%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 39 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818063422+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818063422+01'00') /Title (Ordinary Prussians. Brandenburg Junkers and Villagers, 1500-1840) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4230 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Ordinary Prussians. Brandenburg Junkers and Villagers, 1500-1840)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is refreshing to be told by William Hagen that 'refractoriness and insubordination proved to be Prussian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtues'.\(p. 645\) This statement would not be surprising about nineteenth-century Prussian working-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture, but it is about early modern nobles and peasants. This work is full of such iconoclastic approaches, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the author presents in a captivating, entertaining and yet scholarly manner. The expression 'peasants' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(as well as 'serf' and 'serfdom'\) is banned from this book from the very start, and rightly so. Hagen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincingly demonstrates that rural subjects, even though burdened by labour dues and bound to land and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(farm through a myriad of individualised, complicated contracts and legal agreements, also possessed strong )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property rights, legal entitlements, a strong will of self-defence and litigiousness, and were light-years away )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the caricature of the passive, miserable, tortured, pitiable and exploited creatures which traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography ? either of the Marxist or the liberal persuasion ? has hitherto painted. Similarly, Hagen ends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up destroying ? against his own intention at the outset of his research, as he admits ? the image of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brandenburg-Prussian Junker as a militarised, obedient servant of his king, who exercised traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paternalist seigneurialism over their subjects. Instead Brandenburg noble landlords were part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European mainstream through technical and managerial innovation, a healthy sense for profit-making, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an insight in the necessity of tapping into the know-how of non-noble, capitalist estate administrators.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the future it will be necessary to think again when we imagine rural life east of the Elbe. Thus Peter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(351)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 September, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Hagen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(521815584X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(75.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(691pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karin Friedrich)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6357 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blickle, in his latest book on peasant freedom in Upper Germany )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 349.304 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 349.304 795.075 m 363.296 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 363.296 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, will have to revise his perception of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploited, pressed and slave-like peasantry in Brandenburg, Mecklenburg and Schleswig-Holstein, whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(miserable existence he contrasts with the contractual relationship between peasants and landlords in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Swiss cantons. His idea of peasant resistance and successful strife for freedom \(through the accumulation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('freedoms' in the plural\) will have to be extended to the east.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bill Hagen's book has implications reaching far beyond its immediate objective of providing a dense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative of the )] TJ ET BT 110.324 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(longue dure)] TJ ET BT 173.312 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of village and manorial life of the manor of Stavenow in the Prignitz district of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brandenburg from the sixteenth to the early nineteenth centuries. The whole work is deeply marked by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence of a school of agrarian historians in Potsdam around Jan Peters, inheriting the positive tradition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the former GDR's emphasis on social and agrarian history, but also tapping into )] TJ ET BT 419.468 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Alltagsgeschichte)] TJ ET BT 504.128 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(everyday )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history\), material culture, institutional culture and mentality. If one more effort was needed to finally put the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now tired, but still influential theory of a special German path of history \()] TJ ET BT 387.308 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sonderweg)] TJ ET BT 440.636 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) to rest, it is this book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No longer will it be possible to speak categorically about Prussian society as economically backward, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militarised and enserfed; a society that supposedly missed out on the European agricultural revolution of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century. Instead, it discloses a world where the nobility had an intense working relationship with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ambitious and competent members of the bourgeoisie \(or better 'commoners'\), as well as the 'ordinary' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people in the villages. Although this is a microhistorical case study, based on the rich archives of one estate, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserved by generations of landlords from several noble Brandenburg families, the conclusions are so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant that it is impossible to assume that the conditions of village and estate life in Stavenow were so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptional that they did not find some reflection in other Brandenburg-Prussian estates.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author starts by slaughtering a few holy cows: the paradigm of the 'second serfdom' frequently presented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the literature on Europe east of the Elbe finds no confirmation in Hagen's research, as the estates east of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Elbe never experienced the strain of 'first serfdom', imposed on most of medieval western Europe. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast to the rebellions which broke out in densely populated southwestern Germany in 1525, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underpopulated Prussia and Brandenburg were spared such trouble, because village farmers and labourers in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sixteenth century were badly needed and could therefore usually negotiate favourable contracts with their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lords. Hence there were no incentives to rebel, since lords of the manor had every reason to value and treat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their labour force well. The East Elbian farmers' trade-off was therefore to be 'less free but not so poor'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From among the voices of farmers, labourers, cottagers, millers, pastors, estate administrators, lawyers, state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officials, and the lord or lady of the manor, emerges the picture of a society which was not worse, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes better off than its allegedly more affluent, modern, capitalist and personally free counterparts on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British Isles, in France ? or closer to home ? the more intensely-researched southwest of Germany. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hagen stresses that the labour duties to be performed unpaid \(up to three days per week\) never triggered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manor-village tensions before the economic crisis of the Thirty Years' War \(1618-48\), which devastated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large stretches of territory. Even then, landlords ? following their self-interest ? tried to help farmers resettle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by restocking their farms, exempting them from rent and other payments for a limited time, but making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demands on their labour, which naturally presented the most valuable asset in times of underpopulation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Again, the farmers were in a strong bargaining position, which they used in turn to press their demands and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limit their burdens.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 349.3037 795.3895 363.2957 807.2695 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 5546 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hagen deals with the sixteenth century and the economic crisis of the seventeenth century in his relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brief first chapter \(pp. 26-68\), introducing all the villages then belonging to the Stavenow estates under the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noble Quitzow family, who, after the Thirty Years' War had ruined them, had to sell the estate to the barons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(von Blumenthal, at first typical representatives of a nobility favoured at the court of the Great Elector, yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later settling in Stavenow as provincial aristocrats. The second chapter traces the changing fortunes of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family, which oversaw heavy investment in and the post-war reconstruction of the estate, facing at the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time increasing interference from a centralising state and its ever higher tax demands. Confronted with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong resistance among villagers in 1700-1702, during a dire period of crop failures and poor harvests, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was only after the sale of the estate to the von Kleist family in 1717, and a thorough, government-backed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restructuring and redistribution of villagers' lands and holdings in 1723, that the Stavenow estates recovered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from crisis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chronological narrative is then interrupted by two chapters, one a highly original treatment of village )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities in social practice and law, the other an economic analysis of villagers' daily bread: village farm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incomes, living standards and lifespans. Together they give us a glimpse into a network of kinship focused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around subjects' property rights, marital customs, dowries, funeral arrangements and retirement provisions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as farmers' operating costs, taxes, incomes, living standards, mortality and material culture \(including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(food, furniture and cash, details of which are found in inventories\), which few other historians of early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern Prussia have ever made accessible to us in English or German.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 373.952 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 373.952 528.723 m 387.944 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 387.944 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The results are indeed, as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author claims, 'at odds with persistent popular and scholarly images of "pre-modern peasant society" and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("east-Elbian serfdom"'.\(p. 278\) Stavenow villages consisted of medium and large family farms, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(displayed a surprising degree of longevity, as many generations of the same families managed to secure for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves not inconsiderable material assets and rewards.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most eloquent revision of still-influential stereotypes, however, is Chapter five on the 'Kleists' good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fortunes' ? a brief history of the 'family strategies' and management of Stavenow from 1717 to 1806, later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complemented by two chapters on the policing of crime and the enforcement of rent and other duties by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estates' lordships. At first, this glance at the 'other side of the coin' of rural life at Stavenow reveals ? without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any partisan pro-noble bias to stem the usual anti-noble tone of much historiography on Prussian noble-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject relationships ? seems to confirm textbook images. The Kleists are typical of Prussia's eighteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century service nobility: among nine brothers, eight faithfully served in the army as officers. The other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture painted here of the Kleists, however, was that of a hard-nosed clan of businessmen, including a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competent businesswoman ? Frau von Kleist had to run the estate after her husband Joachim's death, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1737 until her own death in 1758. Crucially, to their help came a succession of some highly talented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commoner lawyers and estate adminstrators, usually in service for many years, if not decades, who enforced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their lordship's labour and rent regime, mediated in conflicts, punished insubordination, negotiated money- )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lending and borrowing, suggested retirement settlements, drew up inventories and statistical tables, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communicated with state officials and tax collectors.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 373.9517 529.0375 387.9437 540.9175 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7721 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tough bargaining, the imposition of higher rents and commutation fees \(which made it possible for farmers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to give up one or more days of compulsory labour in favour of cash payments\), and greater demands on their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(services \(such as wood-haulage, transport and construction work\), sparked active and passive resistance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boycott. One example is particularly telling: Since king Frederick II had introduced an edict in 1740 which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enabled subjects to turn directly to royal courts and justice, patrimonial courts on the estate had lost some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their authority and power. In the 1760s, several villagers petitioned the king to abolish the 'novelties' of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wood-haulage and other duties which Major von Kleist wanted to force upon them.The farmers protested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against coercive measures, such as imprisonment and corporal punishment of subjects who had resisted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kleist's demands. A royal commission was sent to investigate the claims, and although it upheld Kleist's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights to demand such services in principle, the Royal Supreme Appellate Court forced Kleist to lighten the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(farmers' burdens and refrain from corporal punishment. Farmers fought back with surprising consistency and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endurance, and the need for royal intervention clearly damaged Kleist's authority in the eyes of his subjects. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus farmers proved to be neither passive nor particularly obedient subjects, but just as insistent upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extension of their rights and economic self-interest as their lordship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hagen dedicates a whole chapter to a period of particularly acute conflict between Major von Kleist and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several particularly rebellious villagers and village-mayors during the late 1780s, which resulted in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiated and government-mediated )] TJ ET BT 215.648 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Urbarium)] TJ ET BT 266.648 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1790, laying down the exact amount of rent and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent of services due to the lord, as well as the definition of the farmers' 'iron stock' ? their material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possessions on the farm which could not be taken from them. The author's willingness to sift through all of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these appeals, counter-appeals, negotiations, complaints, minutes recorded by the estate managers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family lawyers, as well as court documents, results in a magnificent insight into a world hitherto presented to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us by generalisations about peasant passivity and exploitation, noble ruthlessness and ideological resistance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to pragmatism. It blows such older interpretations apart, without giving in to the temptation to idealize noble )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landlordism or present farm life as some )] TJ ET BT 230.984 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(heile Welt)] TJ ET BT 279.308 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( scenario. On the basis of particularly plentiful and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complete source material, Hagen succeeds in painting eighteenth-century manor-village existence in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(richest colours and details. Every niche of village life is filled with life and tangible individual stories: about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pastors and schoolmasters ? and their struggle for receiving their subsistence from villagers; about village )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mayors with their 'fragile authority' \(p. 454\), often torn between their support for fellow villagers and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(duties to collect taxes and recruit soldiers among them; about millers and their relatively comfortable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lifestyle; about less well-off sextons, blacksmiths and tailors; about head-ploughmen, hunter-foresters, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threshers, livestock herders, lodgers, and manorial servants, at the bottom of the social ladder and with more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsettled lives. Yet occasionally there are signs of upward mobility among them, and even the poorest were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never cast out into utter misery and destitution, although, as Hagen admits, 'hard times were worse for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them'.\(p. 422\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last chapter is particularly valuable for students of the nineteenth century, as it revises some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(myths concerning the Reform Era. Stavenow was sold in 1808 to Baron von Voss, a typical Prussian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucrat and minister of the reform and post-reform era, who after 1815 rose among the anti-reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nobility to the position of vice-president of the State Ministry and the Royal Council of State. Like Kleist, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was hit by strikes and unrest among the farmers, especially during the years when the Napoleonic wars left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large areas of Prussia occupied and exhausted. Again, patterns repeated themselves, as Voss ? despite his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather conservative political stance ? proceeded to introduce wide-ranging innovations in agricultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(techniques, experimented with new seeds and a regime of rationalised and efficient management, once more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the help of a non-noble estate manager. The greatest challenge to Voss's owership of Stavenow was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform legislation of 1807-10 which abolished labour duties and established personal freedom of farmers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through freehold conversions. Again it was not paternalism, but strong business interests which guided the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiation on both sides, between Voss and his former subjects, who had to compensate their lord for all or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of their 'iron stock', if they sat on hereditary or life tenure, and lost part of their arable and meadows, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often in return for the use of seigneurial woodlands and other rights.\(pp. 627-9\) Not all villages agreed easily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to such compensation demands, and in most cases, state officials had to mediate. Yet, perhaps surprisingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after all the bad press nobles have received for making their 'fortune' out of peasant misery, the great )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7328 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(majority of Stavenow farms survived as freeholds, and the few that failed were smallholders who then sold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their farms to outsiders. In the long term, farmers profited from emancipation, and by the mid-nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, some farmers' household inventories contained obvious signs of middle-class comfort, such as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sofa, a wall-clock and an umbrella.\(p. 644\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such results sit badly with the idea of Prussian rural life's economic and ideological backwardness, which, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, says nothing about Prussian nobles' political attitudes. It is their actions which tell the story of a fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed market economy and a 'multi-class' society, where each member pursues his or her own interest ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hardly different from other European societies. In fact, one of the most impressive outcomes of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(microhistory is the strong rights-oriented legal culture of the Brandenburg countryside, promoted both in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patrimonial, local courts, as well as by royal and state institutions. Misery, poverty and violence all are kept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within limits which make life endurable and for some ? not all at the top of the heap - even comfortable. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hagen is therefore right to argue for a new definition of )] TJ ET BT 304.280 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Untertnigkeit)] TJ ET BT 374.276 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, one that is less emotive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pejorative than hitherto available to historians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are, however, a few difficulties for the reader of this magnum opus. Although the frequent subdivision )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of chapters by headings makes the reading of over 650 pages less daunting, a case for reducing the bounty of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cited examples, sometimes even the repetition of cases in the light of different themes, can be made. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Students will probably find the length and density of this book too frightening, which is a pity, for some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passages should be made obligatory reading for all students of German history, to overcome the caricature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prussian rural and Junker life which they are fed by the great majority of English-language textbooks.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A small, more formal criticism is the author's choice of speaking about the Prussian Junkers as 'gentry'. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English gentry's structure and role is so unique that it should not be borrowed for the analysis of another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noble society in Europe, since it conjures up misleading comparisons. One British historian's works, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has led the way in revising the stereotypical idea both of 'absolutism' and of the 'militarization of Prussian-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German society' in the eighteenth century, have unfortunately been ignored. Peter Wilson's article )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenging Otto Bsch's thesis of 'social militarization' is conspicuous by its absence from the bibliography.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 402.675 m 48.008 402.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Finally, considering the wealth and length of the book, the three-and-a-half page index seems rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slight, although one can understand why farmers' or village names do not feature.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I do hope, however, that Hagen's own prediction that his book might have 'far-reaching implications for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German history' is accurate. Until more studies of this sort correct the stereotypical view of early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and nineteenth-century Prussia, we can just hope that other publishers and universities, against the pressure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 'market-driven' publishing programmes \(i.e. yet more books about the Nazis\), syllabi and efficiency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measures will allow scholars to dedicate such thorough and enduring efforts to the history of society and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('ordinary men'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 257.379 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 226.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Blickle, )] TJ ET BT 132.344 226.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [('Von der Leibeigenschaft zu den Menschenrechten'. Eine Geschichte der Freiheit in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 212.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Deutschland)] TJ ET BT 124.676 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Munich: C. H. Beck Verlag, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 301.316 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 301.316 211.107 m 355.304 211.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 198.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An exception is Ralf Prve and Bernd Klling, eds, )] TJ ET BT 314.324 198.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Leben und Arbeiten auf mrkischem Sand. Wege )] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in die Gesellschaftsgeschichte Brandenburgs 1700-1914)] TJ ET BT 335.324 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Bielefeld: Verlag fr Regionalgeschichte, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999\), as well as works by Heide Wunder and Jan Peters.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 339.956 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 339.956 168.339 m 393.944 168.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 155.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter H. Wilson, 'Social militarization in eighteenth-century Germany', )] TJ ET BT 407.960 155.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(German History)] TJ ET BT 486.284 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 18:1 \(2000\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1-39.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 89.012 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 89.012 139.827 m 143.000 139.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 114.965 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 95.983 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 78.203 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 78.203 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/351)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 76.809 m 322.316 76.809 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 51.832 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 402.9895 48.0077 414.8695 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 301.3157 211.4215 355.3037 223.3015 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 339.9557 168.6535 393.9437 180.5335 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 89.0117 140.1415 142.9997 152.0215 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 77.1235 322.3157 89.0035 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/351) >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 234 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1637)] TJ ET BT 34.016 781.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 41 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000581 00000 n 0000000663 00000 n 0000004945 00000 n 0000005054 00000 n 0000005164 00000 n 0000005273 00000 n 0000008834 00000 n 0000008962 00000 n 0000009046 00000 n 0000009130 00000 n 0000015540 00000 n 0000015570 00000 n 0000015698 00000 n 0000015734 00000 n 0000015818 00000 n 0000021417 00000 n 0000021447 00000 n 0000021575 00000 n 0000021611 00000 n 0000021676 00000 n 0000029450 00000 n 0000029562 00000 n 0000036943 00000 n 0000036973 00000 n 0000037099 00000 n 0000037135 00000 n 0000037263 00000 n 0000037318 00000 n 0000037446 00000 n 0000037501 00000 n 0000037628 00000 n 0000037683 00000 n 0000037809 00000 n 0000037904 00000 n 0000037969 00000 n trailer << /Size 41 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38255 %%EOF