%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141024053729+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141024053729+01'00') /Title (A Hideous Monster of the Mind American Race: Theory in the Early Republic) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4336 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Hideous Monster of the Mind American Race: Theory in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Early Republic)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1852 the African-American physician and writer James McCune Smith described the ?)] TJ ET BT 463.928 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(negro)] TJ ET BT 491.924 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? as ?not an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actual physical being of flesh and bones and blood, but a hideous monster of the mind?.\(quoted on p. 247, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McCune Smith?s italics\) Yet in Bruce Dain?s detailed, subtle, and fascinating book, race theory appears )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more like a virus. It originated in Enlightenment ?natural science?, flourished in the fecund atmosphere of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American revolutionary libertinism, and finally mutated into various, sometimes dangerous, strains in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fetid environment of republican and antebellum slavery.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dain acknowledges that race prejudice abounded in colonial America, shaped by cultural connotations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blackness in medieval Europe and Judeo-Christianity. But systematic race theory began when Enlightenment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(natural history attempted to answer new questions about the morality of slavery and prejudice raised by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American Revolution. Thomas Jefferson did much to raise those questions when he wrote in the Declaration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Independence that ?all men are created equal? and had ?unalienable rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of happiness?. In his )] TJ ET BT 135.668 97.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Notes on the State of Virginia)] TJ ET BT 278.012 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1787\) he tried to answer them with recourse to race )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory. In )] TJ ET BT 83.672 83.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 111.008 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Jefferson agonised about slavery, a stain on the republic, an institution that engendered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tyranny and threatened republican virtue. Yet he thought emancipation impossible due to white prejudice, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(black resentment, and the ?real distinctions which nature has made? between the races. His scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(346)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 31 May, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bruce Dain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(674009460X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(331pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvard University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge, MA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steven Sarson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7816 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evaluation of black inferiority was so extreme that some historians see him as America?s first ?hard? racist, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a polygenist believer that blacks and whites were separate species.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Dain, however, Jefferson was an Enlightenment man who believed blacks unfit for citizenship \(and fit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only for enslavement if they could not be removed from white society\) because they were incapable of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lockean reason, imagination and sensibility. Furthermore, he based his judgements on outward appearances, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(using Linnaean natural history, rather than on the internal anatomy pioneered by Johann Gottfried von )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blumenbach and Baron Georges Cuvier and favoured by nineteenth-century science. Indeed, Jefferson?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judgements were aesthetic ones, in a very eighteenth-century sense, denigrating blacks? ?eternal monotony? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and claiming that black men favour white women as male orang-utans favour black women.\(p. 32\) Yet, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dain observes, Jefferson was ultimately unclear about the origins and extent of racial differences. Some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians have explained Jefferson?s ambiguities and equivocations as products of intellectual dilemmas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over slavery and liberty, or of internal psychological conflict engendered by anxieties over his own animal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature that were reinforced by his sexual relationship with the African American Sally Hemings. In Dain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view, however, Jefferson?s evasions and circumlocutions imply intent. Jefferson did not invoke Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Home, Lord Kames?s polygenism, despite knowing it, and he employed the ambiguous term ?race? rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than ?species? ? a term that would have implied the polygenesis in which Jefferson probably believed, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which contradicted his deeply-held notions of natural and republican harmony. Thus, according to Dain, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?deliberate obscurity regarding ?race? in a purportedly scientific discussion was integral to his construction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the American slavery problem as intractable.?\(p. 3\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dain thus argues that the disingenuously modest disclaimer in Jefferson?s statement that ?I advance it as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspicion only, that the blacks, whether originally a distinct race, or made distinct by time and circumstance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are inferior to whites? allowed Jefferson to suggest polygenesis without committing to its disturbing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications.\(p. 30\) Yet Dain is sometimes as ambiguous and equivocal as Jefferson was. He states earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Jefferson?s assessment of blacks was ?equivocal, )] TJ ET BT 294.620 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(I suspect)] TJ ET BT 336.944 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( disingenuously so?, and calls him ?)] TJ ET BT 509.936 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(probably)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partly disingenuous? and ?)] TJ ET BT 162.332 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(perhaps)] TJ ET BT 200.996 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( more calculating? \(p. 39\) than other historians have allowed.\(pp. 3, 38, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(39: my italics\) Dain even acknowledges another interpretation of Jeffersonian complexity, by stating that his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambiguous use of the term ?race? was ?part of his testimony to the inadequacy of human reason.?\(p. 30\) I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspect Jefferson was genuinely uncertain about the complexities of racial difference, and perhaps Dain is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genuinely \(and understandably\) uncertain about the complexities of Jefferson.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whether one questions Dain?s interpretations or not, the great strength of his book is its detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contextualisation of racial thinking. As Dain makes clear, Jefferson?s racial thought was shaped by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment reason and natural history, agonising doubts about natural history?s notions of harmony with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regard to race, personal psychological anxieties, deism and residual Calvinism, the ?Dispute of the New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World? \()] TJ ET BT 77.000 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 104.336 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was in some senses an answer to the attack on America by Georges Louis Leclerc, Comte de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Buffon\), the exigencies of the War of Independence \()] TJ ET BT 290.264 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 317.600 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was written in 1780-81, a crisis point in the war, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in part to prove to French doubters that American independence was worth investing in\), as well as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dilemmas of liberty and slavery created by the American Revolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dain is similarly thorough in his analyses of post-Jefferson racial thinkers. Samuel Stanhope Smith, the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republic?s leading monogenist, answered Jefferson and Kames through the prism of Scottish common-sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophy and insights from Blumenbach. Stanhope Smith also had an enlightened New World need for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reassurance that people encountered through colonization possessed the same faculties of reason and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensibility as Euro-Americans \(similarly, Jefferson believed Native Americans the probable equals of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whites\). He also had to reconcile monogenism with the continuing existence of blackness \(a belief that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Negroes? would whiten up to the human ?norm? was one Eurocentric example of Enlightenment-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolutionary optimism\) and to reconcile God?s intentions with environmentalist science. Stanhope Smith )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theorised that God endowed humans with a flexible, natural economy that allowed limited adaptation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(though nothing as complete as Cuvier?s vital force or Blumenbach?s formative force\) so that humans could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explore and conquer the earth. Although thereby coming close to a relativist concept of neutral adaption, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stanhope Smith was as blinded by Eurocentric aesthetics as Jefferson, and the ?faultline? in his work was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?tension between seeing human diversity as the fruit of positive adaptation or of moral and mental )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8019 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degeneration.?\(p. 45\) Despite extensive borrowing from Blumenbach, he saw American ?Negroes? as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(products of West Africa?s tropical heat \(which produced the bile that ?discoloured? the skin\), miasmas, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(savagery, and sin.\(p. 47\) Also, while believing that blacks could become regenerate \(without becoming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(white\) if freed and allowed to live unmolested in temperate North America, he conceded that political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expediency and fear of rebellion made immediate emancipation impossible any time soon. Like Jefferson, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed to escape Enlightenment and American revolutionary dilemmas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Dain shows, every theorist inspired others to extend or oppose their arguments, and every decade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnessed events that created new, although sometimes contradictory, ideas and imperatives. Revolution in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(St. Domingue was for abolitionists a warning that racial apocalypse awaited the United States, unless slavery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was abolished immediately \(possibly with blacks to be removed there\). For moderates it showed that blacks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were capable of Christian civilisation and should be freed and then colonized to redeem Africa, while for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slaveholders the ?)] TJ ET BT 119.996 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Affranchi)] TJ ET BT 165.332 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? revolution proved that although ?Negro? slaves were docile, free blacks and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially ?mulattoes?, were dangerous and must be removed for public safety. Industrialisation in America )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(furthered notions about human capacities for individual self-improvement, to the point that northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Garrisonian radical abolitionists adopted a liberal environmentalism that eschewed the concept of race )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(altogether. On the other hand, Stanhope Smith?s success in arguing that external appearances indicated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unity of humankind inspired early polygenists like Charles Caldwell to examine inner anatomy in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prove human plurality: a cause furthered by the American School of Ethnology, especially Samuel George )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morton and southerner Josiah C. Nott.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dain also deserves great credit for including black thinkers in his discussion of the American debate about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(race. For Dain, while blacks and whites certainly responded to each others? writings, there was no simple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dialectic. White opinion was too diverse, as was black, and in any case both responded to their own myriad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and often distinct intellectual imperatives, as well as to each other. In some early black writings such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ukiawsaw Gronniosaw?s 1770 )] TJ ET BT 186.320 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Narrative)] TJ ET BT 232.988 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, blackness was equated with savagery and sin redeemed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity; although by the time of Olaudah Equiano?s )] TJ ET BT 308.672 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Interesting Narrative)] TJ ET BT 410.336 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1789\) black suffering and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(redemption became a reproach to white cruelty. Equiano, like Phyllis Wheatley and Benjamin Bannaker, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eschewed race as a natural category and redefined blackness as a community with shared historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of suffering. As slavery and prejudice continued despite revolutionary promises, black inversions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the notion of blackness as righteousness rather than sinfulness became increasingly insistent, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haitian Revolution emboldened black speakers and writers such as Prince Hall into greater degrees of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vehemence, if not radicalism.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 175.652 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 175.652 343.395 m 189.644 343.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As slavery spread across the South, however, and as prejudicial labour laws, segregation, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disfranchisement proliferated in the North throughout the early nineteenth century, black thinking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radicalized. From 1827, )] TJ ET BT 151.664 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Freedom?s Journal)] TJ ET BT 245.984 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, at least under Samuel Cornish?s editorship, printed dozens of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usable histories of Ethiopia and Egypt, some of them exegeses of earlier anti-racist works by Constantine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chassboeuf, Compte de Volney and Abb Henri Grgoire, but many with the intent that blacks must, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cornish editorialised, ?plead our own cause?.\(quoted on p. 121\) As well as highlighting historical black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievement and contributions to civilisation, these works refuted notions of degeneration in favour of, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one important article?s title, ?The Mutability of Human Affairs? \(probably written by Cornish and John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russwurm but published anonymously\). Such works went beyond white abolitionists, arguing for race )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness. For some, the significance of race remained historical and circumstantial only, but anger at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued oppression also inspired an incipient black natural history. Robert Alexander Young?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 101.672 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ethiopian Manifesto)] TJ ET BT 200.012 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1827\) posited that slavery had detrimental though temporary effects on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the black mind and body. David Walker?s equally messianic )] TJ ET BT 327.968 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Appeal)] TJ ET BT 361.964 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1829\) parodied Jefferson, asking but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not answering whether whites were naturally inferior to blacks.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the continuing absence of a great slave revolt and the growing presence of a backlash against anti-slavery, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including northern anti-abolition violence and southern proslavery from the 1830s, desperation grew. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Disillusion was especially close to the heart of Hosea Easton, an African American preacher, leader of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1820s black uplift movement, and principal in the American Society of Free Persons of Colour \(its annual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventions began optimistically in 1831 but petered out by 1835, while their college in New Haven and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 175.6517 343.7095 189.6437 355.5895 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7494 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church in Hartford were burned down\). Some historians see his 1837 )] TJ ET BT 367.952 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Treatise on the Intellectual Character, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and ? Condition of the People of the U. States )] TJ ET BT 257.684 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as an angry rant, but for Dain it was ?a remarkably careful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-conscious text? which argued that sin deformed babies in the womb \(Easton?s Christian evangelist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation of natural history?s idea of ?maternal impression?\) and thereby blamed slavery for blacks? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions; Easton thus converted the notion of white prejudice as a argument for gradualism or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonization, or even, for Jefferson, the indefinite continuation of slavery, into an argument for immediate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abolition.\(p. 179\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Dain, then, there was no simple dialectic between monogenism and polygenism, or between black and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(white writing, and no straightforward teleology from eighteenth-century natural history to nineteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century biology. There was inter-textual reflexivity, but each theory was constructed from a complex matrix )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of imperatives that included political events, economic and social change, and individual experience, as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as reactions to previous writings. Indeed, Dain?s book is so informative because for him theory is never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abstract; he places every race theory and their every evolution in these historical contexts. In fact, so detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and complex are Dain?s arguments, and so numerous and complicated are the ideas he traces, that I wished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for a little more assistance from the author. His prose can be difficult ? ?Other, sometimes antiracist, theories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were advanced that were as meaningful and resonant as the well known biological racist ones, and no more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illogical or absurd, if not less so? \(p. viii\) ? alhough things improve later in the book. Style aside, a longer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preface and a conclusion would improve future editions. Still, these are minor criticisms: this book merits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and rewards close attention.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More significantly, while Dain knows his racial theory, he eschews engagement with historical theory. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(omission seems odd enough in the field of the history of science, but given Dain?s mastery of early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republican scientific epistemology, it seems almost perverse that he does not examine today?s historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epistemology. He mentions those to whom he owes direct intellectual debts and those with whom he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disputes minutiae in the history of racial thinking ? David Brion Davis, Winthrop Jordan, George )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fredrickson, Stephen Jay Gould, William Stanton, and others ? but there is no big picture, no mention of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Kuhn, his successors, or of structuralism or postmodernism. One senses that, like Samuel George )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morton, the famous craniologist whose writing inspired the extremities of polygenist pro-slavery \(but who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not publicly commend polygenism until 1849\), Dain possesses a dogged determination to let his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empirical work stand by itself. Yet Dain criticises Morton?s pretended indifference about the larger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications of his racial theories, and Dain can rightly hope that his findings will fare better and for longer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than Morton?s. Perhaps therefore, Dain sees himself as more like James McCune Smith, unwilling to allow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his thought and writing to be defined by those of others. Indeed, Dain plainly admires McCune Smith?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recounting of individual African Americans? stories and their effective but only implicit attacks on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generalisations of invidious racial theories. Equally, Dain is uncomfortable with McCune Smith?s explicit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?self-consuming, even morbid? and defensive engagement with the works of the minor polygenist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ephraim G. Squier.\(p. 247\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If I can draw out Dain?s historiographical implications as he draws out race theorists? implications, I would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say that his empirical contextualisations of racial thought and discourse represent a reproach to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postmodernism. This is perhaps inevitable: the history of American racial thought is perhaps only aced by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Holocaust in illustrating the inadequacies of postmodern notions of history as nothing more than texts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equal validity. Furthermore, for Dain there was good science and bad science \(although he judges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scrupulously according to the standards of the time\). He recounts the replications of Morton?s craniological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiments undertaken by scientist Stephen Jay Gould, accepting Gould?s results as proof that Morton?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were empirically wrong, though, like Gould, Dain attributes Morton?s methodological errors to unconscious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(action. He also, at least implicitly, sees science as sometimes regressive. Without being teleological, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot help believing that nineteenth-century thinkers who rejected Enlightenment liberalism in favour of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?hard? science of racial inequality were not exactly moving forward intellectually.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Because Dain distains historiographical debate, he is unable to press home \(though he mentions in passing\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an insight by McCune Smith that has considerable contemporary resonance. Continuing the theme of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aforementioned 1852 article, McCune Smith wrote of ?a )] TJ ET BT 308.300 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(constructive)] TJ ET BT 366.956 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( negro ? that haunts with grim presence )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 3517 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the precincts of this republic, shaking his gory locks over legislative halls and family prayers? \(my italics\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McCune Smith wrote these words, with remarkable literary as well as analytic prescience, over a century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the modern ?cultural turn? supposedly revealed that some social phenomena are constructions in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind. Unlike some modern intellectual constructionists, however, McCune Smith always recognised \(as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does Dain\) that there were real African Americans, as well as hideous monsters of the mind.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, McCune Smith used the term ?Negro? in reference not to African Americans but to intellectually-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructed blackness, which leads me to a final point. Dain uses ?Negro? presumably for the same reason, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though once again chooses not to explain himself \(perhaps an even odder silence, given modern and mostly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laudable sensitivities about the language of race\). If I am wrong in my readings of Dain?s historiographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications and linguistic intentions, then perhaps the postmodernists are right about the limits of authorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control over textual interpretation. I look forward therefore, with some trepidation, to Bruce Dain?s response )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to this review \(should he choose to engage\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.755 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 562.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Sidbury?s extended discussion of the influence of the Haitian Revolution on African Americans )] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in )] TJ ET BT 76.352 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ploughshares into Swords: Race, Rebellion, and Identity in Gabriel?s Virginia, 1730-1810)] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge; Cambridge University Press, 1997\) is inexplicably omitted in Dain?s discussion and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 92.348 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 92.348 517.971 m 146.336 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 493.109 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net Reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 463.203 m 240.992 463.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 459.871 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 442.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 442.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/346)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 440.697 m 322.316 440.697 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 415.720 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.320 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1628)] TJ ET BT 34.016 386.920 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=7943)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 92.3477 518.2855 146.3357 530.1655 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 463.5175 240.9917 475.3975 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=7943) >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 441.0115 322.3157 452.8915 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/346) >> endobj xref 0 31 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000583 00000 n 0000000665 00000 n 0000005053 00000 n 0000005162 00000 n 0000005272 00000 n 0000005381 00000 n 0000008942 00000 n 0000009070 00000 n 0000009154 00000 n 0000009219 00000 n 0000017088 00000 n 0000017172 00000 n 0000025244 00000 n 0000025274 00000 n 0000025402 00000 n 0000025438 00000 n 0000025503 00000 n 0000033050 00000 n 0000033148 00000 n 0000036718 00000 n 0000036845 00000 n 0000036900 00000 n 0000037027 00000 n 0000037127 00000 n 0000037255 00000 n trailer << /Size 31 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37350 %%EOF