%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140916020719+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140916020719+01'00') /Title (Drafting the Russian Nation Military Conscription, Total War and Mass Politics, 1905-1925) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4098 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Drafting the Russian Nation Military Conscription, Total War and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Mass Politics, 1905-1925)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(s the deft pun in the title reminds us, one of the ways in which nations were both imagined and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutionalised in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was through the conscripting of young men into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the army. The ways in which they were called up, selected, trained and led, and the arrangements made for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their families left behind deeply affected the nature of nationhood. More than most nations Russia has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depended on its army, yet Sanborn?s book is the first to put the issue of conscription squarely at the centre of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a consideration of Russian nationhood. It concentrates on the late Tsarist and early Soviet experience, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period when the crucial changes took place.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sanborn examines the way in which Russia gradually phased out a recruitment system based on paternalism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social hierarchy and the decisions of local elites, and instead created an egalitarian, fraternal army raised in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uniform manner throughout the country. In the 1870s the legacy of serfdom, only recently abolished, still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hung heavily over the army. Dmitrii Miliutin was the first war minister to set himself the goal of establishing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an army not of serfs but of Russian citizens, in order to inculcate conscious patriotism in Russians and non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russians alike. His view was that ?General obligatory participation in military service, uniting in the ranks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the army men of all estates and all parts of Russia, presents the best means for the weakening of tribal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences among the people and the correct unification [?effective coordination? might be a better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(343)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 31 May, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joshua Sanborn)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(875803067X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(29.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Northern Illinois University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(DeKalb, IL)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoffrey Hosking)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7287 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translation] of all the forces of the state.? \(quoted on p. 12\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was to be a long time before this ideal was even approximately achieved. Although Miliutin was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsible for a universal conscription law promulgated in 1874, the Tsarist state did not actually create an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army drawn from the entire young adult male population until the first world war, and then only in a manner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which provoked strongly felt grievances. In some parts of Russia there were conscription riots and, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worse, a massive rebellion in Central Asia in 1916. For those actually in the army, though, the new fraternal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda, projecting Russia as an immense family of diverse origins, proved quite successful. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime?s great failure, as Sanborn sees it, was that it did not encourage an equivalent spirit in civilian life: it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not complement its achievement in army-building with the kind of nation-building civic institutions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which might have saved it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What most worried potential conscripts and serving soldiers was the plight of their families back at home. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The tsarist regime tried to solve the problem from 1912 by guaranteeing the families of serving soldiers a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basic ration or )] TJ ET BT 105.668 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(paek. )] TJ ET BT 134.324 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Sanborn points out, this guarantee marked a new stage in the relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state and subject: the subject henceforth had the duty of military service, but in return the state had the duty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to support his family. In 1918 the Soviet regime found that without such a guarantee it was impossible to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recruit a volunteer army, as it had originally intended to do, or to avoid mass desertions even after it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduced conscription. So the Soviet authorities offered soldiers? families privileged access to housing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social security benefits and education for their children. For two decades to have served in the Red Army )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the civil war was to have a head start on the ladder to the ever scarcer good things of life in Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once a recruit joined the armed forces, he found the nation being ?drafted? in other ways too, notably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through rituals of small group masculinity involving hatred and violence directed against ?others?. Already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Tsarist army had claimed that the Russian soldier enjoyed higher morale and greater attacking spirit than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any of his adversaries, and trained its men accordingly. The Bolsheviks continued these practices, ?breaking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down? new recruits by subjection to authoritarian, even brutal, discipline and then imbuing them with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea that controlled violence against enemies was glorious, especially when practised in the name of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formerly oppressed classes against their oppressors. As the Handbook of the Red Army Soldier proclaimed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The colour of our banner is the colour of blood.? \(quoted on p. 175\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virility was an ideal that could readily be used to integrate non-Russian recruits and make them feel at home )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a military community embracing all the ethnic groups of the USSR. ?Even if a soldier did not accept the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political claims of the Bolsheviks, he might nevertheless fight in the Red Army because he bought the claim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that deserters were cowards and cowards were not real men.?\(p. 163\) Women were then seen either as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Madonnas? ? the nurses and volunteers of the auxiliary services ? or as whores, the objects of front-line )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pornographic jokes and songs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This spirit, once inculcated, proved tenacious; and it fed into the rest of society. Extending Sanborn?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insights, one could say that male small-group cohesion cemented by violence against enemies was what held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the party-state apparatus together for most of the Soviet decades. Generated in the civil war, this spirit was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renewed and intensified in the second World War and remained dominant right through to the 1980s. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethnic relations deteriorated from the 1960s, the army faced the growing problem of )] TJ ET BT 440.600 194.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dedovshchina)] TJ ET BT 506.588 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the brutal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hazing of new recruits that sometimes resulted in serious injury or even death. The most vicious incidents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were inter-ethnic, often directed by Russians or Ukrainians against Balts or Central Asians. Outside the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army, among the less privileged strata of Soviet society, brawling, hooliganism and heavy drinking remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious problems throughout the Soviet period. Sanborn?s account helps us to understand why all this was so.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even so, I find his claim that nations are necessarily based on violence exaggerated: ?At the centre of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation stands the sociable killer? \(p. 166\); ?The central national practice is the performance of violence.? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(206\). These are splendid Hobbesian phrases, but they are very one-sided. I should declare an interest here, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since on pp 201-2 Sanborn accurately summarises the account I gave of the development of Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationhood in )] TJ ET BT 103.352 54.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia: People and Empire 1552-1917 )] TJ ET BT 293.000 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London: Harper Collins, 1997\), but then questions my )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6388 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumption that ?the key to the phenomenon of the nation lies in the realm of social and cultural solidarity.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 780.819 m 48.008 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While no-one who has observed twentieth-century history could possibly deny the appalling brutality and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carnage generated by nationalism, that is not the same as saying that )] TJ ET BT 364.964 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(nations)] TJ ET BT 400.304 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( necessarily beget violence. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably true that nation-building nearly always involves violence, but that is because national identity is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still uncertain and contested. The examples he quotes ? Gettysburg, Belfast, Kampala, Delhi, San Salvador )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as St Petersburg ? all involve the gestation of nations, not the politics of stable, formed nations. So it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not follow that, as Sanborn puts it, ?the nation is fundamentally and unavoidably unstable as a political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form, since it is centred upon a civic act that cannot be effectively disciplined.? \(p. 207\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The problem, I think, is that Sanborn identifies the nation too closely with the power system. Actually one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the great strengths of nationhood is that it replaces naked power with the shared sentiments which make easy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communication and social solidarity possible. Nation-building involves not just military activity, but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education, the cultivation of shared myths and memories, the creation of social security systems, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representative institutions and many other things. Vertical power is reinforced by horizontal relationships )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and can thus afford to be both less ferocious and less restrictive. The civic and the ethnic \(a distinction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sanborn dismisses\) work together, not in conflict.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In any case, was the Soviet Union really a nation, as Sanborn asserts? The Red Army probably came closer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to making it one than any other institution, but in the end it too failed, as )] TJ ET BT 384.680 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dedovshchina)] TJ ET BT 450.668 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( revealed. Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationality policy was intended to create not nations, but rather an international proletarian community. On )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the way to that goal it ensured that every ethnic group had its own named territory as a potential homeland, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in practice most of them \(though not the Russians\) identified with it more closely than with the Union as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a whole. Besides, from the 1930s to the early 1950s the Soviet authorities routinely employed massive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence against certain ethnic groups. The Ukrainian famine of 1932-4, the deportations of Baltic peoples, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ukrainians, north Caucasians and others left an indelible bitterness and resentment which eventually helped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to precipitate the disintegration of the USSR and has fuelled the Russian Federation?s worst conflicts since. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In other words, violence was a sign of the failure of nation-building, not of its success.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In spite of these reservations, Sanborn?s sharp and disciplined focus on military conscription does add a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimension to our understanding of the way in which power, identity and sense of community operated in late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial Russia and the Soviet Union. Even if not all its conclusions are accepted, it will be essential reading.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 340.659 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 310.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To read a review of )] TJ ET BT 160.976 310.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia: People and Empire )] TJ ET BT 295.628 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on these pages, please click )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 430.928 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 430.928 308.643 m 451.580 308.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 454.580 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 468.572 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 471.572 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 471.572 308.643 m 525.560 308.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 283.781 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 269.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net Reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 253.875 m 240.992 253.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 250.543 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 232.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 232.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/343)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 231.369 m 322.316 231.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 206.392 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 191.992 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1621)] TJ ET BT 34.016 177.592 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/paper/peter.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.192 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=9337)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 781.1335 48.0077 793.0135 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 430.9277 308.9575 451.5797 320.8375 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/paper/peter.html) >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 471.5717 308.9575 525.5597 320.8375 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 254.1895 240.9917 266.0695 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=9337) >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 231.6835 322.3157 243.5635 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/343) >> endobj xref 0 29 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000585 00000 n 0000000667 00000 n 0000004817 00000 n 0000004926 00000 n 0000005036 00000 n 0000005145 00000 n 0000008706 00000 n 0000008834 00000 n 0000008918 00000 n 0000008983 00000 n 0000016323 00000 n 0000016435 00000 n 0000022876 00000 n 0000022906 00000 n 0000023032 00000 n 0000023068 00000 n 0000023196 00000 n 0000023317 00000 n 0000023445 00000 n 0000023500 00000 n 0000023627 00000 n 0000023727 00000 n 0000023855 00000 n trailer << /Size 29 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 23950 %%EOF