%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 37 0 R 57 0 R 74 0 R 97 0 R 131 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417042916+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417042916+01'00') /Title (From Plain Fare to Fusion Food: British Diet from the 1890s to the 1990s) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3515 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(From Plain Fare to Fusion Food: British Diet from the 1890s to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1990s)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Stephen Reynolds's )] TJ ET BT 143.840 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Poor Man's House)] TJ ET BT 244.064 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, first published in 1908, he gives a loving description of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('baked dinner' that 'Mam Widger' would cook, when funds permitted, for the Sidmouth fishing family with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom he lived:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is the recipe for baked dinner:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Turn out the children and turn on the oven. Into the middle of a large baking tin place a saucer piled up with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a mixture of herbs \(mainly parsley\), one sliced onion and breadcrumbs, the whole made sticky with a morsel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of dripping. Round about the saucer put a layer of large peeled potatoes, and on top of all, the joint. Set the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(baking tin on the hob and into it pour just enough warm water to run over the rim of the saucer. Soon after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the water boils, transfer the whole to a fairly quick oven. When the meat is brown outside, slow the oven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down. Serve piping hot from the oven, placing the tin on a folded newspaper and the joint, if large, on a hot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plate.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 60.344 99.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 60.344 98.241 m 74.336 98.241 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(350)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 August, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Derek Oddy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(851159346X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(283pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John K. Walton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 60.3437 98.5555 74.3357 110.4355 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8554 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Half a century later, as the restrictions of post-war austerity lifted, Richard Hoggart reflected on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of 'something tasty' in working-class diet as he grew up in working-class Leeds:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The emphasis on tastiness shows itself most clearly in the need to provide 'something for tea', at weekends if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not each day. There is a great range of favourite savouries, often by-products - black-puddings, pig's feet, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liver, cowheel, tripe, polony, 'ducks', chitterlings \(and for special occasions pork-pies, which are extremely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular\); and the fishmongers' savouries - shrimps, roe, kippers and mussels. In our house we lived simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for most of the week; breakfast was usually bread and beef-dripping, dinner a good simple stew; something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tasty was provided for the workers at tea-time, but nothing costing more than a few coppers. At the week-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end we lived largely, like everyone else except the very poor, and Sunday tea was the peak. By six on that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evening the middens up the back had a fine topcoat of empty salmon and fruit tins.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 431.300 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 431.300 642.771 m 445.292 642.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I quote these classic \(and, of course, highly problematic\) texts at length here because they draw attention to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of several remarkable absences in Derek Oddy's history of British diet from the 1890s to the 1990s. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this substantial book we hear hardly anything from the consumers of food, and least of all from working-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class consumers. Flora Thompson gets an extended quote, to illustrate popular resistance to unfamiliar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foods, on page 30; and there are several subsequent quotations from the Second World War diaries of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle-class women on pages 144-61. Throughout the book, however, official voices - especially those of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the social observer, the civil servant, the nutritionist and the statistician - mediate between the reader and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience, and we break our teeth on the hard tack of statistical tables, ascribed average consumption levels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of particular food categories drawn from dietary surveys, and levels of nutrition that are assumed to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calculable from such sources. There is no allowance in the calculations for change over time in food values )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or variation in the quality of the food that was bought \(through, for example, changes in the extent and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of adulteration, or in the incidence of buying cheap food at or beyond the end of its market-stall or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shelf life to make money go further at the expense of quality or food safety\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 400.940 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 400.940 445.443 m 414.932 445.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 414.932 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( We are not allowed access to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the delights of the savoury relish or the sweet-shop counter, to the appetising smell of frying bacon or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beery fumes of the bar parlour. Nor are we brought into contact with the multitude of regional and local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variations in delicacies, textures, preferences and styles of food presentation that were still so evident in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960s and have still not disappeared under the globalising onslaught of fast and 'fusion' food.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 481.292 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 481.292 388.419 m 495.284 388.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The autobiographies and oral histories that provide so many insights into what people ate, how they prepared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it, the strategies they adopted for improving variety and palatability and for making slender resources go )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further, and what they thought about their diet, are entirely absent from this account, and the historians who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have presented and argued about this material find no recognition in its pages, and are omitted from its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography. The reader would never find out from these pages about \(for example\) the controversy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrounding Elizabeth Roberts's stimulating notion of the 'textile diet' of early twentieth-century Lancashire, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or about David Elliston Allen's intriguing attempts to map dietary patterns and preferences across the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provinces of the mid-twentieth century.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 223.652 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 223.652 262.371 m 237.644 262.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 237.644 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nor would the riches of the Mass-Observation archive for these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purposes become apparent.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 164.312 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 164.312 248.115 m 178.304 248.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 178.304 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But perhaps most surprising of all is the absence of any reference to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agenda proposed by Stephen Mennell, who made use of the theories of Norbert Elias to try to understand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes in food, taste and eating habits in England and France over the )] TJ ET BT 378.620 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(longue dure)] TJ ET BT 441.608 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, or to the work of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford, Leeds and London seminars on the history of food over the last twenty years.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 445.280 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 445.280 205.347 m 459.272 205.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 459.272 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( If the author rejects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the validity of such approaches, or wishes to discard them for present purposes, he should at least explain his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite the broad remit suggested by the title, this book has very specific academic aims, as the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicates in the preface. The decision to exclude recipes, as such, distances the book from more descriptive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and celebratory, and less academic, outpourings, although it also cuts off an avenue that might have led to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical assessment of what contemporaries enjoyed and appreciated about their food, as in the Reynolds and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hoggart citations at the beginning of this review. Professor Oddy is concerned almost exclusively with what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he describes \(without defining it\) as 'mainstream' food consumption, and he has consciously excluded such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparent manifestations of eccentricity as vegetarianism and 'food fads', or such implicitly fringe issues as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allergies and the organic food movement. It is obviously more than possible to take issue with such )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 431.2997 643.0855 445.2917 654.9655 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 400.9397 445.7575 414.9317 457.6375 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 481.2917 388.7335 495.2837 400.6135 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 223.6517 262.6855 237.6437 274.5655 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 164.3117 248.4295 178.3037 260.3095 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 445.2797 205.6615 459.2717 217.5415 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 43 0 R 46 0 R 49 0 R 52 0 R 55 0 R ] /Contents 38 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Length 8423 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusions, especially as the book's chronological coverage extends to the 1990s. The book's title promises a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more inclusive agenda, with its enticing highlighting of 'fusion food' as a key theme; but the almost complete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absence of discussion of this concept, which is dealt with in two sentences on page 233, is symptomatic of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more pervasive narrowness. We shall see that the omissions mentioned by the author himself actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitute the tip of a much bigger iceberg.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is actually concerned with aspects of food consumption, policy and business in twentieth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain. Professor Oddy pulls together and extends his earlier work on family budget surveys, of which there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were a remarkable number; and he constructs tables to represent the calorific content and nutritional make-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up of these recorded \(and until the mid-twentieth century mainly working-class\) dietaries, seeking to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measure the fluctuating nutritional value and changing content of the food consumed. From this angle he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engages with the 'poverty line' debates of the turn of the century, the controversy over alleged malnutrition in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the depressed areas of the 1930s, and the debate over the impact of rationing on diet and health in the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World Wars and especially the extended period of control that followed the Second World War. His analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of food policy is particularly interesting on the Ministry of Health's resistance to taking the evidence of new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific understandings of nutrition on board during the 1930s, as part of a concern to defuse potentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotive and politically damaging debate about the living standards of the unemployed and especially their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children, and on its post-war readiness to assume the undeserved credit for the ascribed successes of Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War food policy. Discussion of the 1930s is, however, lacking in focus and makes the reader work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unnecessarily hard, and it might be added that Charles Smith treated a lot of the issues with greater clarity in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1940.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 61.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 61.016 512.211 m 75.008 512.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is surprising that the author does not extend his critical comments to the post-war activities of MAFF; but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the lack of bite in his analysis here is indicated by his acceptance of the formula that foot and mouth disease )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('closed the countryside' in 2001, when what actually closed it was the attitude of government and the NFU to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an intrinsically almost unproblematic disease, which had been elevated to the status of a plague through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political manipulation by economic vested interests, and through failure to learn from the recent past.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 519.944 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 519.944 428.931 m 533.936 428.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Oddy's representation of the end of post-war rationing as 'the revival of choice' is similarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question-begging: there certainly was increased choice, especially for those who could afford it, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whiggish label provided here might have come from the propaganda of the British Housewives' League or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Conservative Party, and a more careful reading of Zweiniger-Bargielowska's book on austerity in post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war Britain might have ushered in a more nuanced approach.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 326.612 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 326.612 357.651 m 346.604 357.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 346.604 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Any examination of twentieth-century food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and agricultural policy needs to sustain a critical perspective on party politics and the work of the relevant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government departments, and this book does so only intermittently.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third main strand of the book, an account of developments in food technology and the business of food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manufacturing, is basically descriptive, with a tendency to dissolve into lists. It is perhaps strongest on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rise of refrigeration. Significant lacunae occur, however, as with the treatment of the history of ice cream, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which assumes that its history as a commodity began with Wall's in the inter-war years, and takes no account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of earlier developments on a broader front. Here as elsewhere, the ethnic dimensions \(in this case Italian\) to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specialised foodstuff provision are given short shrift.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 287.648 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 287.648 231.603 m 307.640 231.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 307.640 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Critical analysis of the processes of innovation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their implications is confined to throwaway lines, some of which are suitably acerbic and might have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed further in the text. The summary of the growth of McDonald's British operations, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes no mention of the controversies surrounding the rise of this and other fast food chains, and Ritzer's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important McDonaldization thesis, with the literature it has spawned, is absent from text and bibliography.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 160.323 m 54.008 160.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 54.008 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Lobstein's work on fast foods and nutrition is mentioned only to show the growth in the numbers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outlets and meals sold: its analysis of the content of such meals, and their health implications, is ignored.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 537.320 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 537.320 146.067 m 557.312 146.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The debate on genetically modified organisms, which brings together issues of business, politics and policy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and might have been expected to provide a culmination to the book's arguments, is barely mentioned. And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where is globalization, the other face of 'fusion food', in this account?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another important omission is the lack of attention paid to food retailing, apart from outline business )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories of the main retail chains of the late twentieth century, with an increasing dependence on public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations hand-outs towards the end of the book. Some use is made of parliamentary papers and the trade )] TJ ET endstream endobj 39 0 obj [37 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 61.0157 512.5255 75.0077 524.4055 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [37 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 519.9437 429.2455 533.9357 441.1255 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj [37 0 R /Fit] endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 326.6117 357.9655 346.6037 369.8455 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj [37 0 R /Fit] endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 287.6477 231.9175 307.6397 243.7975 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 51 0 obj [37 0 R /Fit] endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 160.6375 54.0077 172.5175 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 54 0 obj [37 0 R /Fit] endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 537.3197 146.3815 557.3117 158.2615 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 60 0 R 63 0 R 66 0 R 69 0 R 72 0 R ] /Contents 58 0 R >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Length 8388 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(press for earlier periods, but this produces more quotation than interpretation, and the extensive literature on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the development of 'systems of provision' in the twentieth-century food trades does not feature. The book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weak on the history of food retailing, with little or no attention to the development of the historiography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since Peter Mathias's )] TJ ET BT 137.828 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Retailing Revolution )] TJ ET BT 239.828 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London: Longman\))] TJ ET BT 340.484 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1967 and Michael Winstanley's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Shopkeeper's World)] TJ ET BT 151.232 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester: Manchester University Press\))] TJ ET BT 365.516 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1983. Winstanley's subsequent work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on food retailing, together with that of \(for example\) John Benson, Gareth Shaw, Roger Scola \(especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scola's study of the food supply of Victorian Manchester, which should have been essential to the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter of this book\), along with that of Hodson and \(in collaboration\) Schmiechen and Carls on retail food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markets and market halls, and of Gurney and others on the Co-operative movement \(on which the only work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cited is that of Birchall\), make no contribution to the argument of this book; and it is impoverished without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 61.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 61.016 652.515 m 81.008 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nor are farming, fishing and the transport of foodstuffs from producer to market given an adequate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment: the sections on fish and milk in Chapter 2, for example, which ostensibly deals with food supply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1890 and 1914, are based on scattered primary sources without taking account of the research of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(for example\) Robb Robinson on North Sea trawling and fish transport, or P.J. Atkins on London's railway )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(milk trade.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 86.012 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 86.012 569.235 m 106.004 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 106.004 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Questions of transport and the nature of retail provision had a considerable effect on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quality and variety of food as delivered to the consumer, especially in the period before refrigeration was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general in shops; but these issues have changed their form in recent years without ceasing to be important. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Their treatment in this book is cursory in the extreme.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book's main research base, however, is founded on Professor Oddy's meticulous analysis of a large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of collections of domestic budgets. The fruits of earlier phases of this research have appeared in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various places over many years, but this book pulls it all together. This is, however, highly problematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material. The comparative analysis over time of dietary composition and nutritional value from survey data )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes heroic assumptions about the accuracy of the surveys. Those who kept diaries and disclosed diets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were a self-selecting group, no doubt with unusually disciplined and deferential habits; and they were, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came to be, well aware of the values and prejudices of those who were gazing upon and judging them, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially when we consider the early surveys before the First World War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michel Foucault haunts this discussion, like so many others. Stephen Reynolds, a middle-class man who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to share working-class lives, and developed his own distinctive economic and social theories in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process, applied harsh words to the earnest reformers who predominated among the investigators:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Food reformers: patrons of cookery schools where they try, happily in vain, to teach the pupils to prepare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dishes no working man would adventure on; physical degenerates who fear that unless the working man )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imitates them, he will become as degenerate as they are, and quite unfit to do the world's rough work - forget )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that whereas they have only one staple food, if that, namely bread, the poor man has several dishes which he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likes so well that he is loth )] TJ ET BT 165.020 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(sic\) )] TJ ET BT 189.344 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to touch any other.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 279.332 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 279.332 262.371 m 299.324 262.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We do not need to endorse the whole of Reynolds's indictment to accept that the provision of budgets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved a clash between conflicting cultures, and created a situation in which the observer's presence was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely to alter the nature of the evidence presented. Hence the high probability of the selective omission of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foods and practices that were likely to generate disapproval, especially alcohol of all kinds \(after all, beer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does have food value\), and tasty treats cooked outside the home, such as fish and chips. The absences from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early dietary surveys, taken at face value, would make it very hard to understand the strength of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brewing interest, or the meteoric rise of the fish and chip shop, or the enormous numbers of greengrocers' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and confectioners' shops in the industrial towns. The low level of fish consumption identified in the surveys )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is remarkable, especially in the light of the very full collection of material on this theme in the Public Record )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Office, where a group of civil servants in the 1930s became fascinated by the complexity and importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fish trades.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.336 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.336 93.555 m 124.328 93.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 124.328 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Interestingly, too, in the light of current concerns, the surveys seem unable to take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of the amount of salt in the diet, and there must surely be other omissions and approximations.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 527.636 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 527.636 79.299 m 547.628 79.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The problem of accounting for food consumed outside the home \(with, no doubt, a high salt content\) is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admitted for the late twentieth century, when the rise of eating out and the fast food industries is too obvious )] TJ ET endstream endobj 59 0 obj [57 0 R /Fit] endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 61.0157 652.8295 81.0077 664.7095 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 62 0 obj [57 0 R /Fit] endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 86.0117 569.5495 106.0037 581.4295 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 65 0 obj [57 0 R /Fit] endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 279.3317 262.6855 299.3237 274.5655 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 68 0 obj [57 0 R /Fit] endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 70 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.3357 93.8695 124.3277 105.7495 ] >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 71 0 obj [57 0 R /Fit] endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 73 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 527.6357 79.6135 547.6277 91.4935 ] >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 77 0 R 80 0 R 83 0 R 85 0 R 87 0 R 89 0 R 91 0 R 93 0 R 95 0 R ] /Contents 75 0 R >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Length 8865 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to neglect; but it should also be considered for earlier periods. The dietary survey material cries out for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(triangulation and careful critical analysis; but in this book it is treated as if it were an objective source, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capable of generating trustworthy quantitative conclusions that can be compared over time. I suggest that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this is not the case.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A real strength to set against these problems, however, is the author's awareness of the importance of age )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and gender, and especially status as a contributor to the family's income and to the distribution of food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the family; the way in which women accepted and consented to an even more limited diet than that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their husbands, despite doing their own heavy manual labour in the home, is a very important theme. It is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pity, then, that it is not taken further by making use of the oral history studies \(and collections\) that are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available, or by taking up the wider insights into the meanings ascribed to housework and domestic cookery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that can be gleaned from the work of \(especially feminist\) sociologists and anthropologists.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 472.292 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 472.292 640.515 m 492.284 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is, potentially, a great deal more to be said, for a further besetting problem of this book is its failure to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engage with the growing literature on consumption, identity, consumerism and the state, as pioneered by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Hilton, Martin Daunton and associates.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 267.656 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 267.656 585.747 m 287.648 585.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 287.648 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Questions of food and fashion, food and ethnicity \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rise of the 'Indian' restaurant, for example\), and the issues raised by 'eating out', are either ignored or treated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very briefly in ways that fail to engage with the literature. The relationships between diet and health in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form of heart disease, anorexia and bulimia are not given any developed attention, and the discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obesity and 'slimming' fails to engage with issues of identity, fashion and self-esteem.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 445.640 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(21\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 445.640 528.723 m 465.632 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book frustrates because it deals with a neglected set of themes in what promises to be a full and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authoritative way, and fails to deliver. It contains useful passages and some solid archival research, but its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtues are vitiated by a very limited critical engagement with the sources and the literature, and by a failure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to look beyond the bounds and values of quantitative economic and business history. Professor Oddy has not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so much pushed the appetising stuff of argument and the challenging work of cultural and anthropological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians to the side of his plate: he has implicitly rejected the recipes. We are offered a restricted menu )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based on traditional, unquestioning economic history, seasoned in parts with critical comment and coloured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with examples, but without being confronted by the choice of options that the author advocates elsewhere. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is plain fare indeed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(August 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.659 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 298.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 298.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen Reynolds, )] TJ ET BT 157.016 298.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Poor Man's House )] TJ ET BT 260.240 298.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London: London Magazine Editions, 1980 [1st edn, London: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 283.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macmillan, 1908]\), pp. 109-10.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.000 283.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.000 282.387 m 268.988 282.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 269.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 269.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Hoggart, )] TJ ET BT 150.332 269.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Uses of Literacy )] TJ ET BT 252.992 269.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Harmondsworth: Penguin Books in association with Chatto )] TJ ET BT 64.016 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(&Windus, 1958 [1st edn, London: Chatto &Windus, 1957]\), p. 24.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 384.344 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 384.344 253.875 m 438.332 253.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 241.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Roberts, )] TJ ET BT 143.012 241.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Classic Slum: Salford Life in the First Quarter of the Century )] TJ ET BT 463.028 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press, 1970\), an astonishing omission from Professor Oddy's bibliography and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 85.016 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 85.016 211.107 m 139.004 211.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 198.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. Elliston Allen, )] TJ ET BT 151.688 198.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Tastes: An Enquiry into the Likes and Dislikes of the Regional Consumer )] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London: Hutchinson, 1968\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 204.008 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 204.008 182.595 m 257.996 182.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 169.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See among others, Elizabeth Roberts, )] TJ ET BT 246.992 169.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Woman's Place )] TJ ET BT 334.544 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford: Blackwell, 1984\); idem., )] TJ ET BT 501.524 169.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women )] TJ ET BT 64.016 155.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Families: An Oral History, 1940-1970 )] TJ ET BT 273.008 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford: Blackwell, 1995\); J. K. Walton, )] TJ ET BT 473.648 155.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lancashire: A )] TJ ET BT 64.016 141.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social History 1558-1939 )] TJ ET BT 191.012 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1987\), Chapter 13; Ellen Ross, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Love and Toil: Motherhood in Outcast London 1870-1918 )] TJ ET BT 347.348 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Davies, )] TJ ET BT 144.992 112.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Leisure, Gender and Poverty: Working-Class Culture in Salford and Manchester, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1900-1939 )] TJ ET BT 119.012 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Buckingham: Open University Press, 1992\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 335.660 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 335.660 97.059 m 389.648 97.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 84.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. K. Walton, )] TJ ET BT 130.676 84.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fish and Chips and the British Working Class, 1870-1940 )] TJ ET BT 413.360 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Leicester: Leicester )] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press, 1992\), makes extensive use of oral history and Mass-Observation material. Professor )] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.570 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oddy cites this book but does not use it or build on it for these purposes.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 412.004 55.570 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 412.004 54.176 m 465.992 54.176 l S endstream endobj 76 0 obj [74 0 R /Fit] endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 78 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 472.2917 640.8295 492.2837 652.7095 ] >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 79 0 obj [74 0 R /Fit] endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 81 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 267.6557 586.0615 287.6477 597.9415 ] >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 82 0 obj [74 0 R /Fit] endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 84 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 445.6397 529.0375 465.6317 540.9175 ] >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 86 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 214.9997 282.7015 268.9877 294.5815 ] >> endobj 86 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 88 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 384.3437 254.1895 438.3317 266.0695 ] >> endobj 88 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 89 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 90 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 85.0157 211.4215 139.0037 223.3015 ] >> endobj 90 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 91 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 92 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 204.0077 182.9095 257.9957 194.7895 ] >> endobj 92 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 93 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 94 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 335.6597 97.3735 389.6477 109.2535 ] >> endobj 94 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 95 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 96 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 412.0037 54.4903 465.9917 66.3703 ] >> endobj 96 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 97 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 99 0 R 101 0 R 103 0 R 105 0 R 107 0 R 109 0 R 111 0 R 113 0 R 115 0 R 117 0 R 119 0 R 121 0 R 123 0 R 125 0 R 127 0 R 129 0 R ] /Contents 98 0 R >> endobj 98 0 obj << /Length 12991 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen Mennell, )] TJ ET BT 151.676 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(All Manners of Food: Eating and Taste in England and France from the Middle )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ages to the Present )] TJ ET BT 160.004 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford: Blackwell, 1985\); idem., )] TJ ET BT 326.984 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al. )] TJ ET BT 353.984 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(eds.\), )] TJ ET BT 386.972 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Sociology of Food. Eating, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Diet and Culture )] TJ ET BT 148.352 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London: Sage, 1992\); C. Anne Wilson, )] TJ ET BT 343.340 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Food and Drink in Britain: from the Stone )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Age to Recent times )] TJ ET BT 161.996 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London: Constable, 1973\); )] TJ ET BT 297.992 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(idem)] TJ ET BT 321.320 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. and P. C. D. Brears \(eds.\), )] TJ ET BT 456.296 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Traditional Food )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(East and West of the Pennines )] TJ ET BT 212.672 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1991\); Gerald and Valerie )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mars \(eds.\), )] TJ ET BT 124.664 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Food, Culture and History )] TJ ET BT 255.668 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London: London Food Seminar, 1993\). The Oxford )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symposium on food and cookery has published a series of collections of essays since 1983, although )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of the themes have been more directly relevant for present purposes than others.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 476.588 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 476.588 695.283 m 530.576 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Smith, )] TJ ET BT 138.356 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain's Food Supplies. A Survey Prepared for the Fabian Society )] TJ ET BT 461.900 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London: George )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge and Sons Ltd, 1940\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 216.680 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 216.680 666.771 m 270.668 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 653.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a complex story. For background to this comment, Abigail Woods, )] TJ ET BT 423.668 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Foot and Mouth Disease in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain: the history)] TJ ET BT 156.020 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, at )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 173.684 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.chstm.man.ac.uk/news/fmd.htm)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 173.684 638.259 m 384.680 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 387.680 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 401.672 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, accessed 24 August 2003. I do )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not seek to associate Dr Woods with my personal interpretation of her findings.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 445.628 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 445.628 624.003 m 499.616 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 611.146 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ina Zweiniger-Bargielowska, )] TJ ET BT 207.644 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Austerity in Britain: Rationing, Controls and Consumption, 1939-1955 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 262.652 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 262.652 595.491 m 322.640 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 582.634 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liz Matthews, 'The history of the ice-cream industry in Britain from its origins to 1939', unpublished )] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ph.D. thesis, Lancaster University, 2001; Terri Colpi, )] TJ ET BT 323.996 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Italian Factor: The Italian Community in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Great Britain )] TJ ET BT 132.020 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Edinburgh: Mainstream, 1991\); Lucio Sponza, )] TJ ET BT 362.996 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Italian Immigrants in Nineteenth-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(century Britain: Realities and Images )] TJ ET BT 247.664 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1988\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 464.948 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 464.948 538.467 m 524.936 538.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 525.610 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. Ritzer, )] TJ ET BT 114.008 525.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The McDonaldization of Society: An Investigation into the Changing Character of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Contemporary Social Life)] TJ ET BT 188.684 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London and Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press, 1993\), and most )] TJ ET BT 64.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recently, )] TJ ET BT 108.668 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Explorations in the Sociology of Consumption: Fast Food, Credit Cards and Casinos)] TJ ET BT 64.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London: Sage, 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 172.004 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 172.004 481.443 m 231.992 481.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 468.586 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(T. Lobstein, )] TJ ET BT 125.348 468.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fast Food Facts)] TJ ET BT 204.680 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: Camden, 1988\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 332.336 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 332.336 467.187 m 392.324 467.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 454.330 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, M.J. Winstanley, 'Concentration and competition in the retail sector', in M. W. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kirby and M. B. Rose \(eds.\), )] TJ ET BT 206.000 440.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Business Enterprise in Modern Britain )] TJ ET BT 395.000 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London: Routledge, 1994\); John )] TJ ET BT 64.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Benson and Gareth Shaw \(eds.\), )] TJ ET BT 221.648 425.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Evolution of Retail Systems c)] TJ ET BT 382.640 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 388.640 425.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1800-1914 )] TJ ET BT 443.636 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Leicester: Leicester )] TJ ET BT 64.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press, 1992\); Roger Scola, )] TJ ET BT 248.336 411.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Feeding the Victorian City: Food Supply of Manchester, 1770-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 397.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1870 )] TJ ET BT 91.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1992\); Peter Gurney, )] TJ ET BT 405.284 397.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Co-operative Culture and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 383.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics of Consumption in Britain )] TJ ET BT 232.376 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1996\); James )] TJ ET BT 64.016 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schmiechen and Kenneth Carls, )] TJ ET BT 220.988 368.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The British Market Hall: A Social and Architectural History )] TJ ET BT 513.980 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1999\), Part Four; John K. Walton, 'Towns and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumerism', in Martin Daunton \(ed.\), )] TJ ET BT 256.820 340.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cambridge Urban History of Britain, III:)] TJ ET BT 479.480 340.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1840-1950 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 326.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000\), pp. 715-44, and references cited there. Some of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statements on Co-operation are puzzling, especially the doubt cast in a footnote on the Co-op's )] TJ ET BT 64.016 297.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pioneering role in British supermarket provision, which comes without a supporting reference.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 517.616 297.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 517.616 296.115 m 557.612 296.115 l S BT 64.016 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 281.859 m 84.008 281.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 269.002 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 268.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robb Robinson, )] TJ ET BT 145.028 268.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Trawling: The Rise and Fall of the British Trawl Fishery )] TJ ET BT 421.724 268.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Exeter: University of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Exeter Press, 1996\); P. J. Atkins, 'The growth of London's railway milk trade, )] TJ ET BT 440.300 254.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c. )] TJ ET BT 451.628 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1845-1914', )] TJ ET BT 511.784 254.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal )] TJ ET BT 64.016 240.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Transport History)] TJ ET BT 163.364 240.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, second series, 4 \(1978\), 208-226.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 329.000 240.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 329.000 239.091 m 388.988 239.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 226.234 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 226.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reynolds, )] TJ ET BT 115.352 226.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poor Man's House)] TJ ET BT 205.244 226.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 110-111. For a full account of Reynolds's life and writings, see the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 211.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressive Christopher Scoble, )] TJ ET BT 217.340 211.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fisherman's Friend: A Life of Stephen Reynolds )] TJ ET BT 451.556 211.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Tiverton: Halsgrove, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 197.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 197.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 196.323 m 155.000 196.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 183.466 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I discuss these issues at length in my )] TJ ET BT 243.344 183.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fish and Chips and the British Working Class)] TJ ET BT 465.032 183.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 468.032 183.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 468.032 182.067 m 528.020 182.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 169.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 169.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For background on salt, Mark Kurlansky, )] TJ ET BT 265.988 169.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Salt: A World History )] TJ ET BT 373.988 169.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London: Jonathan Cape, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 528.968 169.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 528.968 167.811 m 556.628 167.811 l S BT 64.016 154.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 153.555 m 96.344 153.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 140.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 140.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, Diana Gittins, )] TJ ET BT 200.672 140.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fair Sex: Family Size and Structure, 1900-1939)] TJ ET BT 431.648 140.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: Hutchinson, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1982\); or Nickie Charles and Marion Kerr, )] TJ ET BT 272.636 126.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women, Food and Families: Power, Status, Love, Anger )] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1988\), the title of which sums up a lot of what is at issue.)] TJ ET BT 42.816 97.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 97.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Hilton and Martin Daunton \(eds.\), )] TJ ET BT 276.656 97.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Politics of Consumption: Material Culture and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 83.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Citizenship in Europe and America)] TJ ET BT 233.348 83.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford: Berg, 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 341.660 83.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 341.660 82.275 m 401.648 82.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 69.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, Peter N. Stearns, )] TJ ET BT 234.644 69.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fat History. Bodies and Beauty in the Modern West)] TJ ET BT 483.620 69.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York University Press, 1997\); Diana Simmonds, 'What's next? Fashion, foodies and the illusion )] TJ ET endstream endobj 99 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 100 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 476.5877 695.5975 530.5757 707.4775 ] >> endobj 100 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 34 0 R >> endobj 101 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 102 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 216.6797 667.0855 270.6677 678.9655 ] >> endobj 102 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 39 0 R >> endobj 103 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 104 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 173.6837 638.5735 384.6797 650.4535 ] >> endobj 104 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.chstm.man.ac.uk/news/fmd.htm) >> endobj 105 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 106 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 445.6277 624.3175 499.6157 636.1975 ] >> endobj 106 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 42 0 R >> endobj 107 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 108 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 262.6517 595.8055 322.6397 607.6855 ] >> endobj 108 0 obj << /Type /Action /S 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