%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 27 0 R 45 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140723065443+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140723065443+01'00') /Title (Peasant Women and Politics in Fascist Italy: The Massaie Rurali) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4654 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Peasant Women and Politics in Fascist Italy: The Massaie Rurali)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Perry Willson?s previou)] TJ ET BT 182.996 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(s )] TJ ET BT 190.664 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, )] TJ ET BT 220.664 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Clockwork Factory: Women and Work in Fascist Italy )] TJ ET BT 505.628 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press, 1993\) focused on urban, working-class women in the )] TJ ET BT 414.956 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ventennio)] TJ ET BT 461.612 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, her current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication turns to the countryside to study the history of housewives and farmwomen who were associated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the Fascist organisation, )] TJ ET BT 177.680 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Massaie Rurali.)] TJ ET BT 254.348 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Both of these books broaden our understanding of popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience in the Fascist years, and ably demonstrate how, indeed, the regime enticed, pulled and pushed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people into its orbit. Willson?s works also add considerably to the development in the last decade or so of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gendered history of fascism. The current study of the )] TJ ET BT 291.296 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Massaie Rurali)] TJ ET BT 364.964 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(MR\) is extremely important because, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Willson points out, there has been relatively little scholarly focus on the peasant population in this period, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in most of the works that do exist, gender is not considered. The Fascist regime was very interested in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the countryside both materially and symbolically, and thus looking at the )] TJ ET BT 387.332 159.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Massaie Rurali)] TJ ET BT 461.000 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? a huge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation with over a million members by 1939 ? is a fruitful enterprise that deepens our understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fascism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Willson begins her study of peasant women and Fascism by providing a picture of ?the mosaic of farming? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in rural Italy. Land ownership and use, the nature of work, and the goods produced are described and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variations in these processes, from north to south, but also within regions, are noted. As expected, Willson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses on the role of women in agriculture, revealing the isolation of rural women?s worlds and the fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(339)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 July, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perry Willson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(415291712X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jane Slaughter)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7933 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasant women?s lives were ?subordinate to the authority of men and the needs of the household.?\(p. 20\) At )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same time Willson argues that the economic role of women has been under-estimated and that ?women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work was essential to interwar agriculture.?\(p. 17\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the initial chapter that provides an overview of women?s place in the rural economy in the 1920s, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters 2 and 3 Willson moves to examine rural politics and the evolution of various organisations that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(targeted women, hoping to stem the flow of people from the land to the urban areas, in part by educating and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincing women to become good farmwomen. In describing the history of the Union of Country )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Housewives \(UMC\), an organisation founded in Lombardy at the end of World War I, Willson makes it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear that there were precursors to Fascist groups and programmes and in rural areas. The UMC became a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national union in 1932, but eventually was closed by Fascist party leader Achille Starace in 1935. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters also include interesting narratives of the careers of several ?ladies in the field,? such as Regina )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Teruzzi and Annita Cernezzi Moretti, who were leaders of the early rural women?s groups. These two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women represent a tradition of women?s activism that pre-dated the rise of Fascism, and clearly illustrate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heterogeneity of the women who were drawn to the movement, and who, at least for a time, were leaders of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autonomous rural women?s groups in the 1920s and early 1930s. Throughout the book, Willson makes every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effort to detail the public lives of individual women leaders, and the networks among them. She also shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifts in the leadership as the organisations were absorbed into Fascist hierarchies, lost their autonomy, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became more focused on propaganda and symbolic activities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In February 1933 the Fascists established a national union of rural housewives and rural women workers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thereby broadening their efforts to recruit individuals from all sectors of agricultural work. UMC members )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were absorbed into the National Fascist Federation of )] TJ ET BT 293.972 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Massaie Rurali )] TJ ET BT 370.640 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(FNFMR\), and the Federation?s goals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and many of its personnel were taken from the previous organisation \(including Teruzzi and Cernezzi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moretti\). In late 1934, the new union ?was transferred wholesale into the PNF [National Fascist Party] itself, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becoming a special section of the Fasci Femminili.?\(p. 77\) Willson traces these events in Chapters 3 and 4, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and effectively illustrates why and how the Fascist regime built its mass organisations, the degree to which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central party authorities controlled the groups, and the programmes and activities that the organisations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered their membership. She points out that, like most Fascist unions, the leaders of the )] TJ ET BT 464.648 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Massaie Rurali)] TJ ET BT 538.316 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were not from the class of the membership, and were appointed, not elected. Thus she concludes that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although the)] TJ ET BT 93.680 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( massaie)] TJ ET BT 135.344 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were ?full Party members, the role of the peasant women themselves in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation was always fairly passive.?\(p. 87\) In these discussions, Willson not only gives the reader a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of how sections were organized and their activities developed, but provides examples for the entire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation ? from Fiume to Cagliari, from Milan and Belluno to Palermo and Bari.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Willson?s descriptions of the bureacracy, leaders, and goals of the )] TJ ET BT 402.944 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Massaie Rurali)] TJ ET BT 476.612 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential information, the heart of this book is really in Chapters 5-8, in which she leads us through the day-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to-day operations of the organisation and its members. Here she paints a fascinating picture of escalating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda directed to the rural women in magazines, film, radio, and cultural activities. Using such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material as accounts of local festivals and celebrations, films viewed in small villages, and recipes printed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a host of pamphlets, newspapers and journals, she makes every effort to link the central propaganda message )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the targeted population. In attempting to provide clear popular responses to these efforts, Willson is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited by her sources. The average )] TJ ET BT 208.304 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(massaia)] TJ ET BT 247.640 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( did not write articles for the organisation?s journals, give )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speeches, leave diaries, nor write letters to the leadership. Nevertheless, even here Willson has given us a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great deal of new information, by looking at a changing ?guard? of women leaders ? from the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politically independent women of the first hour to a slightly younger generation of more ?politically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reliable? women who emerged later. The fact that Willson gives us details not only of national leaders, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regional figures throughout Italy adds to the unique value of this work. One of the most revealing accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the book is that of Laura Marani Argnani, the highly successful Fiduciary of the )] TJ ET BT 433.292 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fasci Femminili)] TJ ET BT 512.288 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reggio Emilia. Absolutely devoted to Mussolini, Marani Argnani was also an inspired, pragmatic and quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human leader, and fortunately for us, left multiple sources of her activities and her interactions with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women she hoped to persuade and transform.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A major focus of rural women?s organisations both before and after 1922 was training women in some )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8468 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of farming and home economics ? for example, gardening, beekeeping, housekeeping, handicraft )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manufacture, and childcare. Willson?s detailed case study of the Sant?Alessio Training College just south of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rome reveals the ties between Fascist programmes and previous educational institutions, the increased Party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control over education, and the quite gender-specific nature of the training and professionalization of women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the regime. Eventually the school became a teacher-training institute, and Willson describes how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(school provided professional careers and stable employment for women within the Fascist structures. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also makes clear the fact that ?any potential emancipatory overtones which might emerge ? were kept strictly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in check ? [T]he school trained its students for one job only ? [and safeguarded] certain jobs for men.?\(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(146-7\) The directors of the school provide another set of women leaders whose public lives Willson so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carefully extracts from the larger historical record. The inspiration for the Sant? Alessio College came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(originally from Aurelia Josz, a well-educated woman from a Florentine Jewish family who had established a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(farming school near Milan in 1902. By 1927, she was in charge of the school near Rome, but was ?sacked? a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(year later because ?her ?difficult character? was a hindrance to the school?s progress.?\(p. 138\) Josz was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replaced by Laura Salvi, a landowner?s daughter with practical farming experience who had ?impeccable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political credentials?, thus replicating patterns of change in leadership in the UMC.\(p. 139\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book?s epilogue carries the stories of rural women?s organisations and education, and of some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders, into the post-war world. Willson makes some tantalizing suggestions about the connections between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the UMC, the )] TJ ET BT 102.680 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Massaie Rurali)] TJ ET BT 176.348 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and Christian Democratic efforts in the 1950s to mobilize peasant women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(special sections of the )] TJ ET BT 142.664 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Coldiritti)] TJ ET BT 187.352 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, its affiliated organisation of small farmers. While the final chapter points )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians of the postwar world in some interesting directions, it also is in this chapter that Willson pulls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together a number of threads of argument developed in previous pages. Her conclusions describe the broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical significance of the rural women?s organisations, and situate this study within larger historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates about the nature of Fascism, and, in particular, the relationship between women and gender, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fascist movement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. J. B. Bosworth, in his 1998 study of the historiography of Italian Fascism, called for a better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the ?variations in the lives of Italians of different classes, regions and genders, ? [and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questioned] whether the totalitarian, ?top-down?, state-centred model is an acceptable explanatory device? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for regimes such as this one.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 175.988 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 175.988 386.163 m 189.980 386.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 189.980 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Willson?s work addresses these issues by including rural women in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture of Fascist organisations, and by making clear that while the central authorities selected leaders for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups, set forth policies and programmes, and controlled material resources, they also absorbed previous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations and plans, and relied heavily on the energies of local officials and programmes established in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rural sections throughout Italy. What we get from Willson?s work is a much better understanding of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamics, the give-and-take of decision-making in the groups collected under Party umbrella organisations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like the )] TJ ET BT 72.680 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fasci Femminili)] TJ ET BT 151.676 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is now fairly common practice among historians of Fascist politics and culture to acknowledge what Marla )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stone describes as the ?contradictions of Fascist ideology and its flexibility once in practice.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 482.624 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 482.624 260.115 m 496.616 260.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 496.616 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Willson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also points to conflicts between intentions and results of the regime in policies for ruralization and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobilization of peasant women. Generally Fascist policies aimed ?to preserve traditional ways of life, class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hierarchies and social stability, ? [and the regime?s message to rural women] was fundamentally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reactionary.?\(pp. 205, 206\) At the same time, Willson argues, the experiences depicted in film and radio )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could have worked against ruralization plans, while in the MR the Fascists ?introduced large numbers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasant women to the world of politics.?\(p. 197\) Here Willson carefully avoids concluding that Fascism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gave women agency, or that it ?modernized? women. Other historians have pointed out that embracing ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics of difference? that characterized Right-wing, patriarchal systems did not necessarily empower )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, because the results could be positive and negative at the same time.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 398.624 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 398.624 131.811 m 412.616 131.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 412.616 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As Willson sees it, while the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effects of political activism in the )] TJ ET BT 197.996 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fasci Femminili )] TJ ET BT 279.992 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or clandestine political organising for Communist Party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women might have been modernizing or emancipating, these concepts are not necessarily the most suitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yardstick for measuring the importance of the MR to peasant women.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The highly political nature of the writing of histories of Fascism in the second half of the twentieth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has resulted in major differences of opinion about the continuities between the Fascist )] TJ ET BT 449.624 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ventennio)] TJ ET BT 496.280 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 175.9877 386.4775 189.9797 398.3575 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 482.6237 260.4295 496.6157 272.3095 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 398.6237 132.1255 412.6157 144.0055 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 8633 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical conditions and traditions that preceded and followed it. Willson stands firmly with those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasize links to the past, in her case demonstrating how the goals, programmes and organisations of rural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populations before 1922 were absorbed by the regime in the next decade. But she also argues that the regime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did transform and alter previous patterns of women?s political activism. A tradition of autonomy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence of earlier groups devoted to female \(although not necessarily feminist\) concerns was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?eclipsed?, as the organisation of rural women became an affiliate of the )] TJ ET BT 384.920 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fasci Femminili)] TJ ET BT 463.916 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and of the national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party. As she says, this transformation in the political structures of women?s activism was a legacy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fascism because even after 1945, ?much of ?women?s politics? was pursued in sections of parties or trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unions essentially controlled by men.?\(p. 4\) Her example of the women?s section of the )] TJ ET BT 458.612 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Coldiritti )] TJ ET BT 506.300 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this point, but further evidence can be found in the relationships between the Italian Communist Party and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Union of Italian Women \(UDI\), and that of the Christian Democrats and the Center of Italian Women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(CIF\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other issues that have sparked debates among historians of Italian Fascism are the extent of Fascist power, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the degree of national consensus or support for the regime. Regardless of one?s position in these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments, studies of central party functionaries and government leaders, men from elite social groups, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectuals and policy makers do not necessarily lead to a functional model of totalitarianism, nor an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of popular views of Fascism. As already pointed out, Willson?s study does not present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fascism as a rigid and effective form of authoritarianism. Additionally, through her study of peasant women, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Willson joins other historians who have sought to uncover the attitudes of the masses to the regime, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical meaning of the huge memberships in Fascist mass organisations like the )] TJ ET BT 431.324 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Massaie Rurali)] TJ ET BT 504.992 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Willson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that consensus and resistance often co-existed, and that for the rural women, ?membership ? often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meant something less than a whole-hearted embracing of the Fascist cause.?\(pp. 172, 197\) According to her, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women joined the MR for a variety of material and immaterial reasons, but since we lack full membership )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records and personal accounts it is hard to know exactly who joined, or what they thought of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation and the Party to which they now belonged. Willson might well agree with historian Carl Ipsen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who has argued that we will probably never resolve the question of the degree to which ?students, workers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the young, the old, industrialists, the petite bourgeoisie and rural and urban workers supported Fascism?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 536.624 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 536.624 412.419 m 550.616 412.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What can we gain from Perry Willson?s book, beyond the considerable contributions I have already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described? We can recognise that we do possess the records of a large group of ?mildly distinguished? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people whose memoirs are neither exclusively apologetic or nostalgic.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 371.624 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 371.624 357.651 m 385.616 357.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 385.616 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Many of the actors are women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about whom little has been written. Willson has begun to tell their stories, through the lives of people like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laura Marani Argnani and her peers. Reading these accounts we get a much better sense of the ordinary, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential, but not powerful people who supported and did the work of the Fascist regime. They were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dupes or ?hacks,? but instead were intelligent, strong-minded individuals who lived active public lives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the inter-war years and beyond.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(July 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 226.611 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 195.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. J. B. Bosworth, )] TJ ET BT 155.360 195.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Italian Dictatorship: Problems and Perspectives in the Interpretation of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mussolini and Fascism)] TJ ET BT 175.352 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: Arnold, 1998\), pp. 29, 31.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 351.008 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 351.008 180.339 m 404.996 180.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 167.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marla Stone, ?Book Review?, )] TJ ET BT 211.328 167.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Modern Italian Studies)] TJ ET BT 374.660 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 3 \(1998\), 193-6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 458.648 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 458.648 166.083 m 512.636 166.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 153.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For an excellent comparative discussion of these issues see Ralph M. Leck, ?Conservative )] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empowerment and the gender of Nazism: paradigms of power and complicity in German history?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Women?s History)] TJ ET BT 202.340 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 12 \(2002\), 147-69.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 298.328 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 298.328 123.315 m 352.316 123.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 110.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carl Ipsen, )] TJ ET BT 119.672 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al)] TJ ET BT 140.672 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(., ?History as it really wasn?t: the myths of Italian historiography?, )] TJ ET BT 464.636 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Modern )] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Italian Studies)] TJ ET BT 133.688 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 6 \(2001\), 402-19.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 223.676 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 223.676 94.803 m 277.664 94.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 81.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This phrase by Ian Hacking is used by David G. Horn to describe ?the voices? in his book, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social Bodies: Science, Reproduction and Italian Modernity)] TJ ET BT 353.648 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton: Princeton University Press, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1994\), p. 9.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 119.012 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 119.012 52.035 m 173.000 52.035 l S endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 536.6237 412.7335 550.6157 424.6135 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 371.6237 357.9655 385.6157 369.8455 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 351.0077 180.6535 404.9957 192.5335 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 458.6477 166.3975 512.6357 178.2775 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 298.3277 123.6295 352.3157 135.5095 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 223.6757 95.1175 277.6637 106.9975 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 119.0117 52.3495 172.9997 64.2295 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 47 0 R ] /Contents 46 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Length 890 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author thanks Professor Slaughter for her review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 758.213 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 739.231 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 721.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 721.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/339)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 720.057 m 322.316 720.057 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 695.080 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 680.680 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1611)] TJ ET BT 34.016 666.280 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 720.3715 322.3157 732.2515 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/339) >> endobj xref 0 49 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000573 00000 n 0000000655 00000 n 0000005361 00000 n 0000005470 00000 n 0000005580 00000 n 0000005689 00000 n 0000009250 00000 n 0000009378 00000 n 0000009462 00000 n 0000009527 00000 n 0000017513 00000 n 0000017611 00000 n 0000026132 00000 n 0000026162 00000 n 0000026290 00000 n 0000026326 00000 n 0000026356 00000 n 0000026484 00000 n 0000026520 00000 n 0000026550 00000 n 0000026678 00000 n 0000026714 00000 n 0000026840 00000 n 0000035526 00000 n 0000035556 00000 n 0000035684 00000 n 0000035720 00000 n 0000035750 00000 n 0000035878 00000 n 0000035914 00000 n 0000036042 00000 n 0000036097 00000 n 0000036225 00000 n 0000036280 00000 n 0000036408 00000 n 0000036463 00000 n 0000036590 00000 n 0000036645 00000 n 0000036771 00000 n 0000036826 00000 n 0000036910 00000 n 0000037852 00000 n 0000037980 00000 n trailer << /Size 49 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38075 %%EOF