%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141221173033+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141221173033+00'00') /Title (The Church and Learning in Later Medieval Society Essays in Honour of R.B. Dobson/ Harlaxton Medieval Studies XI) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4103 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Church and Learning in Later Medieval Society Essays in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Honour of R.B. Dobson/ Harlaxton Medieval Studies XI)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This volume is dedicated to Barrie Dobson, whose work over four decades on the peculiar clerical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions and communities of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries has been a model of scholarship, broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision and human sympathy. In retrospect, we can see his work, which has focussed on the corporate bodies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of northern England, as a fundamental contribution to understanding a leading distinctive feature of western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilization: the statutory community, fortified by property and privileges and inspired by the loyalty of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members to resist and outlast successive potentates \(whether local warlords or national governments and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their bureaucracies or ideologues with their general theories\), the irreducible particularism of which has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(served to defend the liberties of individuals and to maintain beneficial local customs indefensible in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principle. Durham Priory and the cathedral chapter of Carlisle were paradigms, in their time, of a network of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited powers which encompassed every European ruler, ecclesiastical or secular, and which in a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different form still remains and proliferates. Barrie Dobson has gone further than any other scholar in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of such bodies? psychology and their subtle interrelation with the aspirations of individuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and here in his )] TJ ET BT 107.336 80.867 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(festschrift)] TJ ET BT 154.676 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(in fact one of several\) there is an opportunity to review the state of scholarship on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the themes and ideas which have informed his work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(349)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 August, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caroline Barron)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jenny Stratford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1900289520)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(49.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(409pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shaun Tyas)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donington)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jeremy Catto)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7345 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In one important respect, the contributors themselves represent the spirit of particularism. True to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harlaxton formula, they cannot be corralled into a common focus on any specific theme, not even those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which have preoccupied their honorand; in many, perhaps most cases they have started from a particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(document or piece of material evidence and gone on from there. Only two of them acknowledge his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence, and in essays which do not exactly exhibit it. If there is a prevalent \(not, certainly, a common\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theme, it is an older concern ? the application of twelfth-century ideas of pastoral care, education and moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform to the clergy and the religious life of late medieval England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scholarship on these lines goes back at least as far as the work of Marion Gibbs and Jane Lang on reforming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bishops, published as long ago as 1934 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 224.012 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 224.012 657.027 m 238.004 657.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 238.004 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and has been taken much further by W. A. Pantin and Leonard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boyle, among many others. Benjamin Thompson reviews the career of a cardinal agent of reform, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Archbishop Pecham \('The Academic and Active Vocations in the Medieval Church: Archbishop John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pecham'\); Jeffrey Denton, in a wide-ranging study \('The Competence of the Parish Clergy in Thirteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Century England'\), lays down better criteria for measuring the education of the thirteenth-century parish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clergy; David Lepine perceptively puts the learning of the cathedral chapter of Hereford in the context of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new impetus to an active pastoral clergy arising from reactions to Wyclif?s challenge \('"A Long Way from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University": Cathedral Canons and Learning at Hereford in the Fifteenth Century'\); A. C. Reeves discusses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same theme more generally in 'Creative Scholarship in the Cathedrals, 1300-1500', though his search for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signs of creative intellectual activity is rather anachronistic; Clive Burgess \('Educated Parishioners in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London and Bristol on the Eve of the Reformation'\) demonstrates the vitality of parish life in Bristol and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London about 1500, with particularly interesting evidence on the liturgical music of some churches; Fiona )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kisby, taking Burgess?s theme further in time, collects the evidence for service books in London parishes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before and after the Reformation \('Books in London Parish Churches before 1603: Some Preliminary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Observations'\); Joel Rosenthal argueson the basis of York clerical bequests that the importance of books to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their private owners can however be exaggerated \('Clerical Book Bequests: a Vade Mecum, but Whence and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whither?'\); while Claire Cross takes a more positive view of the learning of the York clergy in her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution 'York Clergy and Their Books in the Early Sixteenth Century'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A parallel concern of some contributors is the quality of monastic learning and education: James Clark, in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ground-breaking study 'Monastic Education in Late Medieval England', examines the education of novices in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Benedictine houses and how it was transformed ? with startling and still unappreciated literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences; Martin Heale \('Books and Learning in the Dependent Priories of the Monasteries of Medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England'\) considers the intellectual life of the dependent priories of great monastic houses, and Joan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greatrex analyses the medical and astrological knowledge of the monks of a larger body, Norwich Cathedral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Priory \('Horoscopes and Healing at Norwich Cathedral Priory in the Later Middle Ages'\). In each of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies, the analysis of booklists and surviving codices has opened up hidden communities sharing reading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ideas. They show by implication how much subtler and more complex was the mind of the fourteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and fifteenth centuries than ordinary literary sources could ever reveal.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More arresting than perhaps any of the papers addressing the education of the English is Alexandra )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Johnston?s revisionist account of the )] TJ ET BT 213.668 194.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(York Cycle)] TJ ET BT 266.660 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of pageant plays, in 'The York Cycle and the Libraries of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York'. Almost alone of the contributors \(David Lepine is another exception\), she has taken account of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renewed impetus to implant a religious sensibility in the lay population which began with John Thoresby, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Archbishop of York and was carried much further by his successor-but-one, Thomas Arundel. This northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initiative was a distinct phase, lasting from about 1360 to 1420, that gave shape to a whole school of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yorkshire contemplative writers, as Jonathan Hughes has shown. Johnston has now put the )] TJ ET BT 474.296 123.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(York Cycle)] TJ ET BT 527.288 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context, seeing it as a deliberate instrument of religious education on the part of a proactive clerical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not all of the contributors dance to the pastoral tune; a smaller group follows more closely the Dobson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model and concentrate on small communities or individuals within them. In his contribution 'The University )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 224.0117 657.3415 238.0037 669.2215 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7621 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Life and the London Charter-house: Practical Experience versus Scholarly Attainment within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carthusian Leadership', Andrew Wines reconstructs the brief Carthusian career of Philip Underwode, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business-like procurator of the London Charterhouse in the 1490s, who put its financial affairs back on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sound basis. Alan Piper studies patterns of old age among the Durham monks. John Barron, in a splendid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tour de force, 'The Augustinian Canons and the University of Oxford: the Lost College of St George', puts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together the surprisingly abundant evidence for the small community of scholars in Oxford Castle, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(putative St George?s College; and Carole Rawcliffe brings to life the wide-ranging activities, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education, of late medieval hospitals \('The Eighth Comfortable Work: Education and the Medieval English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hospital'\). All these contributions deepen further the understanding of late medieval corporate bodies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities that have been a main subject of Dobson?s work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another group of contributors offer an exegesis of a particular piece of evidence. Pamela King \('The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Treasurer's Cadaver in York Minster Reconsidered'\) gives good reason to identify the cadaver-tomb in York )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Minster attributed to Thomas Haxey, as that of John Newton the Treasurer who died in 1414. If so, it is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earliest of its kind, and her case would only be strengthened by reference to Newton?s role in a York circle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of clerks who popularized spiritual literature in the mode of Richard Rolle ? including )] TJ ET BT 449.960 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(memento mori)] TJ ET BT 518.948 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( tracts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where putrid cadavers and wretched sinful bodies abounded, as they do in the wills of various Lollard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knights, Archbishop Arundel, Henry IV and John Newton himself. David Crook uses an early Fenland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monastic map to identify numerous chapels and perhaps the appearance of Spalding Priory, now destroyed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\('Churches and Chapels on a Fifteenth-Century Monastic Map of the Lincolnshire Fenland'\). Patrick Zutshi, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 'The Mendicant Orders and the University of Cambridge in the Fourteenth and Early Fifteenth Centuries' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publishes two documents from the Vatican archives and one from those of Cambridge University, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together illustrate the tensions between the mendicant orders and the university. Pamela Tudor-Craig, in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subtle reconstruction \('The Iconography of Wisdom and the Frontispiece to the )] TJ ET BT 415.784 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bible Historiale)] TJ ET BT 492.788 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Library, Additional Manuscript 18856'\), explains the iconography of the frontispiece to John, Duke of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bedford?s )] TJ ET BT 86.336 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bible Historiale)] TJ ET BT 163.340 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as the figure of Wisdom, deliberately set in a hexagonal building with seven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pillars, one central, in accordance with the precept of Augustine. Nicholas Vincent?s reconstruction of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(career of Elias of Dereham \('Master Elias of Dereham \(d. 1245\): A Reassessment'\) fits into none of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(categories so far indicated; he convincingly reverses Hamilton Thompson?s separation of Elias the architect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Elias the bishop?s steward, and puts him back into a central position in architectural history at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opening stage of the English Gothic style. This brilliant work of synthesis would justify the whole volume, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that were necessary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The independent paths of the contributors going in every direction are an impressive monument to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical tendency \(hardly a school\) that might be termed Harlaxtonian Empiricism. The variety of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions shows that they recognize no master, not even Barrie Dobson. Yet there are limitations to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harlaxton formula. The study of fourteenth- and fifteenth-century England needs the stiffening wind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversial general ideas, developed at length. It cries out for a vigorous comparative and European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach. Wyclif and the Lollards, who offer hope of refreshing historical disagreement, need the company )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of foreign religious leaders like Jean Gerson, Gerard Groote and Catherine of Siena to rescue them from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffocating insularity and narrowness. England was one sector of a north-west European theatre, which was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integrated in the Lancastrian empire in France and its Burgundian associate in the early fifteenth century ? an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic and cultural phenomenon as well as a political entity which needs radical new approaches. All )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these contributors ? and your reviewer is as guilty as any of them ? would help to sweep the comfortable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dust from these centuries by going to fewer conferences and writing longer, single-authored studies which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenge the tired assumptions of conventional late medieval English history. They would then certainly fall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to sharp and invigorating controversy among themselves, as well as with other historians. It is time for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harlaxtonian Empiricists to do some fighting.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 96.051 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 65.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jane Gibbs and Marion Lang, )] TJ ET BT 209.324 65.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bishops and Reform, 1215-1272, with Special Reference to the Lateran )] TJ ET BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Council of 1215)] TJ ET BT 141.356 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1934\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 342.992 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 342.992 49.779 m 396.980 49.779 l S endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 342.9917 50.0935 396.9797 61.9735 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 755 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 777.487 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 759.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 759.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/349)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 758.313 m 322.316 758.313 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 733.336 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.936 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1633)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.536 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 758.6275 322.3157 770.5075 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/349) >> endobj xref 0 27 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000616 00000 n 0000000698 00000 n 0000004853 00000 n 0000004962 00000 n 0000005072 00000 n 0000005181 00000 n 0000008742 00000 n 0000008870 00000 n 0000008954 00000 n 0000009038 00000 n 0000016436 00000 n 0000016466 00000 n 0000016594 00000 n 0000016630 00000 n 0000016714 00000 n 0000024388 00000 n 0000024514 00000 n 0000024569 00000 n 0000024653 00000 n 0000025460 00000 n 0000025588 00000 n trailer << /Size 27 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 25683 %%EOF