%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818084129+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818084129+01'00') /Title (Suffrage Days: Stories from the Women?s Suffrage Movement) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3888 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Suffrage Days: Stories from the Women?s Suffrage Movement)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Sandra Holton herself admits, historians of women?s suffrage, especially those whose main research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests lie with the British campaigns, frequently encounter the view that suffrage has been ?done? and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there really cannot be anything left to say on this topic. It is true that since the emergence of women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history in the 1970s campaigns for women?s suffrage have constantly been reassessed. Yet many stones )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remain unturned and there is still much work to be done on the subject. This important book provides an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insight into just how little knowledge we still have about the lives, actions and motivations of all but a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(handful of suffragists and suffragettes, and Dr Holton has done a splendid job both in opening up completely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fresh areas for debate, and going over old ground from a slightly different angle. The book takes as its main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus the lives of seven individuals prior to and during their involvement in campaigns for the extension of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the parliamentary franchise to British women. Their individual stories are told along with the larger story in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which their activism played a part. This approach allows for the revelation on many differing perspectives on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the suffrage campaign.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A somewhat surprising omission within the book, given its concern with comparing the varied perspectives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 June, 1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sandra Stanley Holton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415109413)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(70.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.routledge.com/books/Suffrage-Days-isbn9780415109413)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Krista Cowman)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7660 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of individuals is a detailed explanation as to why these particular individuals were selected. The seven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented here form a somewhat disparate body. There are common backgrounds between some of them, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and friendship links between others, but Elizabeth Wolstenholme Elmy, Jessie Craigen, Elizabeth Cady )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stanton, Hannah Mitchell, Mary Gawthorpe, Laurence Houseman and Alice Clark have little in common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collectively outside of a common determination to achieve the female parliamentary vote. Some more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information as to the motivation of her choice would have been welcome, especially as Dr Holton admits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they were not a group in life, and are one here only because she as a historian has chosen to make them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so. Leaving this aside, in uniting them, Dr Holton marvelously weaves their lives together and recreates their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?suffrage days? in a way that provides a glimpse of how dynamic a period this was. Narrative is a key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern within this book, and Dr Holton makes no apologies for the fact that she intends to ?tell a story.? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This she does with skill, yet the book provides more than an entertaining tale. As various well-known events )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are retold through the lives of these different individuals, less accessible factors simultaneously emerge, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffrage is repositioned as something far more than just a single-issue campaign.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although several of the seven protagonists undertook paid work on behalf of suffrage organisations, none of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them can be classified as being part of the leadership of any organisation. One obvious advantage in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selecting figures beyond the leadership of a movement is that this allows for an examination of a fresh set of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspectives beyond the preoccupations of national executives. This is of crucial importance within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of suffrage where the original hostilities between the militant Women?s Social and Political Union )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(WSPU\) and the older non-militant National Union of Women?s Suffrage Societies \(NUWSS\) have been, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and continue to be replicated within the histories of both organisations. Thus the somewhat heroic accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the activities of the WSPU?s suffragettes by authors such as MacKenzie and Rosen were subjected to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bitter critique within the 1978 work of Liddington and Norris. Their study of suffrage in Lancashire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismissed the WSPU as being largely an irrelevance, dominated by upper and middle-class, anti-socialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women. In its place they held up a new category of ?radical suffragists?, pro-socialist women locating their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffrage activity within the NUWSS. Since then there has been a tendency, despite the best efforts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians such as Liz Stanley and Leah Leneman, to write polarised suffrage history which is either pro or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anti-WSPU. An obvious dangers in this approach is that it can ignore what was going on at the grass-roots of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the suffrage movement where individual friendship networks often transcended political differences between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national leaderships. Another problem is that the contributions made by members of other organisations \(or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed those suffrage campaigners who did not join any official group\) are dismissed through histories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which are concerned with replicating a power struggle between two national groups. Hence the need for non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership studies such as this one which can decisively move the agenda away from accounts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(WSPU/NUWSS rivalry. Looking at suffrage through the eyes of these lesser-known figures allows Dr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holton to explore many categories of suffrage activist besides the somewhat well-trodden ones of ?militant? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or ?constitutional.? Under her careful handling of separate life stories ?working-class?, ?bohemian? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?friendship? and ?kinship? emerge as equally uniting ties within the broader movement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At a first glance, given the somewhat biographical perspective of the book, it might be possible to mistake )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this for a work of recovery of the type practised in the early nineteen seventies which re-presented once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(famous women for inclusion in the historical canon on grounds of their sex alone. If this were the case, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would not necessarily detract from the book?s importance. Some of the figures whose stories form the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of the narrative are iconographically famous but biographically anonymous. Elizabeth Wolstenholme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elmy, for example, whose frail, elderly frame headed many Edwardian suffrage demonstrations is instantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognisable to students and scholars of suffrage alike though her ubiquitous and visually memorable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence at major events. However, prior to this book, even the most avid collector of suffrage data would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been hard-pressed to provide much information about her apart from her name. Recovery may be open )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to criticism as over-simplistic and under-theorised in approach, but it was, and remains an essential stage in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creating the discipline of women?s history. Significant individuals must be identified and their lives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unearthed before they can be deconstructed. Dr Holton is quick to admit that recovery remains an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of her purpose, but there is much more to the book than this, as the inclusion of better known figures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Hannah Mitchell and Mary Gawthorpe demonstrates. Both these women published autobiographies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(although Gawthorpe?s is only available in a rare American edition\) and as such can be included amongst )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7606 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffragettes whose lives are readily available. Their appearance here makes it apparent that this book extends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the aims of recovery alone. It is motivated more by a desire to reveal fresh perspectives than fresh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives, although it is sometimes difficult to find the former without constructing the latter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A further aim of this work appears to be a desire to situate women?s suffrage as something more than a brief, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single-issue campaign. One of the most original and interesting facets of the book is the light which it throws )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on earlier radical links. Dr Holton?s chronology extends from 1865 to 1918. This is not the most obvious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choice for a work on women?s suffrage. There was a flurry of activity around the question in the mid-1860s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is often presented as a precursor to the ?real? campaigns from the mid-1890s onwards. The work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early career of Elizabeth Wolstenholme Elmy and on the hitherto obscure campaigning of Jessie Craigen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show a different side to this. Elizabeth Wolstenholme Elmy is frequently cited as an example of continuity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within suffrage campaigns, mainly on account of her extreme age \(she was 75 when she led the WSPU )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstration in Hyde Park in 1908, an event pictured on the cover of this book\). Here, it is made clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exactly what it is that she represents continuity with. She is situated directly in a network of radical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigning women for whom the parliamentary vote is just part of a broader attempt to revolutionise the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social status of their sex. Dr Holton identifies them as ?Radical suffragists?, presumably using the capital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?R? to distinguish between the earlier ?radical suffragist? label devised by Liddington and Norris. Such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nomenclature is valuable when attempting to identify groups and patterns of involvement within the often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multi-faceted world of suffrage campaigning. However, it would have been perhaps a more useful category )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had the author been more bold in expounding her definition. Little is offered by way of explanation for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term other than that it stands in opposition to ?moderate suffragist? as a means of avoiding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?radical/conservative? dichotomy. This is a shame, as there obviously is a great need to put names to many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the trends which have emerged in recent suffrage historiography which do not sit comfortably under the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing dichotomies of militant/constitutional or suffragist/suffragette. Yet there is no disputing that these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Radical suffragist? women were radical in politics and in lifestyle., nor that they formed an opposition to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more sedate suffrage campaigners. Elizabeth Wolstenholme Elmy enters the narrative as an early member of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Kensington Society, a debating society which in turn was a spin-off from the cradle of English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Feminism, the Langham Place Circle. Although she was a corresponding member, residing some distance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away in Manchester, this nevertheless put her in contact with women such as Barbara Leigh Smith who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided the somewhat younger Wolstenholme Elmy with a direct link back to Smith?s own political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apprenticeship in the Anti-Corn Law League. Hence it appears that suffrage was not a purely feminist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demand but was also part of a broader set of demands for radical reform. Personal friendship links are the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way in which Holton explores the broader dimensions and wider political links of suffrage. In the case of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Wolstenholme Elmy, they reveal, amongst others, concerns with the reform of the Married )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women?s Property Act; the ideas of free sexual union promoted by Fourier; and the expansion of women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment and educational opportunities, and the repeal of the Contagious Diseases Acts. The position of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women in society and a broader concept of female citizenship appears to have been much more of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motivating factor than a single demand for female suffrage. Holton also shows how the division of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwardian suffrage movement into ?militant? and ?moderate? wings was no dramatic change, but a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuity of discussions around just how radical early feminism was to be. The ostracisation of Elizabeth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wolstenholme, as she was, following her ?free union? with Ben Elmy shows how few women were prepared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to tolerate radicalism in the private rather than the public sphere. Holton argues too that there was a political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimension to such divisions. Elizabeth Wolstenholme Elmy was becoming increasingly involved with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(northern suffragists. This group were vigorous opponents of any attempt to exclude married women from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(franchise bill.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Political ostracisation was also the fate of Jessie Craigen, probably the least well-known figure in the book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Her inclusion allows for a further dimension of suffrage campaigning, that of class, to be explored as she is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented as an erratic, independent figure from a working class background introduced a class perspective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the movement from the 1870s. The way that the more moderate suffragists responded both to her style )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of very public campaigning and to her insistence on broadening suffrage demands to press for wider social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform demonstrates than much of the later divisions between militant and constitutional campaigns had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deep roots. Further explorations of such divisions may prove profitable for historians interested in questions )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7436 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of identity and organisational affiliation amongst Edwardian suffrage workers. This account of Craigen?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life also demonstrates the almost obsessive emphasis that many of the anti-radical suffragists placed on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?respectability.? It appears that she was encouraged to alter her ?uncouth? dress and habits for the sake of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the movement. It may be possible to account for this in terms of convention, but Dr Holton also situates it as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an issue of class differences. Women like Jessie Craigen had no option other than to take a salary for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffrage work, and it appears that this made it impossible for much of the middle-class leadership of the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian suffrage movement to differentiate between their personal servants and such paid suffrage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers. Here, Dr Holton is making a very important point. It is possibly phenomena such as this which led )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the emergence of the WSPU as much as tactical differences, and this point merits further investigation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Within the later chapters which focus on better-known figures, there is still much fresh material to interest. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapters concentrating on the lives of working-class activists Hannah Mitchell and Mary Gawthorpe, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, provide an interesting critique of previous conceptions of the class basis of the WSPU. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political life-stories of these two working-class women begin with their conversion to socialism, through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which route they came to suffrage. The final defection of the once socialist WSPU leaders Emmeline and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christabel Pankhurst to the Conservative Party after the First World War has led many historians to under-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estimate their original socialist convictions. The origins of this line of thinking can be taken back to Sylvia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pankhurst. She remained socialist and was unable to resist the temptation to notice signs of her sister?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?incipient Toryism? within her history of the WSPU. Such an approach fails to acknowledge that the WSPU )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was originally set up as a ?ginger group? by women within the Independent Labour Party, and it is nice to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see Dr Holton remind us of this fact. She shows clearly how suffrage and socialism were indivisible for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many women in the early days of the WSPU. Socialist women spent much time and effort developing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militant suffrage campaigns, so it is, perhaps, not very surprising to find that many remained loyal to both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues, despite an official decree that such dual affiliations were impossible. The chapter on Laurence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Houseman allows for an investigation of the position of men within women?s suffrage. To an extent Dr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holton is unfortunate in the timing of her work here. The publication of the results of an extensive study into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the men?s share? headed by Professor Angela John will, understandably, overshadow the parts of this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which deal with suffrage from a sympathetic male perspective. Nevertheless, the role of men within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffrage movement has been massively neglected prior to now, and Dr Holton?s efforts in this area must be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commended. Also of interest here is Dr Holton?s classification of Houseman as a ?bohemian.? Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there has been a little work done on the work done by actresses and artists for the suffrage cause, the links )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the two groups, and the extent to which suffrage was part of an alternative lifestyle for many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains obscure, and it is to be hoped that this identification of suffrage with bohemianism encourages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future work in this direction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Further fresh channels are opened through the material on transatlantic suffrage links interpreted via the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure of Elizabeth Cady Stanton. The international dimension of suffrage is one which has been given very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little consideration to date. This may seem an understandable omission, as suffrage campaigns were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned with altering the law within individual nation states to allow women a voice in their governments. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the most basic research within the suffrage press uncovers a wealth of international material. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Suffrage campaigners always celebrated each others? achievements, and frequently referenced each other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within their work. Here, Dr Holton shows how many of these international links pre-dated the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enfranchisement of women. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, a well known American campaigner is resituated in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heart of the radical suffrage circle of the Priestman family through personal links going back to the anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slavery movement in the 1840s. Elizabeth?s daughter, Harriet Stanton Blatch, married an Englishman and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became secretary of the radical Women?s Franchise League in the 1890s, ensuring a continuity of personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contacts. However, Dr Holton also draws out political similarities. These links are between the radical wings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of both British and American suffrage movements where she traces a strong will to include all women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(franchise legislation, something which the more conservative British campaigners resisted. It would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been interesting to see this argument developed more, perhaps with a comparison of organisational methods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and tactics between the two movements.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the question of militancy, one feels that the book could maybe have delivered more. The reasons for )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5005 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holding back from this are, to a certain extent, appreciable. The undue focus on militancy has been criticised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Dr Holton herself in an earlier work for perpetuating the restriction of suffrage history within the old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(WSPU/NUWSS divide. However, in this book, she has some very interesting things to say about the origins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of suffrage militancy, locating them within a longstanding radical political tradition. It would have been nice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to see this pushed further, and the important question of why such actions, if part of a long tradition, became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so remarkable when adopted by an all-female organisation. Moreover, in some areas, Dr Holton begins to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expand conventional definitions of militancy, such as in her account of the views of Alice Clark who loaned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral and physical support to the WSPU, participating in some of their militant demonstrations, yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained a member of the NUWSS. Such definitions are welcome, and merit further exploration. If support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the WSPU is taken as the yardstick against which militancy is measured, all the British individuals in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book could be said to be, in some way, militant. Only Laurence Houseman fits the conventional picture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporting early militancy, drawing back only as it increases in violence, but Dr Holton is right to point out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he viewed acts such as tax-resistance as suitable militant protests. Whilst militancy has perhaps take up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too much of the attention of suffrage historians in the past, it nevertheless remained a crucial division )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between suffrage campaigners themselves. However, too little attention has been paid in the past to defining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what actually was seen as militancy by these campaigners. When the definition is expanded to include tax-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resistance, some interesting questions as to why female militancy was so broadly condemned emerge, and it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is slightly disappointing that the book does not really take these up.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is perhaps inevitable that there will be some gaps within a work of this nature which examines seven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual perspectives on one campaign. It is true that there are many more questions raised than are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually answered by the text, but this in itself is not a bad thing. If nothing else, this should encourage fresh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directions for research as future suffrage historians press for answers to these questions, raising their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new queries in the process. Furthermore, this book presents a fascinating picture of the suffrage campaign in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the major figures are reduced to the historical margins. This may be somewhat disorientating at first, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but as one goes on it becomes apparent that this is probably closer to the way in which most participants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experienced the campaign than the participatory accounts of the leadership. New friendship networks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identify new individuals allowing the perspective to alter again. As Dr Holton concludes, ?the kaleidoscope )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keeps on turning.? Fresh material will always come to light and new ways of looking at histories emerge. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even with the contributions made by this highly enjoyable book, suffrage history can, in no way, be said to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be complete.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 328.063 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 310.283 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 310.283 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/35)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 308.889 m 316.316 308.889 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 283.912 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 269.512 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/317)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 309.2035 316.3157 321.0835 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/35) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000567 00000 n 0000000649 00000 n 0000004589 00000 n 0000004698 00000 n 0000004808 00000 n 0000004917 00000 n 0000008478 00000 n 0000008606 00000 n 0000008690 00000 n 0000008755 00000 n 0000016468 00000 n 0000016533 00000 n 0000024192 00000 n 0000024257 00000 n 0000031746 00000 n 0000031830 00000 n 0000036888 00000 n 0000037016 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37110 %%EOF