkola, 1990]\))] TJ ET BT 285.320 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a parallel study of nature imagery in Russian poetry. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, he describes Georges Nivat's 'Le paysage russe en tant que mythe' \(in )] TJ ET BT 409.760 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rossija = Russia: studi e )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ricerche)] TJ ET BT 74.000 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 5 \(1988\), 7-20\) as a 'prototype' for his approach.\(p. 20\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the signal strengths of this monograph is Ely's careful reconstruction of the pathways of European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence on Russian landscape imagery. He is careful to introduce the European literary and artistic figures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who most extensively shaped Russian aesthetic standards, describing their work and identifying the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publications and translations into Russian that enabled what one might term 'aesthetic transfer'. Thus one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learns of the Swiss landscape painter and poet Solomon Gessner's introduction to Russian readers through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translated articles in the )] TJ ET BT 151.328 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(St. Petersburg Herald)] TJ ET BT 256.988 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( from 1778-81. Ely has also tracked the appearance in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translation of Rousseau, Laurence Sterne, James Macpherson \(Ossian\) and Thomas Gray in the thick )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journals of the early 1800s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Cracraft, Lindsay Hughes and others have argued, Peter the Great's revolution included culture. Ely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agrees, explaining that Peter the Great's opening of Russia to the West precipitated the 'secular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aestheticization of the natural world' and the expression of Arcadian, pastoral visions in Russian painting and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing.\(pp. 31-2\) Displacing earlier cartographic and Orthodox visions of the land, pastoral conventions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(borrowed from Western models dominated eighteenth-century Russian landscapes. In Lomonosov's poetry, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the English gardens of St Petersburg and environs, and landscape paintings by such figures as Fedor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matveev and Semen Shchedrin, the idioms were neo-classical and dissociated from local reality. Ely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(includes instructions from a Russian painting manual of 1793 to illustrate this aesthetic: 'embellish it [the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landscape] with cascades and pebbles around which playing water flows, and with mountains . presented so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they form a chain, stretching into the distance and disappearing from view.' \(quoted on pp. 40-1\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This impulse to improve upon the landscape of central Russia reached its peak in the first half of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century, when almost all Russian landscape painters not only travelled to Italy to learn how to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paint, but also retained the central features of Italian landscapes when they turned to the depiction of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great Russian plain. What Italy did not offer, Switzerland and Germany did: dramatic mountains, swiftly )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7860 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing riverine scenes and waterfalls. Painters, critics and patrons expected to find inspiring, transporting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views in landscape paintings. They did not expect to find flat fields - the dominant feature of central Russia. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet even as Italy and Switzerland continued to dominate the imagination of landscape painters and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(canvases, seedlings of an alternative Russian idiom were surfacing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ely describes Karamzin as the first major figure to challenge the Russian-cum-Europe landscape tradition in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian artistic production. )] TJ ET BT 168.680 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poor Liza)] TJ ET BT 216.356 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1792\), however beholden to European sentimentalism in its message )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and motifs, brought an identifiable Russian locale into the landscape setting, a real monastery outside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moscow and a real pond. Sentimental travelogues by Karamzin and others would also bring Russian settings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the public eye as worthy sources of emotional stimulation. And Gavril Derzhavin's poetry offered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evocative descriptions of 'specific Russian locales', however magnified to recall 'the sublime and gloomy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settings of Ossian'.\(p. 57\) Even with these stirrings at the end of the eighteenth century, Karamzin was still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggling to define a laudable Russian landscape in 1802 when he wrote in 'On Love of the Fatherland and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National Pride', asserting that Russia lacked a pleasant climate and natural beauty, but that it was still worthy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of affection.\(p. 30\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ely characterizes the history of the Russian landscape in the first three decades of the nineteenth century as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('The Search for a Picturesque Russia'. In poetry, Petr Viazemskii celebrated the Volga 'as a marker of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationality' and wrote an 'enraptured' description of rural Russia in winter \(pp. 68-9\), Nikolai Gnedich set his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idyll 'The Fisherman' clearly on the outskirts of St Petersburg, and Pushkin challenged conventional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landscape imagery in order to provoke his readers to think hard about what the vision of Russia's landscape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be. In painting, Aleksei Venetsianov produced his idyllic images of peasants at work, in a landscape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where 'the sun is always shining, and the harvest abounds.'\(p. 71\) The tradition of domestic travel writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also took hold, with its primary vehicle, )] TJ ET BT 228.344 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Notes of the Fatherland)] TJ ET BT 342.680 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, becoming 'a sort of running picturesque )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guidebook to provincial Russia' under the editorship of Pavel Svinin.\(p. 73\) By the 1830s, a picturesque )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian landscape had emerged; it may have still found expression in the vocabulary of European landscape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditions, but distinctively Russian locations and natural features had been deemed as appealing as their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European counterparts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Ely's analysis, Annenkov's 'Remarkable Decade' turns out to have been as remarkable in the generation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national landscape idioms as we know it to have been in other areas of intellectual history. Chapters 3 and 4 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of )] TJ ET BT 47.012 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(This Meager Nature)] TJ ET BT 144.344 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( discuss written representations of the Russian landscape in competing positive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Chapter 3\) and gloomy \(Chapter 4\) visions. Chapter 3 focuses first on the association between Russia's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended open spaces in the steppe and fields of Ukraine and Russia with freedom and expansiveness drawn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Nikolai Gogol, Mikhail Lermontov, and Aleksei Koltsov. The open fields that had earlier seemed so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lacking in the drama and variety expected of landscapes of the European type now were understood not as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tedious and depressing, but vast and boundless, indicators of Russia's future greatness. Ely pinpoints 1841 as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a 'turning point in Russian landscape aesthetics' engendered by Gogol's )] TJ ET BT 378.452 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dead Souls)] TJ ET BT 433.448 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Lermontov's 'Native )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Land', both published in that year. Through their representation, 'The open countryside was coming to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered one of Russia's important and characteristic national features'.\(p. 118\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sergei Aksakov's )] TJ ET BT 120.164 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Notes on Fishing)] TJ ET BT 202.172 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1847\) and Ivan Turgenev's )] TJ ET BT 340.628 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Notes of a Hunter)] TJ ET BT 426.296 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1852\) added vignettes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pleasures of the countryside. Equally important in the elaboration of positive associations with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian landscape were the nostalgic rural idylls that Aksakov and Leo Tolstoy constructed in memoirs of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their childhoods. With Ivan Goncharov's similar characterization of an idyllic rural childhood in )] TJ ET BT 498.104 178.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oblomov)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1858\), a new tradition had emerged of seeing the land and nature on and around gentry estates as the vital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(link between the noble adult and his native Russia. Bezhin Meadow and Bagrovo entered the Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary canon and lodged in cultural memory as the sites of true Russia, the Russia of living meadows and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(open spaces. By 1848, Ivan Aksakov was able to assert, 'No nature can be as good as ours.'\(p. 133\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But, whence, then 'this meager nature' and 'long-suffering native land'? Chapter 4, 'Outer Gloom and Inner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Glory', provides the answer. With critical realism on the rise under the influence of Nikolai Chernyshevsky )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the peasant question fast approaching emancipation as the only solution to the degradation of serf )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inhabitants of rural Russia, such idyllic depictions of vast, boundless Russia as the seat of special Russian )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6395 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansiveness came under assault. Most influentially, Nikolai Nekrasov and Fedor Tiutchev produced what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ely terms 'landscapes of rural hardship'. Tiutchev's 'These Poor Villages' \(1859\) and Nekrasov's 'Who can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Happy and Free in Russia?' \(1876\) 'celebrate a special, even virtuous Russian misery.'\(p. 135\) For the worse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the land, and the more miserly nature, the more remarkable the endurance of the Russian peasant, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quintessential Russian. The very triumph of Russia, the largest empire in the world, issued from that unique )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combination: a gloomy landscape and a prodigious people. Ely quotes the final lines of Nekrasov's 'Who can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be Happy .?' to underscore this point:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(You are wretched)] TJ ET BT 64.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(You are abundant)] TJ ET BT 64.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(You are downtrodden)] TJ ET BT 64.016 593.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(You are all-powerful)] TJ ET BT 64.016 567.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mother Russia. \(p. 163\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 529.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fascination with mud could not be far behind.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Chapters 5 and 6, Ely turns to the painted expressions of a peculiarly Russian landscape. Chapter 5 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 488.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses on such painters as Mikhail Klodt, Fedor Vasil'ev, Ivan Shishkin, and Aleksei Savrasov. Their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 474.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preferred subject matter varied, but they shared nearly photographic realism, dark tones, and sharply detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 460.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renderings of unremarkable elements in the landscape as their common style. Ely astutely stresses the degree )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to which these painters situate the viewer down low, taking in weeds, ruts in the road, mud puddles, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 431.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overgrown forest paths, and bushes at eye-level. This hyper-naturalistic focus on insignificant details served )] TJ ET BT 34.016 417.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a purpose; through it, these painters 'distinguished Russian )] TJ ET BT 318.500 417.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(nature)] TJ ET BT 349.832 417.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( from European )] TJ ET BT 428.144 417.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(scenery)] TJ ET BT 464.792 417.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by the depth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 403.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent of their wilderness.'\(p. 188\) This grounded perspective is 'close to the earth'.\(p. 189\) Ely is especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful in making Shishkin's seemingly impenetrable forests thoroughly comprehensible as statements of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 374.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia's 'simplicity and plainness'.\(p. 188\) Shishkin's wooded paths into the dark depths of the forests of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 360.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian north are the very antithesis of the prescribed chains of mountains disappearing from view in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 346.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painterly ideals of 1793. Savrasov's depiction of springtime in Russia, 'The Rooks Have Returned', forces the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewer to focus on black birds in barren branches and twigs scattered among the birds' tracks across dirty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 317.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(snow-melt. This painting has always left )] TJ ET BT 231.668 317.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(me)] TJ ET BT 245.660 317.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with an expression of crushed peas at its utterly dreary contrast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 303.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with my sunny associations with robins as the harbingers of an American springtime. Ely's explication of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this visual text has made it understandable, if not any more appealing to my culturally-bound expectations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spring landscapes. For Russians, he explains, to get down and close to that puddle of dirty water under birch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 260.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trunks was to reconnect with something essential in their native terrain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 234.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Chapter 6, Ely turns fully to the landscape tradition of the Itinerant painters, Isaak Levitan most famous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among them. He asks the question of why landscape paintings should have become the preferred genre for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patrons and the viewing public from the 1870s through the end of the century. The answer is rather simple: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 191.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because the educated public was undergoing a progressive disillusionment with the peasants of rural Russia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 177.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in whom so much hope for a national ideal had rested with emancipation and in populism. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predominantly rural and agricultural society needed to hold onto something positive from its countryside. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 148.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ely explains that, '[T]he question of the landscape's Russianness, the desire to celebrate native nature, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 134.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained at the top of the agenda for realist landscape painters.'\(p. 201\) Furthermore, landscape paintings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 120.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effecting that celebration also had the power to create a Russian land without Russian peasants, who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappearing from the canvas: 'Landscape, in short, can often serve to distance urban from rural, the viewer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 91.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the viewed, the elite from the mass.'\(p. 217\) Because of 'nostalgic identification', the landscape became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 77.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('at once deeply personal and inescapably national', and was 'to be sensed deeply rather than seen clearly, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loved instinctively rather than admired willingly.'\(p. 222\))] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8518 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having traced the course from European conventions as the primary wellspring of landscape aesthetics in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late eighteenth century through Sentimentalist, Romantic, and Realist influences, to the Russian landscape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idioms of the late nineteenth century, Ely concludes that 'the humble native landscape had become a mark of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national distinctiveness and a point of pride throughout Russian culture.'\(p. 223\) He has successfully made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his case. Moreover, he has done so with such clear, unaffected, and unencumbered writing that his study is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as accessible to undergraduate students as it is to specialists. This monograph should reach a wide audience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of art historians, students of cultural history, and Russian specialists.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Because of the interactive nature of the review process in )] TJ ET BT 311.936 672.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 402.596 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, I would like to challenge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Ely on his decision largely to exclude )] TJ ET BT 265.988 658.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anna Karenina )] TJ ET BT 342.656 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from his study, and to ask him to comment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a connection to iconography I saw in his description of Russian landscape idioms in their mature form.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Ely refers to )] TJ ET BT 144.656 617.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anna Karenina)] TJ ET BT 218.324 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as one of the sources of the alternative landscape image of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian land as fertile breadbasket. Yet, )] TJ ET BT 229.976 603.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anna Karenina)] TJ ET BT 303.644 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( also offers further evidence for Ely's line of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument. It seems to me that a closer analysis of Levin's ecstatic moments in nature would have enabled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him to develop further his excellent comments about immersion in nature as a step in the development of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purely Russian landscape. Referring to Tolstoy's )] TJ ET BT 269.816 560.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Childhood )] TJ ET BT 323.492 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter, 'The Hunt', he comments that 'Tolstoy's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young protagonist seems fully immersed in nature, and the reader experiences his surroundings along with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him as a sort of immediate impression.'\(p. 127\) Ely repeats 'immersion in nature via hunting' as an essential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(element in pastoral imagery in the works of Aksakov, Goncharov and Tolstoy.\(p. 129\) Tolstoy returned to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this device in Levin's hunting experiences in )] TJ ET BT 250.484 503.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anna Karenina)] TJ ET BT 324.152 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and he did so in such a way as to bring the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader down into the bushes, grounding the reader much as Vasil'ev, Savrasov, and Shishkin grounded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewers of their 'close to the earth' paintings. In Part 6, Chapter XII, for example, Tolstoy places Levin and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reader directly in the landscape and includes details worthy of Klodt, Savrasov or Shishkin. One feels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('the dew on the tall, fragrant hemp', which 'wetted Levin's legs and his blouse above the waist.' One hears as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('A bee whizzed past Levin's ear like a bullet.')] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 250.112 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 250.112 431.187 m 264.104 431.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 264.104 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Surely Tolstoy's devices meet the criterion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('aestheticization' in the following passage from the same section:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The crescent moon, having lost all its brilliance, showed white like a cloud in the sky; there was no longer a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single star to be seen. The marshy patches, silvery with dew earlier, now became golden. The rustiness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turned to amber. The blue of the grass changed to yellowish green. Little marsh birds pottered by the brook, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in bushes glistening with dew and casting long shadows. A hawk woke up and sat on a haystack, turning its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(head from sided to side, looking with displeasure at the marsh. Jackdaws flew into the fields, and a barefoot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boy was already driving the horses towards an old man, who had got up from under his caftan and was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scratching himself. Smoke from the shooting, like milk, spread white over the green grass.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 468.296 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 468.296 305.139 m 482.288 305.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, it is to Ely's credit that reading his )] TJ ET BT 253.820 280.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(This Meager Nature)] TJ ET BT 351.152 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( encouraged me to revisit this and similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scenes in )] TJ ET BT 80.672 266.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anna Karenina)] TJ ET BT 154.340 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to consider how they fit in the process he has presented.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, I was struck by Ely's explanation quoted above that the late nineteenth-century landscapes were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intended by their painters 'to be sensed deeply rather than seen clearly, and loved instinctively rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admired willingly.' Ely continues, saying that Chekhov described this quality of the Russian landscape in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mature formulation as presenting 'an eternal, unearthly Something' in the rural setting.\(p. 222\) Was this not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the function of traditional icons? Did they not also present a flat affect with the goal of drawing the viewer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into meditation and reflection, to penetrate the eternal mysteries and to connect with the abstract Being in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calm, quiescent state? Did they not, as V. Lossky argued, 'impinge on our consciousness by means of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outer senses, presenting to us the same suprasensible reality in 'aesthetic'expressions.'?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 449.096 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 449.096 138.579 m 463.088 138.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 463.088 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Could not Ely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have argued convincingly that the national landscape idiom that had taken hold by the end of the nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century was not only a conscious rejection of the dramatic conventions of European landscape painting, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also a, perhaps subconscious, return to the principles of iconography as painters presented unpretentious, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unprepossessing landscapes which could pull the viewer into a sense of deep communion with Russia's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simple and plain nature? Could he not have argued that pausing long enough before a Shishkin forest to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follow the trail deep into the towering trees of Rus might invoke in the viewer much the same response as )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 250.1117 431.5015 264.1037 443.3815 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 468.2957 305.4535 482.2877 317.3335 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 449.0957 138.8935 463.0877 150.7735 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 2902 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standing before an icon of the Mother of God or Christ Himself and gazing long into their becalming, yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inviting eyes? I believe that he could have done so, tracing many of the painters' early practice of icon-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painting. I look forward to his response to this suggestion, which, like my comments about )] TJ ET BT 472.664 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anna Karenina)] TJ ET BT 546.332 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflects the degree to which Ely succeeded in engaging my thinking about aesthetics and national identity in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth-century Russia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.547 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leo Tolstoy, )] TJ ET BT 128.348 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anna Karenina)] TJ ET BT 202.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, transl. Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky \(Penguin Books; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London and New York, 2002\), p. 592.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 247.988 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 247.988 658.275 m 301.976 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid., pp. 594-5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 141.344 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 141.344 644.019 m 195.332 644.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L. Ouspensky and V. Lossky, )] TJ ET BT 209.336 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Meaning of Icons)] TJ ET BT 314.324 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, transl. G. E. H. Palmer and E. Kadloubovsky )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Boston Book and Art Shop; Boston, MA [printed Olten, Switzerland], 1952\), p. 24.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 468.668 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 468.668 615.507 m 522.656 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 590.645 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 571.663 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 553.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 553.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/337)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 552.489 m 322.316 552.489 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 527.512 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.112 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1607)] TJ ET BT 34.016 498.712 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 247.9877 658.5895 301.9757 670.4695 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 141.3437 644.3335 195.3317 656.2135 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 468.6677 615.8215 522.6557 627.7015 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 552.8035 322.3157 564.6835 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/337) >> endobj xref 0 43 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000594 00000 n 0000000676 00000 n 0000004586 00000 n 0000004695 00000 n 0000004805 00000 n 0000004914 00000 n 0000008475 00000 n 0000008603 00000 n 0000008687 00000 n 0000008752 00000 n 0000013976 00000 n 0000014041 00000 n 0000022399 00000 n 0000022464 00000 n 0000030377 00000 n 0000030442 00000 n 0000036890 00000 n 0000036988 00000 n 0000045559 00000 n 0000045589 00000 n 0000045717 00000 n 0000045753 00000 n 0000045783 00000 n 0000045911 00000 n 0000045947 00000 n 0000045977 00000 n 0000046105 00000 n 0000046141 00000 n 0000046246 00000 n 0000049201 00000 n 0000049329 00000 n 0000049384 00000 n 0000049512 00000 n 0000049567 00000 n 0000049695 00000 n 0000049750 00000 n 0000049878 00000 n trailer << /Size 43 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 49973 %%EOF