%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 25 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930134801+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930134801+01'00') /Title (Making Medicine Scientific: John Burdon Sanderson and the Culture of Victorian Science) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4271 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Making Medicine Scientific: John Burdon Sanderson and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Culture of Victorian Science)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In recent years, the debate on the role of science and its many guises in nineteenth century medical practice, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been reinvigorated by new studies which have shown the dense complexity of the interweavings between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science and medicine. Arguments that medical science had little or no impact upon therapeutic practices and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was simply a rhetorical device, used to underpin claims for increased professional status, have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tempered and balanced by those such as W. F. Bynum. In )] TJ ET BT 313.304 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Science and the Practice of Medicine in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nineteenth Century )] TJ ET BT 130.676 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge University Press; Cambridge, 1994\), Bynum shows that in fact, science )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(served many masters. For some practitioners, ?scientific medicine? was simply the use of a stethoscope, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while for others it was a mixture of bedside observations, chemical analysis and experimental work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 140.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making Medicine Scientific, )] TJ ET BT 184.988 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romano builds on this perspective and is explicit about her aim to explore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the many meanings of scientific medicine? in Victorian Britain through the life of John Burdon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sanderson.\(p. 2\) Taking a chronological approach, she traces Sanderson?s career and attempts to relate each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stage of his work to the wider Victorian environment. He was educated at Edinburgh, and benefited from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teaching which reflected the new ideas from Europe: pathological anatomy which had been established in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Paris hospitals of the early 1800s and the German cell-theory developed by Theodor Schwann and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthias Schleiden. Both John Goodsir, Professor of Anatomy and John Hughes Bennet, Professor of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(338)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 May, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Terrie Romano)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(801868971X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(28.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Hopkins University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baltimore)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephanie Snow)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7107 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Institutes of Medicine, saw the microscope as a central investigative tool and regularly used it as part of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lectures. After winning the Gold Medal for his thesis on blood corpuscules that had included animal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research, Sanderson left Edinburgh for Paris. He studied the organic chemical compounds found in animal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tissues in the laboratory of Adolf Wurtz, visited the Paris hospitals and attended the physiology lectures of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Claude Bernard at the College de France. Bernard?s insistence that physiology was the ?primary science of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life? inspired Sanderson and he also learnt much about experimental techniques through practical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sessions.\(p. 26\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By 1852 he was ready to return to London. He had no doubt that what he wanted to pursue was scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research; the question was how could he make a reasonable living, particularly as his marriage to Ghetal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Herschell in 1853 meant he had a wife to support. After several minor appointments his first break came in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1856 when he was appointed as Medical Officer of Health for Paddington. John Simon, medical officer of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Privy Council, had introduced the posts of medical officer as part of his drive to establish scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enquiry as a tool for sanitary reform and his list of credentials for potential applicants asked for skills in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific and microscopic work, as well as in pathology and chemistry. Although the post was part-time, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(salary was enough to support Sanderson and Ghetal and subsidise Sanderson?s research. It was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appointment he was to hold for over ten years and it afforded him diverse opportunities to apply his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific skills. His remit consisted of reporting to the vestry every fortnight and compiling quarterly and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(annual reports on matters such as food adulteration and the condition of dwellings and slaughterhouses. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought his science to use whenever possible, for example, testing the specific gravity of milk as a means of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(checking adulteration. By 1860 his reputation was such that he was chosen by Simon to be an inspector for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Medical Department of the Privy Council. The position involved travelling outside London and his first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(duty was to inspect vaccination practices in the country.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romano shows well Simon?s strengths as a dedicated and strategic player in the battle to win state funding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for scientific enterprise. His approach was low-key; he often began by obtaining funding for a small, defined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project which, on completion, he argued, had proved a need for ongoing research in that area.\(p. 73\) There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was at the mid-point of the nineteenth century little established funding for scientific enterprise. Medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practitioners like Sanderson, who, given the choice, would have preferred to devote themselves fulltime to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research, were prevented from this by the necessity of earning a living. Simon?s approach of installing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific research as the foundation of practical action contributed importantly to the furthering of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pathological and physiological research and created ?a new climate in London?.\(p. 73\) Simon grew to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respect Sanderson?s judgement and research skills and this ensured Sanderson received a regular supply of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was thanks to the efforts of those such as Simon, that the role of laboratory research started to integrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with other public health strategies. One of the first occasions where this integration was apparent was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment of a Royal Commission on Cattle Plague in 1866. There had been outbreaks of cattle plague in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London the previous summer and by January 1866, more than 120,000 animals were known to be infected. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although there was no direct threat to food supplies, the failure of government and veterinarians to control )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the outbreak led to the establishment of a Royal Commission. Members were mainly from medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(backgrounds and Sanderson was appointed as one of the researchers. It increased an already heavy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workload, but Romano describes it as a ?pivotal moment in his career?, signifying both the recognition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his research skills and also the role of pathological research in public health.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sanderson?s area of research was an investigation of the ?natural history? of the disease, and one of his key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(findings was that the blood of an affected animal ?contains an agent which can produce the plague in another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(animal?. The importance of this finding was recognised by the Commissioners, yet coverage of the research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the medical press ignored this point. Romano uses this as an illustration of the way in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laboratory was not yet accepted as a source of new knowledge. Medical journals at this point, in common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with many medical practitioners, portrayed pathological research as little more than a ?collection of clinical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observations?.\(p. 69\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1864, Sanderson joined the physiology laboratory at University College, London, under the direction of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7382 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor William Sharpey. Sharpey was also an Edinburgh graduate and had been appointed to the chair of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anatomy and physiology in 1836. His innovative approach to physiology centred on functional organisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and included a key role for histology and the use of the microscope. His strength was his bent for teaching. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He had a natural facility to enthuse students by demonstrating experimental work carried out by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries such as Claude Bernard in France. In order to effect such teaching he developed a round )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(table with a built-in groove for holding a microscope. This could be passed from student to student. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1860s, teaching of physiology focused on microscopy work but after 1870 more attention was paid to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practical experimental work, a change supported by the Royal College of Surgeons and Royal College of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Physicians who introduced a requirement for examination students to have passed a course in practical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physiology.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The emergence of physiology as a separate experimental discipline was one of the key changes of nineteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century medical science and Sanderson contributed to this when, in 1874, he took over from Sharpey as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jodrell Professor at University College. He organised courses in practical physiology which contained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chemical, mechanical and functional experimental work, much of it carried out on living animals. He was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also one of the first to produce specific manuals and handbooks for course work. But it was a contentious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(area. Britain has always stood out from other countries in its concern with animal welfare; the Society for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was established in 1824 and from the mid-nineteenth century there was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing public concern about the use of laboratory animals. In 1873, Sanderson fuelled the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antivivisectionist debate with the production of a )] TJ ET BT 271.664 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Handbook for the Physiological Laboratory)] TJ ET BT 482.996 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edited. It was published in two volumes and was intended to be a practical guide for students working in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laboratory. Giving full details of animal experiments, it showed how these were now the focus of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physiological experimental work, and in the majority of cases there was no mention of the use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anaesthesia. A year later, at a meeting of the British Medical Association in Norwich, the demonstration by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French physiologist of the effects of alcohol injected into some dogs brought a prosecution of wanton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cruelty. The trial was eventually unsuccessful but drew so much public and medical attention that animal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experimentation became a political matter. \(Bynum, p. 129\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A Royal Commission was established to examine the whole remit of experimental medicine and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recommendations were incorporated into the Cruelty to Animals Act that was passed in 1876. This declared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that both individuals and institutions involved in such work had to be registered with the Home Office, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anaesthesia had to be used in the majority of experiments and annual reports of experiments had to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(submitted. It was the end-point of a tranche of private experimental work carried out by men such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marshall Hall the neuro-physiologist and the anaesthetist and epidemiologist, John Snow; neither held an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic post and both carried out all their research at home. As part reaction to such public pressure, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Foster from the Cambridge school of physiology and other physiologists formed an association that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became the Physiological Society. The Society held regular scientific meetings in members? laboratories, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offering support against the anti-vivisectionist movement. Britain was alone in producing legislation to cover )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this area and although physiologists at the 1881 International Medical Congress sympathised with the fate of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their British counterparts, the movement had generated positive outcomes as well. Opposition to the anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vivisection movement provided an incentive for physiologists to offer each other mutual support and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consolidate their interests into a coherent specialty.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the 1880s, British physiology was gaining recognition, largely thanks to the groups of men who worked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Cambridge under Foster and at University College under Sharpey and then Sanderson. When Sanderson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moved to Oxford as the first Waynflete Professor of physiology in 1882, he was succeeded by Edward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schafer, one of the main instigators of research into hormones. In Oxford, Sanderson became embroiled in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the attempt to establish a school of physiology, which was intended by those such as Henry Acland, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regius Professor of Medicine, to rival Michael Foster?s school of physiology in Cambridge.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romano explains the failure of the establishment of an Oxford school, partly in terms of Sanderson?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personality ? he had no charisma for leadership, and despite his highly-acclaimed skills in the use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex instruments, he did not have the ability to plan a ?big picture? research programme ? and partly due )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to local factors: the opposition of anti-vivisectionists and the lack of general support amongst Oxford )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6938 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academics. Despite these initial problems, Sanderson established himself at Oxford and in 1895 achieved a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal ambition by becoming Regius Professor of Medicine.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sanderson emerges from this study as a man willing to engage in science in all its nineteenth-century forms. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romano succeeds in showing how it was his motivation to use science to the benefit of medicine that unified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an apparently random mixture of activities. What could be made more explicit through the narrative is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way in which Sanderson?s own approach to research was shaped during his lifetime by the wider influences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Victorian science. So, in the early 1850s, the work he undertook for Simon reflected the analytical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach to science of his generation. It was a science that had grown from roots in areas such as botany and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(natural history. It was supported by microscopic work and chemical analysis. By the 1870s, Sanderson and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many others, strongly influenced by the work of Bernard, started to concentrate on animal experimentation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a means of studying the processes of living systems. A plethora of physiological instruments were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed and a body of knowledge of practical experimental techniques, such as the idea of a control )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within an experiment, began to be built. This is the point when physiology truly begins to establish itself as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an independent medical science, rather than as an adjunct to anatomy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sanderson was also involved in many of the major scientific and medical debates of the nineteenth century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of which are covered in this book. One area that would have contributed nicely to the portrait of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way in which understandings of science were constantly evolving through these years, was Sanderson?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work on septicaemia: in particular, the role he played in the debates of the late 1860s and 1870s on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Listerism. It was Sanderson?s suggestion, made in 1871, that if germs were tiny living organisms then they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be easily killed by drying air currents, which inspired Lister to extend his work on sepsis into the areas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of fermentation and putrefaction.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 192.644 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 192.644 485.955 m 206.636 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 206.636 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Another area which would have been of interest \(if space allowed\), was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an analysis of the influence of Sanderson upon his nephew, John Scott Haldane, who worked with his uncle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at Oxford. Haldane also specialised in physiology and carried out experiments on mine gases and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physiological function in miners and he developed the Haldane apparatus for measuring oxygen and carbon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dioxide which became the key piece of equipment for respiratory physiology.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The shadowy figure of Ghetal, Sanderson?s wife is one of the most interesting characters in the narrative. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like so many other Victorian wives of professional men, she was intelligent and capable, contributing vastly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to her husband?s achievements by compiling and writing reports, as well as sustaining him through periods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of depression. There are brief glimpses of the tensions created by the impact of his work on her own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests. In 1881 for example, she failed to gain an appointment to the council of Somerville Hall, one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woman?s colleges at Oxford, because of the opposition of Frances Cobbe, leader of the antivivisectionist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement.\(Romano, p. 150\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A minor criticism is the inconsistency in the references to Sanderson; for example on page 24 we read within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a matter of lines of ?Sanderson?, ?John Sanderson? and ?John Scott Sanderson?. Although Sanderson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself began to use the double name of Burden Sanderson in the 1850s in order to differentiate himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from another medical practitioner, there is a strong argument for consistency within the realms of this text so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as not to detract attention from the line of the narrative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making Medicine Scientific )] TJ ET BT 168.992 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a carefully researched and written work which takes on board the tangled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mixture of activities that to the nineteenth-century practitioner of medicine stood for science in its most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessible form. It enlarges our view of the power-struggle for autonomy over medicine by both doctors at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the bedside and scientists in the laboratory and extends the picture of the relationship between science and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medicine in the late nineteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 117.075 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 86.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 86.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See M. Worboys, )] TJ ET BT 151.004 86.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Spreading Germs. Disease Theories and Medical Practice in Britain, 1865-1900)] TJ ET BT 64.016 72.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge University Press; Cambridge, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 299.996 72.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 299.996 70.803 m 353.984 70.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 45.941 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 192.6437 486.2695 206.6357 498.1495 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 299.9957 71.1175 353.9837 82.9975 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 674 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 791.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 773.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 773.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/338)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 772.569 m 322.316 772.569 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 747.592 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.192 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1609)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.792 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 772.8835 322.3157 784.7635 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/338) >> endobj xref 0 29 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000596 00000 n 0000000678 00000 n 0000005001 00000 n 0000005110 00000 n 0000005220 00000 n 0000005329 00000 n 0000008890 00000 n 0000009018 00000 n 0000009102 00000 n 0000009167 00000 n 0000016327 00000 n 0000016392 00000 n 0000023827 00000 n 0000023918 00000 n 0000030909 00000 n 0000030939 00000 n 0000031067 00000 n 0000031103 00000 n 0000031229 00000 n 0000031284 00000 n 0000031368 00000 n 0000032094 00000 n 0000032222 00000 n trailer << /Size 29 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32317 %%EOF