%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818084113+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818084113+01'00') /Title (Russia: People and Empire 1552-1917) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3993 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Russia: People and Empire 1552-1917)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Admiral Eduard Baltin, wrestling in mid-1997 with the consequences of the division of the ex-Soviet navy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Ukraine and the Russian Federation, took a moment to reflect on the creator of the imperial Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Black Sea fleet: "a loose woman and non-Russian, Empress Catherine the Great was a greater Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patriot than today's rulers of Russia. Yeltsin is not a collector of Russian lands as several Russian tsars were. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He simply sells them off" \(quoted in The Guardian, 6 June 1997\). The admiral's angry remarks neatly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encapsulate several key themes in Geoffrey Hosking's new book: the roots of national sentiment, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences of Russian imperial expansion, the meaning of patriotism in the Russian context, and what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be termed the trade in territory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On one level this is a fairly straightforward history of Russia from the conquest of Kazan' in 1552 under Ivan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(IV to the eventual collapse of the tsarist state in 1917. Drawing upon a sound knowledge of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography \(including many of the most recent works by Russian historians\) and of many printed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary sources, Hosking provides a panoramic, lucid and reliable narrative from which general readers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students and specialists in Russian history will all learn a great deal. Anyone familiar with Hosking's well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarded history of the Soviet Union will recognize many of the same virtues in his latest book: clarity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(34)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 April, 1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoffrey Hosking)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780002555364)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(576pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(HarperCollins)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.harpercollins.co.uk/Titles/4785/russia-people-and-empire-geoffrey-hosking-9780002555364)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Gatrell)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6437 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exposition, the fair-minded summary of important debates, the careful handling of domestic politics, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(close attention given to religious developments and to non-Russian minorities \(one might, however, also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(note the author's steadfast refusal to make more than passing reference to the history of women in Russia; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(five modest references in a work of 550 pages devoted to "people" is scandalous!\). Hosking does not provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a bibliography, but there are fairly full notes at the end of the book. There are four clear maps, but no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrations. This is a pity, given that parts of Hosking's argument merited some well-chosen reproductions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the ways in which Rus' and Rossiia were represented \(see below\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As one would expect, several passages deal with key episodes in Russian history. To my mind, Hosking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers a riveting account of the Pugachev rebellion \(pp.107-15\), of the origins and ideas of the Decembrists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp.171-82\), and of the Pushkin celebrations in 1880 \(pp.308-10\). Many other sections, such as that dealing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the Time of Troubles \(pp.56-64\), offer rewarding insights. Some specific points deserved to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elaborated more fully: for example, there is no proper discussion of estate categories \(sosloviia\) and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance. But these are matters where different scholars will naturally exercise different judgement. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia: People and Empire is, in short, the work of a mature scholar who is scrupulous in the care he gives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the source material and who demonstrates the capacity to construct a vivid and coherent narrative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, it would be misleading to heap praise upon the author for his skills as a storyteller; misleading, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because Hosking proposes at the same time to pursue a grand theme. His history is the story of the creation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and consolidation of the Russian empire and the implications these processes had, above all, for the "Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people". In Hosking's view, the Russian empire \(rossiiskaia imperiia\) "impeded the formation of a nation" )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p.xix\) and suppressed a sense of national identity, that is Russians' conscious affiliation to Rus'. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process of creating an empire, the existing institutions of community that might otherwise have provided the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basis for a "civic sense of nationhood" were weakened and crushed. This argument owes much to Mikhail )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bakunin, whose views on "statehood and anarchy" are cited in the text \(pp.279-80\). They are worth quoting:)] TJ ET BT 94.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("Any honest thinking Russian is bound to realize that our empire cannot change its )] TJ ET BT 94.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitude to the people. By its very existence it is doomed to be its blood-sucker and )] TJ ET BT 94.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tormentor. The people instinctively hate it, and it cannot help but oppress the )] TJ ET BT 94.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people, since its whole being and strength are founded on the people's misery...The )] TJ ET BT 94.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only worthwhile constitution from the people's point of view is the destruction of )] TJ ET BT 94.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the empire".)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bakunin christened this "Knutogermaniia", a compound of "Mongol cruelty [the knout] and Prussian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pedantry".)] TJ ET BT 34.016 246.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A similar vision of the devastating consequences of imperial crystallization was embraced by Alexander )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Herzen \(see pp.281-4\), who wanted to revive the pristine principles of the community \(mir\) and the work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collective \(artel'\), in order to promote the ideals of freedom of association, based upon equality of access to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key resources. Hosking is very impressed by the notion of communal association and kinship ties, devoting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much attention to their survival in various forms through to 1917. In his view, two mutually exclusive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(versions of community vied for supremacy in post-Petrine Russia - "two poles round which Russian national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feeling could crystallize". One was a noble ideal of hierarchical authority, cosmopolitanism, a readiness to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serve the state, and a firm commitment to property. The other was embodied in the peasantry, with its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 132.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on communal ownership, egalitarianism, and mutual responsibility \(krugovaia poruka\). There was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no reconciliation between these extremes; instead, "the two Russias weakened each other". The Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 103.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligentsia - a potential source of an articulate and coherent national identity - was "crushed between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them" \(p.xxvi\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These arguments are developed in Part One \("The Russian empire: how and why?"\). Hosking paints a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture of pre-1700 expansion that was designed to enhance Russian security and to obtain tribute; in the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7514 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(steppes there was no intention of destroying indigenous culture. Gradually, however, the tsarist state began )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to pursue the administrative, economic, cultural and religious integration of subject peoples. The relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(straightforward conquest of Siberia is contrasted with the much more protracted and violent conquest of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caucasus, a region where indigenous groups could exploit international rivalry for their own purposes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Economic motives contributed to the decision to conquer central Asia. Elsewhere, imperial expansion meant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the absorption of highly developed polities, such as Poland, from which emanated the two greatest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges to imperial rule during the nineteenth century. But the vision of imperial conquest and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration did not distinguish between Russian and non-Russian elements; all were subject to imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority: "all peoples, Russians included, were the raw material of empire, to be manipulated or dominated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as seemed expedient to its unity and strength" \(p.39\). One consequence of this indiscriminate subordination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of people to state was a relatively relaxed attitude towards indigenous elites and a toleration of ethnic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious and cultural difference, at least until the late nineteenth century. Nevertheless, the concept of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian national identity remains elusive. Did such an identity exist prior to the encounters with non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russians in the imperial project? Elsewhere, it appears in the guise of human sympathy, playfulness, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informality and communal solidarity, in contrast to German rationality, orderliness and impersonality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p.161\). These are slippery kinds of self-definition \(see David Blackbourn's recent history of Germany\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it would have been nice if they had been deconstructed by Hosking.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part Two offers one hundred pages on the construction of the "imperial" state, with most attention devoted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the emergence of a polity in which elements of the service nobility, townspeople, clergy and "black" \(that is, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(free and self-governing\) peasants hesitantly began to cooperate in a kind of proto-nation that curbed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patrimonial principle. \(By contrast, Richard Pipes, Russia under the Old Regime, 1974, saw only the "partial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismantling" of patrimonialism during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.\) Hosking also traces the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucial emergence of a militant patriarchate, seized by the idea of Russia as the "Third Rome", and capable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of alienating a sizeable community of the faithful that constituted itself as the Old Believers. Here again )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hosking demonstrates the power of association: the Old Believers became a rallying-point for political as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as religious dissidents, whilst state-sponsored persecution only reinforced their belief in the need for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia's people to be governed in accordance with piety, faith and virtue. Not for the last time, a profound )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rift opened up between the ordinary people and the ruling elite.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This theme is also developed in Hosking's account of Peter the Great's programme of westernization. Petrine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrative reform created a kind of rational bureaucratic state which was at odds with the alternative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systems of authority that derived from kinship ties, mutual responsibility \(krugovaia poruka\) and face-to-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(face networks. Only in respect of taxation - the introduction of the poll tax - did Peter acknowledge the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibilities inherent in mutual responsibility amongst the peasant taxpayers. In a fairly conventional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account, Hosking concludes that Petrine changes imposed an "artificial" regime on Russia, typified by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(westernized elite that became yet more divorced from the people.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part Three of this book considers social classes \(nobility and peasantry\), the intelligentsia, the Orthodox )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church and the army. \(Again there are striking structural similarities with Pipes' survey of Rusian history.\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter on the nobility restates the point that Peter the Great amalgamated heterogeneous groups of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(privileged servitors into a single category of service; in due course, the noble corporate estate \(soslovie\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquired a non-Russian, European culture which alienated them from the peasant masses. Catherine the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Great promoted the idea of private property in land and serfs, but property rights failed to lay the basis for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil society and instead reinforced the gap between the noble elite and the peasantry \(pp.156-58\). Serfdom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ruined the prospects for civic development \(p.164\). Critics of the existing order, such as Radishchev \(whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Journey from St.Petersburg to Moscow appeared in 1790\), espoused notions of honour, duty, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility in a manner that aroused the ire of the autocracy. The Decembrists envisioned patriotism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of comradeship, freedom and constitutional government in the interests of "the welfare of Russia". )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander Murav'ev complained that, in the aftermath of the war against Napoleon, Alexander I offered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Poland a constitution, whereas Russia's reward was the notorious military settlements \(p.173\). The proto-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Decembrist Union of Welfare offered membership of a reformed polity to those who were Russian \("born in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia and speak Russian"\); Pestel' envisaged that non-Russians, with the exception of Jews and Poles, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7140 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be assimilated into a unitary state. Several relevant points occurred to me here, and I am not sure that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hosking attaches sufficient importance to them. First, the Decembrists' vision of national regeneration was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressed in terms that preserved a cultural and social distance between nobles and peasantry; nor did the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Decembrist project deal adequately with the issue of peasant access to farm land. Second, the Northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Society had a very specific plan for the territorial sub-division of Russia, which is passed over hurriedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even though this is relevant to the theme of conceptualizing the "Russian land". A final problem is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between the Decembrists and the dvorianstvo. The majority of Russian nobles were politically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inert, not thoughtful critics of the tsarist state, only becoming politically active when the government \(during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1890s\), then the peasantry \(in 1905-07\) threatened their immediate material interests.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter on the army begins with the suggestion that the state uprooted peasants, drafted them into an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("alien" institution, failed to offer adequate resources, and left the people to make the best of a bad job. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is summarized as follows: "the ethnos constantly threatens in its rambling way to reabsorb the empire" )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p.183\). Drawing upon the work of John Bushnell, Hosking shows that the army mirrored peasant life, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that at the same time it inculcated a sense of "imperial Russian consciousness" in the use of uniforms and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decorations \(something that could also have been developed more fully.\) Reform followed the Crimean war; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minister of the interior Valuev argued that "military service is a form of national elementary education". But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform did not tackle the fundamental problem of resource constraints, which limited the amount of time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devoted to military training. This shortcoming was exposed in the wars of 1877-78 and 1904-05.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Appropriately, the following chapter turns to the peasantry. Serfdom, like the army, seems at first to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been a purely repressive instrument; and there were indeed numerous instances of brutality in both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions. But, in practice, landlords allowed their serfs considerable latitude. The risks of farming poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land were shared through communal land redistribution, whilst peasant liability for taxes and other dues was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(managed by means of collective responsibility. The village community and the artel \(pp.203-6\) constituted a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kind of "ghetto", confirming the cultural as well as social distance between the elite and the peasantry. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasantry understood Russia to be informed "by the guiding principles of military power, religious rectitude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and social equality" \(p.211\). But they had no sense of territoriality beyond the village and no idea of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national community. They grasped something of Russia as a community bound together by the Orthodox )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faith. Here, too, however, peasants worked their own beliefs into official religious precepts and practice. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What survived was an uncompromising peasant suspicion of the state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This leads to a chapter on the Orthodox church. In Germany and England the church provided a means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whereby people encountered the national language and culture. In Russia the church was firmly subordinated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the state. Peter the Great abolished the Patriarchate, and by the nineteenth century the Procurator of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holy Synod was effectively a government minister. Parishioners enjoyed little autonomy \("there are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parishioners, but there is no parish in the proper sense of the word", wrote Aksakov in 1868\). Priests were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appointed from above and enjoyed a difficult relationship with their flock. The scriptures were not available )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the masses in modern Russian version until after the middle of the nineteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The theme of weak institutional counterparts to the imperial state is developed in a chapter on "towns and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the missing bourgeoisie". Towns were "grafted on to a peasant society". Weak guilds and competition from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other social groups hampered the development of bourgeois institutions and identity. Only Moscow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merchants from mid-nineteenth century onwards constituted a coherent countervailing social force and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist ideology that was reproduced through cultural patronage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next chapter locates the "birth of the intelligentsia" in the late eighteenth century, returns to the abortive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claim of the Decembrists to create a framework for national renewal, and documents the emergence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slavophil notions of sobornost' \(community\) as a means of reuniting the nation's elite with the masses. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most potent ideology directed towards this end, however, was Russian socialism. But socialism too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bifurcated Russian national identity by offering competing visions, one based upon the fundamental wisdom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and virtues of peasant "ethnic" Russia, the other a more cosmopolitan outlook in which peasants became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("integrated" into the international order.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7491 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, Hosking looks at literature as "nation-builder". The suggestion here is that the literary elite espoused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a cosmopolitan, European outlook, which contributed further to the rift between elite culture, the church, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("the ordinary people". The person chiefly responsible for seeking to overcome this rift was Belinskii, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to synthesize folk idioms and elite culture \(pp.291-4\). But it was left to Dostoevskii to re-crystallize )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the myth of "holy Russia" for a late nineteenth-century audience, by seeking to synthesize the idea of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffering, compassionate narod and Russia's religious mission \(pp.304-8\). Surprisingly, perhaps, the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devotes no attention to other cultural forms, notably music, painting, and architecture, which would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leant themselves to his thesis. It would have been interesting to read what Hosking makes of Musorgskii! )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(See pp.406-14 of James H.Billington, The Icon and the Axe: An Interpretive History of Russian Culture, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vintage Books, 1970, a towering work of cultural and intellectual history that would repay the attention of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers who wish to pursue some of Hosking's themes.\) I also felt that more needed to be done to establish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the extent of the new reading public that took shape during the later years of the nineteenth century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly given the importance this plays in Hosking's identification of it with an emergent "Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation" \(p.311\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There seem to me to be other missed opportunities. Where is the discussion of national identity in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbols such as currency, flag, anthem, postage stamps, sport? What about holidays and festivals - why did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these not become a means of national integration? More theoretically, what about the crystallization of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national identity in terms of an encounter with "the other"? For example, to what extent did war or migration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(help to introduce the peasantry to new kinds of identity, by exposing them to "foreigners"? Did their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounter with Jews reinforce a sense of peasant-ness or instill a sense of Russian-ness? What role did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Siberia play in changing notions of what it meant to be a "Russian"?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part Four offers a fairly conventional account of the ways in which imperial Russia succumbed to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressures of economic and social modernization. Westernizers and slavophiles alike interpreted Russia's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humiliation in the Crimean war in terms of a rift between state and society. Two strategies contended for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primacy: one was to create the institutions of civic society and political participation; the other to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homogenize the tsar's subjects through a programme of Russification. Broadly speaking, Alexander II )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursued the former course, whilst his successors pursued the latter \(p.319\). Peasant emancipation and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creation of zemstvos merely confirmed the institutions of peasant self-government; they did not overcome )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the political and cultural distance between the peasantry and their political masters. Hosking traces the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of a conscious professional stratum which identified Russia's mission to civilize the peasantry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the peripheral peoples of the Russian empire. I would have liked more deconstruction of the term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obshchestvennost' \(educated society\) and the way in which professional activists constructed an image of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasant narod. \(See Cathy Frierson, Peasant Icons: Representations of Rural People in Late Nineteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Century Russia, 1993; also James Lehning, Peasant and French: Cultural Contact in Rural France during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nineteenth Century, 1991.\) Hosking's chapter on Russian socialism conveys something of the frustration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with which radicals encountered the peasantry \(p.352\). But this doesn't take us very far. Nor is it altogether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear from Hosking's account why peasants became revolutionary in 1902-07; perhaps the author attaches )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too much importance to their awareness of state vulnerability; in any case, he does not make it sufficiently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear how this awareness was transmitted. It is also strange that, in a book which relies quite heavily on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea of cellular communities, the author did not investigate more fully the idea of a revolutionary party cell. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And, although he suggests \(p.412\) that the soviet was analogous to the village assembly, he does not explore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the analogy or unpick the differences in organization, membership, and tone.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The failure of reform prompted the state to pursue the alternative strategy, of Russification. Hosking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes this as the attempt to implant an overarching sense of Russian-ness amongst all subjects of the tsar: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("by inculcating in each of them the language, religion, culture, history and political traditions of Russia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaving their own languages and native traditions to occupy a subsidiary niche, as ethnographic remnants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than active social forces" \(p.376\). This policy not only placed a heavy strain on the state budget, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also provoked a "national" backlash \(as seen in the popularity of the Armenian Dashnak movement after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heavy-handed Russian attack on the autonomy of the Armenian church\). But I wanted to learn more about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the tactics that allowed the patriotic intelligentsia in Poland, Ukraine, Latvia and elsewhere to communicate )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7340 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the masses; was this because some of these societies were much less "peasant"? Meanwhile, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russification alienated Russian progressive opinion and failed to arouse any response on the part of "the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masses".)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The remaining chapters describe the 1905-07 revolution, its aftermath, and the 1917 revolution. Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hosking is very much on his home ground here. There are three main arguments in this part of the book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First, that none of the revolutionary elements succeeded in articulating "a vision of nation or empire which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could appeal over boundaries of soslovie and ethnos" \(p.422\). Second, that the new parliament or Duma )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed to overcome the rift between ruler and ruled. Third, that the post-revolutionary reassessment by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian intelligentsia failed to come to terms with the multi-national character of the empire or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("localized consciousness" of the Russian peasantry \(Russification was revived by the counter-revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whites in 1917-21\). I have some reservations about the first point. Radicals and "the masses" shared a vision )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the bankruptcy of state officials, of the need for a government that enjoyed the confidence of the people, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and of the pressing need for land redistribution. This surely was a vision of a reconstructed nation, albeit not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(couched in "nationalist" terms. Some other judgements are also open to question. We are told \(p.417\) that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasants continued to revere the Tsar. Can we be certain of this; why did peasants not translate reverence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into defence? Hosking also offers a decent account of the policies pursued by Stolypin, but plays down the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repressive elements in post-1905 policies. I was also surprised that Hosking did not take the opportunity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explore the cultural meanings of different Russian cities \(there is a brief discussion of the construction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(St.Petersburg, but no sustained reflection on the comparative meanings that Moscow and St.Petersburg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumed\), the attempts to russify other cities \(e.g. Warsaw\) and the construction \(in both a physical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural sense\) of newer Siberian towns. Surprisingly little attention is given to foreign policy and the idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia's abortive "mission" in the Far East, which would have strengthened the argument about the meaning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of "Russia".)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hosking maintains that the imperial regime never overcame the profound rift between rulers and ruled. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia failed the test of war in 1914-17: nation-states, not empires, win modern wars \(pp.xxi, 449-52\). It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worth pointing out, however, that nation-states did not "go it alone" in 1914; Britain relied upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobilization of its empire, as Avner Offer has shown \(The First World War: An Agrarian Interpretation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1988\), and what counted in wartime was economic and military cooperation between nation-states. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end, peasant conscripts did begin to articulate a kind of national consciousness in wartime \(Hosking, pp.457-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8\). There is much more that needs to be said on this score. Hosking shows that workers and peasants were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impatient to settle old scores with the propertied elite, as well as aiming to secure material benefits; this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generated institutional collapse and bitter social conflict. Like Moshe Lewin, Hosking argues that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasantry was the class that survived best the upheaval of revolution and civil war. I wondered how fair it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was to describe the participants in the soviets \(such as Kronstadt\) as loyal to "the age-old vision of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(egalitarian democracy" \(p.476\); doesn't this minimize the importance of class conflict and exclusion? And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the suggestion that suppression of the Kronstadt revolt ushered in something called totalitarianism should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not go unchallenged.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some concluding observations are prompted by Hosking's enterprise. Following Anthony Smith, National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Identity, 1991, we know that even "western" nations were to some extent designed, the outcome of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliberate attempts to pattern a new nation state. But what economic and social basis allowed these projects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to succeed? England and France boasted relatively advanced economies, with a reasonably high degree of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urbanization and literacy. It took a lengthy communications revolution \(schooling plus railways\) to effect a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation in national identity. A more dynamic Russian economy - with corresponding changes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population migration, urbanization and division of labour - might have had a much more positive outcome in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of national consciousness. It is not clear from Hosking's account that imperial expansion and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration hampered Russian economic growth; in any case, he does not pursue this line of enquiry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Put another way, the Russian state did not crush the peasantry, and this failure confirmed the peasantry as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the bearers of a communal tradition. Hosking himself sees this as one version of "Russia", so in that sense a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kind of national identity survived decades of economic, social and political change. Peasants defied the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial state; they "peasantized" the army and the town, and they preserved customary law. What matters )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 3748 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Hosking is that they did not constitute themselves a nation state. But this was a protracted process )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout much of Europe. For many states the process was barely complete by 1900 - one thinks of Italy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the powerful countervailing forces at work to dent the national project; or of France, where peasants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("became Frenchmen" later in the century. Is not the real problem to explain why peasant society proved so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resilient; and why, in order to promote "successful" nation state-building, the peasantry would have to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crushed, as Stalin sought to do in the 1930s? I get the feeling that Hosking cannot make up his mind whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or not he likes peasants \(he is not alone!\); sometimes he describes peasants as "superstitious" \(p.193\), a term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that implies - to me at least - a degree of disdain, or at least impatience. But Hosking is a humane scholar; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not for him the certainties espoused by E.H.Carr! So what would be his prescription for successful nation-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state formation? Was the task insoluble, as at times he appears to concede? Did the economy fail Russia, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generating insufficient scope for sustained growth and non-rural employment - in a word, too little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urbanization?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Hosking has done much to encourage further debate in this important area. I hope that his bold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work will encourage students to rediscover the classic works by Billington, Pipes and others where they will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(find plenty more food for thought. I also hope that those who consider these issues in future will make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater use of theoretical approaches to social and national identity, integrating these more closely into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex web of historical narrative. When all is said and done, however, Hosking remains a consummate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(storyteller and it is this skill that will ensure that his book enjoys a wide and enthusiastic readership.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York Times)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 485.955 m 239.696 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 242.696 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 482.623 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 464.843 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 464.843 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/34)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 463.449 m 316.316 463.449 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 438.472 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 424.072 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/315)] TJ ET BT 34.016 409.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 395.416 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C02EEDA1438F936A15756C0A961958260&pagewanted=1)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 486.2695 239.6957 498.1495 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C02EEDA1438F936A15756C0A961958260&pagewanted=1) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 463.7635 316.3157 475.6435 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/34) >> endobj xref 0 30 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000559 00000 n 0000000641 00000 n 0000004686 00000 n 0000004795 00000 n 0000004905 00000 n 0000005014 00000 n 0000008575 00000 n 0000008703 00000 n 0000008787 00000 n 0000008852 00000 n 0000015342 00000 n 0000015407 00000 n 0000022974 00000 n 0000023039 00000 n 0000030232 00000 n 0000030297 00000 n 0000037841 00000 n 0000037906 00000 n 0000045299 00000 n 0000045390 00000 n 0000049191 00000 n 0000049318 00000 n 0000049464 00000 n 0000049592 00000 n trailer << /Size 30 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 49686 %%EOF