%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141021210209+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141021210209+01'00') /Title (The Rise of Commercial Empires England and the Netherlands in the Age of Mercantilism, 1650-1770) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3839 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Rise of Commercial Empires England and the Netherlands in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(the Age of Mercantilism, 1650-1770)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The history of the early Dutch Republic is sometimes coined: 'a miracle'. How was it possible that against all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(odds such a small country on the shores of the North Sea could have become the premier trading nation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the world during much of the seventeenth century? And there were many odds against it. First of all, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch had to wage a constant war against the sea. There were few countries where the population had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invest so much an infrastructure aimed at keeping large parts of the country from flooding. Second, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch had to invest heavily in a protracted war against Spain in order to have the type of government they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desired. Third, the Netherlands were a religious amalgam and at the time religious divisions usually caused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internal strife if not civil war. In view of all these drawbacks it indeed seemed a miracle that the Dutch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primacy in world trade came about at all. The beginning of the Dutch road to primacy in world trade is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usually situated at the end of the sixteenth century and its end either after the third Anglo-Dutch war \(1672-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(74\) or after the War of the Spanish succession \(1701-1714\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Strangely, the commercial ascent of England, Wales and Scotland has not been labelled as a miracle. Yet, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many ways, the growth of British trade has been more spectacular and long-lasting than that of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(345)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 31 May, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Ormrod)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(521819261X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(417pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. C. Emmer)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 5121 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Netherlands. The beginning of the British primacy in world trade came about during the second half of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth century and lasted until the beginning of the twentieth century. Even more miraculous is the fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Britain's primacy in world trade helped to make it the first industrial nation in the world. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialisation of the Netherlands, on the other hand, took place long after the Dutch had lost their premier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position in international trade. David Ormrod's new book attempts to untangle the dynamics, which fuelled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England's commercial ascendancy, and those which underpinned the Dutch decline across this period. Yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while the work clearly represents the scholarship of lifetime, there are areas of the study - notably Ormrod's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of English and Dutch operations in the East and West Indies - which perhaps deserve more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation. Recent scholarship has shown that Britain managed to profit much more from the 'new' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy created by the opportunities outside of Europe than France, Spain, Portugal, and the Netherlands.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the period between 1650 and 1770 the Dutch and the British commercial empires changed places. Why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this happened is not easy to explain. There seems little doubt that the commercial sector of the economy was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most innovative one. Changes in the rate of innovation were neatly reflected in the volume and direction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of trade more so than in agriculture or even manufacturing. And it even seems possible to differentiate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the trade within and outside Europe. The trade across the Atlantic, to Asia and the Mediterranean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably involved more innovative merchants, shipping firms and financiers than the more traditional trades )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Europe. That is not to say that the latter was not competitive. In fact, David Ormrod's book contains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive information on the intricate Dutch trade network of the early seventeenth century and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent inroads into this network made by the British.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I will leave aside the question as to what extent trade contributed to the growth of the Dutch and British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economies, because trade was at least twice as important to the Dutch economy. Ormrod's careful analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows that for most of the seventeenth century, the Netherlands and notably Amsterdam possessed the best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distribution system in Europe. However, after 1650 English shipping and English merchants challenged this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch hegemony. Thus most of the book is devoted to information about and discussion of the growth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British commerce after this date. The author sees the Navigation Acts as an effective instrument of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protection to help British shipping and British manufacturing on their way. He also points to other factors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over time that help explain the decline of Dutch trade and the rise of Britain to commercial primacy. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(export of unfinished textile products from Britain declined, as did the British dependence on the Dutch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(staple market for selling finished products. British shipping became more competitive, as shown by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of ships passing the Sound between Denmark and Sweden, once the mainstay of the Dutch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial network in the seventeenth century. Around 1660 the British share in trade with the Baltic was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mere 6 percent, while stood at about 30 percent a century later. Another indication of increased British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competitiveness in shipping can be seen in the rapid decrease of foreign vessels clearing from British ports. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the end of the seventeenth century this ran at about 40 per cent, and it had declined to less than 10 in 1750.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7596 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The performance of the Dutch and British commercial sectors outside of Europe is especially suited to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of their strong and weak points. Shipping and trade to non-Western destinations has been well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recorded in ways that allow for comparison. In view of this it seems a pity that Ormrod has not devoted a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(special section to the Dutch and British competition in Asia and the Atlantic. At one giant stroke the Dutch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moved far ahead of the British as far as the trade with Asia was concerned by establishing a monopoly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(company as early as 1602. However, over time the British East India Company \(EIC\) was able to challenge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the dominant position of the Dutch East India Company \(the )] TJ ET BT 327.332 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie)] TJ ET BT 509.636 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 515.636 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or VOC\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by moving into new trades, by importing new products, and by allowing British subject to trade freely in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asia. After the EIC lost its monopoly, 'the English company was characterised by a greater degree of public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accountability than its Dutch counterpart' \(p. 203\). In the course of the eighteenth century, the difference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the EIC and the VOC became the difference between profit and loss. In the end the VOC became a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(burden to the Dutch economy, tying up large sums of investment capital that could have been used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere in modernising the economy. Ormrod's judgement is wry, but devastating: 'Although much has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been claimed for the VOC as a well-managed bureaucracy, it is far from clear that the commercial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(companies were well placed to respond to changes in demand patterns as the seventeenth century progressed' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 54\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A similar comparison in the Atlantic provides us with even better insights into the differences between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch and British commercial empires. After creating an Atlantic counterpart of the East India Company, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Dutch West India Compagnie or )] TJ ET BT 210.656 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(West Indische Compagnie )] TJ ET BT 338.972 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(WIC\), the Dutch broke the weakest link in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the defences of the Iberian New World by conquering part of Portuguese Brazil. That was a mistake and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1621 and 1654 the 'Brazilian Adventure' cost the Dutch merchant community dearly. While the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch were keeping the Iberians at bay in the South Atlantic, France and the England took advantage of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch preoccupation)] TJ ET BT 137.324 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to conquer a sizeable part of the Caribbean. The Dutch rivals started colonies of white )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement producing tobacco for the export market. Clearly, the WIC was far less effective in the Atlantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the numerous British small-scale trading and planting companies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A second deviation from the pattern of the British activities in the Atlantic was the relatively large volume of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Dutch transit trade. Recent research has shown that the illegal trade to and from Spanish America, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition to the transit trade to and from the French Caribbean, was worth more than the total value of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch plantation produce. The Dutch preference for transit trade can be explained by the fact that it required )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much less investment than did plantation agriculture. The drawback was, however, that the Dutch had no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control over the volume of that trade.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A third difference between the British and the Dutch experience pertains to the way the two countries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financed their West Indian activities. The British plantations received a steady inflow of investments)] TJ ET BT 517.280 292.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 520.280 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( albeit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of it short-term. Part of that inflow was the capital that a new planter took with him to the West Indies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and another part was provided by merchant houses that had specialized in the importation and sale of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plantation produce and that were used to advancing loans and mortgages to their West Indian customers. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar pattern held for the Dutch Caribbean down to the mid-eighteenth century, but then the nature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financing changed. Small groups of Amsterdam investors began to offer large mortgages to West Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(planters in Suriname as well as in the newly acquired British 'Ceded Islands'. There was also a European-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide move away from buying government bonds and other low-risk instruments of investment, toward)] TJ ET BT 530.960 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(risk 'bubbles'. Dutch investors were part of this pattern but were unusual in placing their high-risk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investments in the West Indies. The result was disastrous. The total amount of mortgages provided to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West Indian planters far exceeded the ability of the planters to pay the yearly interest on these mortgages, let )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alone the principal. After 1773 this situation resulted in a wave of bankruptcies and soon the majority of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plantations came to be owned by the mortgage-holders. As a result the level of investment fell dramatically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after 1776, severely hampering the expansion and modernisation of the Suriname plantations. The Dutch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were unable to develop a new plantation frontier, as the British, the French, the Brazilians, and even the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish were able to do. Only after the British takeover in 1796 did some ex-Dutch plantation colonies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expand due to the influx of capital and planters from Britain.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7271 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Toward the end of the eighteenth century the retarded development of the Dutch plantation colonies is best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrated by the decline in slave arrivals. Before the crash on the Amsterdam stock exchange, planters used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bills of exchange drawn on the merchant houses in the Netherlands \(their source of mortgages\) in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pay the captains of the slave ships. That meant that slaving firms could obtain full payment for their slaves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon the return of the slave ship to its homeport. After 1775 this method of payment ceased suddenly, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most bills of exchange were no longer honoured in the Netherlands. As a consequence, the shipping firms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves were forced to collect the price of their slaves in cash or in kind from the planters. Full payment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for a slave cargo often took many years. This explains why the Dutch slave trade declined by 80 percent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the last quarter of the eighteenth century, while the British slave trade was able to continue growing. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In order to survive at all the Dutch slave trade needed government aid in the form of suspension of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(customary taxes and levies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The continuous growth of the British trade in the Atlantic was in part based on an emerging superiority in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(productivity, a pattern suggested by the fact that an increasing number of British slavers were able to sell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their slaves outside the British West Indies. Part of the viability of the British slave trade rested on the way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which those who bought slaves in the West Indies paid for them. In the Dutch case, the slave traders had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to accept the bills of exchange directly from the planters and these bills were drawn on the merchant house )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Netherlands handling the commercial affairs of the planter. In the British case, the bills came from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agents of these metropolitan merchant houses residing in the West Indies. This set-up provided the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slave traders with much more security than their Dutch counterparts. Yet, the buying power of the planters in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British Caribbean must have also contributed to the relatively high profit rates of the British slave trade, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the planters in the British West Indies enjoyed incomes that were in part based on the protective tariffs for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their sugar on the British home market. The British consumer not only bought much more sugar than his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continental counterpart, but also had to pay more for it than elsewhere. The figures are telling. In the 1720s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain re-exported about 20 percent of its sugar to foreign markets and during the last quarter of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century this had fallen to less than five percent. The planters in the Dutch West Indies, on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other hand, did not receive such a subsidy and had to compete with the most cost-effective producers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anywhere, resulting in relatively low profits in the slave trade as well as in plantation agriculture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The plantation slave economies in the New World received a new lease of life after the American War of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independence. The Dutch alone proved unable to respond to this new Atlantic challenge. They failed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(develop a new plantation frontier and they failed to take advantage of the increased demand for slaves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside their own colonies. Between 1785 and 1805 the value of the Suriname exports of sugar, coffee and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cotton declined by 20 percent despite rising sugar prices, and the Dutch slave trade fell by 75 percent. Why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were the Dutch such an exception? Usually, the reasons for this unique decline are attributed to international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political factors outside Dutch control, such as the loss of Dutch neutrality during the War of American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independence and the Anglo-French Wars after 1795. However, the poor performance of the Dutch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plantation sector and the Dutch slave trade during ten years of peace between 1784 and 1794 suggests that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Dutch private sector was unable to cope with the new challenges of the Atlantic slave economy. It was in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the slave trade that the failure of the private sector in the Netherlands showed most clearly. All other national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carriers not only managed to transport more slaves but also to decrease shipboard mortality. Only Dutch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slavers experienced a decline in the number of slaves carried and an increase in mortality. Dutch slave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vessels supplied so few slaves to the Dutch colonies that the planters of Berbice decided to legally admit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British and North American slavers in the colony until The Hague reversed the decision. Even the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction of the Dolben Act \(1788\), restricting the number of slaves on board British vessels and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore British ability to compete, did nothing to increase the Dutch slave trade.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The number of sugar plantations in the Dutch West Indies barely increased. On the new slavery frontier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British planters were able to produce sugar without the protection of their products on the British home )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market. In addition, British planters were able to produce cotton more competitively than the Dutch without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a protected domestic market of any kind. Thus cotton production in Demerara boomed as soon as the British )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5575 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had conquered this colony in 1796. It became the most rapidly expanding slave colony ever in the course of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the following decade. Slave imports increased from an average of 397 per year in the Dutch period to more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than ten times that number under British rule.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ormrod could have dwelled more extensively on these developments in the Atlantic. In his book only the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(last pages are devoted to he 'Atlanticisation' of the British commercial empire, showing that Dutch investors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather put their money in the British commodity trade than in its Dutch equivalent. The author does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stress the fact that, confusingly, the Dutch commercial empire like its British counterpart also became more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependent on non-Western trade. Unlike Britain, however, the increasing share of non-European trade in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(total Dutch trade was a sign of commercial weakness and a movement towards protection rather than of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic viability as in the British case. Because the Dutch commercial world in Europe itself contracted, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Dutch merchants had no other choice but to move into the trade with Asia and the Atlantic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In all fairness these omissions should not be seen as vital. Ormrod has produced a very detailed analysis on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the basis of years of scholarship; the British and Dutch economies have been compared time and again but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never in as much depth as in this study. In his conclusion the author stresses the same point made at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning of this review. During the period of the )] TJ ET BT 275.984 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien regime )] TJ ET BT 347.300 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British economy constituted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(miracle, much more so than the Dutch one. In 1550 the per capita GNP in Britain was similar to that of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continent, and in 1820 three times as large, in spite of the fact that the population of the British Isles had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increased more than three times as fast. It was the British economy that produced the Industrial Revolution, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not the Dutch one. I agree with Ormrod that Britain seized the imperial initiative by centralizing its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic and governmental institutions at home and by decentralizing its commerce abroad.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, as Ormrod's book shows, a comparison between the British and the Dutch commercial empires will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always remain unbalanced, since Britain was in a much better position to provide an infrastructure and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protection for its merchants than the Dutch were. In order to support a naval capacity similar to that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain, the Dutch taxpayers would have been taxed even higher. Wars devastated commercial profits and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of Britain's success in exploiting the Atlantic was the naval protection it could offer to secure the sea-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lanes. In the seventeenth century the British could learn from the Dutch and win, but in the following )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries the Dutch could never hope to do the reverse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(EH)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://eh.net/book_reviews/rise-commercial-empires-england-and-netherlands-age-mercantilism-1650-1770)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 333.651 m 551.576 333.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net Reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 290.883 m 240.992 290.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 287.551 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 269.771 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 269.771 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/345)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 268.377 m 322.316 268.377 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 243.400 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 229.000 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1626)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.715 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://eh.net/book_reviews/rise-commercial-empires-england-and-netherlands-age-mercantilism-1650-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 200.344 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1770)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.944 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=8406)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 333.9655 551.5757 345.8455 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://eh.net/book_reviews/rise-commercial-empires-england-and-netherlands-age-mercantilism-1650-1770) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 291.1975 240.9917 303.0775 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=8406) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 268.6915 322.3157 280.5715 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/345) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000606 00000 n 0000000688 00000 n 0000004579 00000 n 0000004688 00000 n 0000004798 00000 n 0000004907 00000 n 0000008468 00000 n 0000008596 00000 n 0000008680 00000 n 0000008745 00000 n 0000013919 00000 n 0000013984 00000 n 0000021633 00000 n 0000021698 00000 n 0000029022 00000 n 0000029120 00000 n 0000034748 00000 n 0000034875 00000 n 0000035028 00000 n 0000035155 00000 n 0000035255 00000 n 0000035383 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35478 %%EOF