%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R 45 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818071341+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818071341+01'00') /Title (Paris: Capital of the World) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4255 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Paris: Capital of the World)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Never mind the cover \(lovely though it is\). Readers who are fast to judge and slow to think will be tempted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to judge )] TJ ET BT 76.016 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(this)] TJ ET BT 93.356 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( book by its title alone. What, they will want to ask, could Patrice Higonnet possibly mean by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calling Paris ?capital of the world?? Does the world have a capital? Since when has it been located in Paris? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Higonnet may be the Robert Walton Goelet Professor of French History at Harvard University ? our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hypothetical prickly positivist might well grumble ? but he?s a little vague on political geography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This review will happily be little concerned with such silly objections \(which could derive any force they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might carry only from a wilful misreading of Higonnet?s argument\). As he makes clear from the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning, Higonnet understands this book to be about ?Paris? as one dream ? one noble dream ? of what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern urban life might be like. As in Martin Luther King, Jr?s famous speech of 1963, ?dream? must here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be taken in its most positive sense: as something toward which people actively strive. Higonnet, it could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(said, is analyzing Paris as a secular promised land; hence it should not be surprising if some of his claims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mesh only imperfectly with received, work-a-day wisdom. For, like any other promised land, the Paris of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book lies as much in the future as it does in the present or the past. Or, perhaps it would be more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accurate to say that this city exists not only in the future but also in the conditional perfect and the future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anterior. Higonnet?s is a history of Paris as it could have been, and may still be.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Higonnet is not proposing that life in the city on the Seine has ever actually been all milk and honey. Rather, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(347)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 31 July, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrice Higonnet)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(674008871X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(23.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(536pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvard University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge, MA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rebecca Spang)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7795 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he is concerned with the many influential individuals who have thought it could become such and have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worked \(consciously and unconsciously\) to make it so. Yet the word ?individuals? strikes a slightly false )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(note here, since Higonnet is at pains to demonstrate that people have had this dream not just for themselves, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but for others as well. Indeed, when people start trying to keep their Paris dreams to themselves \(when they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refuse to divulge their favourite restaurant?s location or insist on writing verses intelligible only to the few\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then something has already gone wrong. Higonnet?s preferred term for the nobler dream is therefore ?myth?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For while ?dreams?, in our loosely Freudian world, belong to the individual, ?myths? imply community. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Myths connect individuals; myths provide words for a conversation.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 361.652 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 361.652 695.283 m 375.644 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once upon a time \(c.1750-1957\), all educated men knew that myths were chiefly a feature of non-modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social groups. Ancient civilizations had complex myth systems. So, too, did many of the peoples studied by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anthropologists. But ?modern man? did not have myths. He had science. \(Modern woman was not really )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very modern after all, and so she had religion.\) In such a context, historians of early modern or modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe wrote of ?myths? only in order to reveal systematic untruths or to challenge seriously flawed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandings. \(Hence Peter Laslett contrasted Sir Robert Filmer ?the man? with the distorting ?Whig )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(myth? about that gentleman?s paternalism)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 236.660 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 236.660 583.491 m 250.652 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 250.652 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In short, myths were somebody else?s misguided beliefs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All that has, of course, changed. Inspired by the work of Roland Barthes, Edward Said, Pierre Nora, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walter Benjamin, cultural historians during the past fifteen years have found modern Europe to have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(and to be\) an especially myth-ful place. In this vein, Higonnet?s evocative book offers a rise-and-fall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of the dominant myths of Paris since the middle of the eighteenth century. Higonnet takes care to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(define myths as spontaneous, universalising perceptions that help people to understand and make sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the world they inhabit. In their capacity for universality, myths are unlike personal fantasies \(though in order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for a myth to be meaningful, it must play a part in individuals? fantasies\); in their spontaneity, myths differ )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from concerted attempts to change individuals? beliefs or practices. A sales pitch ? even a manifesto ? is not, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to Higonnet, part of a mythology.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His insistence on myth?s spontaneity and universality may seem a bit far-fetched, but it allows Higonnet to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draw an important distinction between two sorts of imagining: the mythical and the phantasmagorical. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former just happens, the latter is planned; the first includes, while the second excludes. The first is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary France in 1789-1790 as described by Jules Michelet; the latter is the Colonial Exposition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1931, as orchestrated by Marchal Lyautey. Higonnet maps this analytic distinction across time, suggesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that while myth and phantasmagoria have always co-existed, certain eras have been more prone to one than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other. In his diagnosis, the twentieth century suffered from a particularly severe imbalance: too little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(myth, far too much phantasmagoria.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is ? oddly ? more difficult to summarize the content of )] TJ ET BT 308.648 292.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Paris: Capital of the World)] TJ ET BT 440.660 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( than it is to analyze the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overall argument. Higonnet begins the book by expressing his desire to do something new, something other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than ?rehearse material ? already familiar?.\(p. 1\) Yet pursuing that project by giving an account of myths, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how ?the city has been perceived, conceived, and dreamed? \(p. 1\) creates a peculiar paradox ? in what sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can a myth )] TJ ET BT 89.672 235.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 105.008 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( be something that is familiar and often rehearsed?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like myths \(and lectures\), this book therefore pieces together elements generally available elsewhere. We )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are told of Paris as the centre of Enlightenment sociability and the hub of revolution; what aspiring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(philosophe)] TJ ET BT 86.684 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or revolutionary did not make his way to Paris eventually? We are reminded of the many writers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artists and critics who lived in Paris \(think of Baudelaire and Balzac, Marx and Manet\) and who did so much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to define and de-limit the distinctive characteristics of modern life. Thanks to them, Paris had a reputation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that extended far beyond its )] TJ ET BT 170.324 137.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(arrondissements)] TJ ET BT 249.656 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. As the physical site of innumerable exhibitions, fairs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conferences ? in 1900, Higonnet tells us, 87 per cent of self-styled ?world congresses? were held in Paris \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(147\) ? Paris attracted visitors from literally around the world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If some of these topics will be familiar to many readers, there is still much to be learned from the transitions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and juxtapositions. Higonnet has little real patience with the Surrealists \(who, despite Andr Breton?s efforts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to hitch his cart to Communism?s star, were never really concerned with anyone but themselves\), but on first )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 361.6517 695.5975 375.6437 707.4775 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 236.6597 583.8055 250.6517 595.6855 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7571 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading there is something of the ?sewing machine and umbrella together on an operating table? to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument, nonetheless. For example, Chapter 2 moves quickly from the now-canonical analysis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth-century cultural developments as the emergence of a new sense of the ?public?, to a much less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expected commentary on sadness and melancholy. \(p. 39\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When loneliness and ennui strike suddenly in a crowded room, it is hard not to think of Charles Baudelaire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(or, perhaps, Jean-Jacques Rousseau\). Higonnet?s most direct inspiration is, however, neither of these. Nor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is it Louis Aragon. Instead, Higonnet?s Symbolists and his Surrealists are filtered through the work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walter Benjamin, that most endearingly epigrammatic of Frankfort School fellow travellers. Like Benjamin, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Higonnet is mainly concerned with Paris as the capital of the nineteenth-century world, but his is so very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long a ?nineteenth century? \(approximately 1750-1914\), that it renders the chronological marker misleading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if not almost irrelevant.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 146.672 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 146.672 640.515 m 160.664 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Higonnet?s words, ?Paris, more than any other city in the world, can serve to explain the course of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western culture?.\(p. 434\) Were one feeling churlish, one could easily think of examples with which to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenge such a sweeping statement. What about Venice or Amsterdam or Seville, one might ask, with an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eye to those cities? obviously crucial roles in the history of international trade and commerce? Are not New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York and The Hague home to at least as many international organisations as Paris? Have not Los Angeles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Bombay sparked as many fantasies? Why the boulevards of Paris and not the Ringstrasse of Vienna? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Why the re-building of Paris in the mid-nineteenth century and not the conjuring from scratch of St )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Petersburg in the first decades of the eighteenth? Why the fairs of Paris and not those of Chicago or San )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francisco? And if I, a historian of modern France myself, can think of so many cities that trump \(or, at least, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(match\) Paris in some way, just think of the rivals that might be suggested by historians of Asia or Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America!)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, such objections would, I think, miss much of the point. For while all those other cities have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their marvels and their miseries, their novelists and their historians, they simply are )] TJ ET BT 436.976 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 452.312 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Paris. Paris, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Higonnet argues, has been effectively unique in knitting political transformations and cultural energies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together. The Crystal Palace may have been built for the Great London Exhibition of 1851 but it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible to visit London in the 1850s without ever seeing it \(for the Crystal Palace was moved to Sydenham )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1852 and 1854\). The structures built for the first universal expositions held in Paris \(1855, 1867\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are less famous and far more ephemeral. In many senses, however, it was the entire city ? then being re-built )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under Haussmann ? that was on exhibition. Visitors to the 1867 Exposition toured the city?s sewers and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(abattoirs)] TJ ET BT 77.360 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; they were the first tourists to travel by steamboat \()] TJ ET BT 325.328 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bateau-mouche)] TJ ET BT 399.308 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) along the Seine. By the time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that fair architecture in Paris consisted of recognisable, permanent structures \(the Eiffel Tower was built for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the exhibition of 1889, the Grand Palais for that of 1900\), the city?s lustre was already fading.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In part, it might be worth noting that Paris?s comparatively small physical size did much to enhance its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputation as the display model of nineteenth-century modernity. Like those of London, the suburbs of Paris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grew dramatically throughout this period, but they were never absorbed into juridical, administrative or even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural definitions of ?Paris?. \(A comparable distinction might be made between the City of London and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?London? but in that case, it is the physically larger entity that has primarily fascinated writers and artists.\) If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the size of Paris contributed much to its special status, so too did its historical moment. As Higonnet notes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paris was prominent in the nineteenth century, a time when it might just have been possible to imagine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrating all artists and scientists, musicians and philosophers in one urban centre. Paris could be the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capital of everything; the city to which everyone aspired to travel. With the explosive twentieth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth of both populations and knowledge, such centralization not only does not happen ? it cannot even be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagined. And if that failure to imagine a single centre is in many respects beneficial \(even Higonnet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognizes that Paris?s glory came at the price of its vampiric relation to the French provinces and colonies\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it has also had its costs. If the myths of Parisian modernity provided words for a conversation, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(globalization and diversification of that modernity has, one concludes from Higonnet, left many people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feeling speechless. There are, hence, fewer conversations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Paris of the 1950s through the early 1970s ? the capital of France?s economic miracle and of the first )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 146.6717 640.8295 160.6637 652.7095 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 8877 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mass American tourism to continental Europe ? barely appears in these pages. When it does do so, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Higonnet?s tone is frankly scornful; long one of the most prominently outspoken critics of the Bibliothque )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nationale de France at Tolbiac )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 184.976 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 184.976 766.563 m 198.968 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 198.968 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, he here reveals himself \(unsurprisingly\) to be no bigger fan of the Porte )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(d?Italie, the Gare Montparnasse or any of the other architectural and urban-planning innovations of the post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war period.\(p. 210\) Nonetheless, I think one could argue that the book, perhaps unwittingly, owes as much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to )] TJ ET BT 46.352 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(that)] TJ ET BT 65.024 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( particular moment of French intellectual ascendancy ? the Paris of Audrey Hepburn in )] TJ ET BT 485.600 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Funny Face)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1957\) ? as it does to earlier ones.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The debt is neither to existentialism, nor to the events of May 1968 \(which Higonnet effectively ignores\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but to structuralism. For if )] TJ ET BT 163.352 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Paris: Capital of the World)] TJ ET BT 295.364 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( rejects the heavy-handed scientism of some of Claude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lvi-Strauss?s own study of myth, it shares a tone ? romantic, weary, world-travelled, wise ? with Lvi-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Strauss?s arguably greatest work, )] TJ ET BT 197.648 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tristes Tropiques)] TJ ET BT 281.996 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris: Union Gnrale d?Editions, 1955\). As Lvi-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Strauss memorably begins that volume lamenting that he, who hates travellers and travelling, is nonetheless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing a travelogue, so Higonnet ends his introduction by reflecting that ?to paraphrase Simone Signoret, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paris, like nostalgia, is not what it used to be?.\(p. 17\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like )] TJ ET BT 59.012 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tristes Tropiques)] TJ ET BT 143.360 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 149.360 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Paris: Capital of the World )] TJ ET BT 284.372 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a beautifully crafted book that enacts and participates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in many of the myths that it identifies. When Higonnet writes \(as he often does\) that a particular episode or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artefact ?reminds us? of something about Paris, the tone is not that of the earnest doctoral student or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monograph author, keen to tell us what s/he \(and no one else!\) has found in the archives. Rather, like Lvi-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Strauss in )] TJ ET BT 84.020 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tristes Tropiques)] TJ ET BT 168.368 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Higonnet strikes a slightly melancholy chord of ?We all know this. We?ve all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known it. But maybe we?ve forgotten. Sigh.?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If throughout this book, Higonnet tends to overstate the abruptness of change as regularly as he exaggerates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the uniqueness of Paris, both tropes can nonetheless be seen to betray an unexpected yearning. Underpinning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book, I think, is the somewhat wistful, but never abandoned, hope that it might be possible to change )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everything in a moment once again, yet without being brutal, repressive or violent. That is, this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerges from the hope that it might prove possible to revive a specifically ?French? or ?Parisian? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary tradition. Stripped of the ideological muck of nightmare phantasms such as Stalinism, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution would be inclusive and generous, welcoming and self aware.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 378.284 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 378.284 388.419 m 392.276 388.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 392.276 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It would also have to be mythical, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the way that Higonnet has defined myth: universal and spontaneous. Then, and only then, will Paris have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fulfilled its promise and many people?s dreams.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 326.403 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 295.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For an especially thoughtful analysis of Hollywood cinema from the 1930s to the 1950s as providing )] TJ ET BT 64.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just such ?words for a conversation? \(about what life in the United States might be about\), see Stanley )] TJ ET BT 64.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cavell, )] TJ ET BT 101.348 267.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pursuits of Happiness)] TJ ET BT 207.356 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press, 1981\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 518.312 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 518.312 265.875 m 558.308 265.875 l S BT 64.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 251.619 m 78.008 251.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 238.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Laslett, ?Sir Robert Filmer: the man versus the Whig myth?, )] TJ ET BT 384.992 238.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(William and Mary Quarterly)] TJ ET BT 523.316 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 3rd )] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series, 5:4 \(1948\), 523-46.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 190.664 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 190.664 223.107 m 244.652 223.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 210.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Benjamin?s brief, but densely suggestive essay, ?Paris, Capital of the Nineteenth Century? was long )] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the only segment of his extensive writings on Paris to be readily available in English; it was published )] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Walter Benjamin, )] TJ ET BT 164.672 181.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reflections)] TJ ET BT 218.000 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Peter Demetz and trans. Edmund Jephcott \(New York: Harcourt )] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brace Jovanovich, 1978\). Two versions now also appear in Walter Benjamin, )] TJ ET BT 439.280 167.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Arcades Project)] TJ ET BT 537.932 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trans. Howard Eiland and Kevin McLaughlin \(Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University )] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Press, 1999\). On the relations between Benjamin and the Surrealists, see Margaret Cohen, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Profane Illumination: Walter Benjamin and the Paris of Surrealist Revolution)] TJ ET BT 439.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berkeley: University )] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of California Press, 1993\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 191.000 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 191.000 109.059 m 244.988 109.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 96.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See his brief comments on the Bibliothque Nationale on p. 210, and his more extensive contributions )] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the )] TJ ET BT 94.016 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New York Review of Books)] TJ ET BT 223.340 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: ?Scandal on the Seine? \(vol. 38, no. 14: 15 August 1991\); ?The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Bibliothque: An Exchange? \(vol. 38, no. 20: 5 December 1991\); and ?The Lamentable Library? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(vol. 39, no. 9: 14 May 1992\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 208.676 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 208.676 52.035 m 262.664 52.035 l S endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 184.9757 766.8775 198.9677 778.7575 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 378.2837 388.7335 392.2757 400.6135 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 518.3117 266.1895 558.3077 278.0695 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 251.9335 78.0077 263.8135 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type 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64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the Bolshevism with which it is so often confused: )] TJ ET BT 336.008 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Goodness Beyond Virtue: Jacobins during the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(French Revolution)] TJ ET BT 153.668 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 464.624 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 464.624 766.563 m 518.612 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Affairs)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/58708/stanley-hoffmann/paris-capital-of-the-world)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 711.795 m 467.264 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 470.264 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Books in Canada)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.booksincanada.com/article_view.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 683.283 m 268.316 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 271.316 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 679.951 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 662.171 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 662.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/347)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 660.777 m 322.316 660.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 635.800 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.400 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1630)] TJ ET BT 34.016 607.000 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/58708/stanley-hoffmann/paris-capital-of-the-world)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.600 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.booksincanada.com/article_view.asp?id=4587)] TJ ET endstream endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] 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