%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 34 0 R 39 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721185601+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721185601+01'00') /Title (Watching Hannah: Sexuality, Horror and Bodily De-formation in Victorian England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4240 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Watching Hannah: Sexuality, Horror and Bodily De-formation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Victorian England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1854, Arthur Munby \(1828-1910\), civil servant, writer and ?connoisseur of working class women?, met )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hannah Cullwick, a servant, who became the object of a clandestine courtship and then a secret marriage. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Their affair and marriage remained hidden from Munby?s friends and associates, and although evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that they never had sex, their relationship was highly sexual and provided an arena for Munby to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realise his fetishistic desires about working women. Munby was fascinated by the bodies of working women, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intrigued by the ways in which they invoked and flouted the middle-class feminine ideal, by that ?mixture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manly frankness and woman delicacy?. He was attracted to Cullwick?s masculine femininity, her brawn and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(size, her dirty work and by what he saw as her concealed lady-like qualities, that for him hid a noble )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(femininity. The relationship was sado-masochistic and included an element of theatre and masquerade. Even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the marriage, Cullwick was expected to carry out the duties of a servant and produce accounts of her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(daily degradation; acting as a charwoman and then as an agricultural worker when they moved to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shropshire. Only occasionally did they go away as man and wife and during this time Cullwick was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expected to play the lady. Munby saw their relationship as an experiment in which to indulge his obsessions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and act out roles; Cullwick did not envisage their relationship taking the form that it did, but saw herself as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?slave? to love. First as a hidden affair, then as a clandestine marriage, and finally as a ?commuting? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage \(in some ways familiar to modern long-distance relationships\), Munby and Cullwick failed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(354)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 January, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barry Reay)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1861891199)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(224pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reaktion Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keir Waddington)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 9439 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conform to stereotypes of Victorian matrimony or sexuality. But as Reay suggests in )] TJ ET BT 443.312 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Watching Hannah)] TJ ET BT 530.972 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is more than one reading.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the surface, the relationship between Munby and Cullwick provides the focus for )] TJ ET BT 443.276 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Watching Hannah)] TJ ET BT 530.936 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers a rich and compelling insight into an unconventional relationship that failed to conform to social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(norms. Reay?s material is intrinsically fascinating and Munby?s obsessions do make absorbing, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncomfortable reading, especially when Reay tackles Munby?s fascination with noseless women \(chapter 2\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, as )] TJ ET BT 96.992 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Watching Hannah)] TJ ET BT 184.652 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( illustrates, far more can be read into Munby?s obsessions. Reay offers an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploration of Munby?s fascinations, his pleasures and his cruelties, but at no point does he attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(downplay Munby?s attraction to ?thrilling awfulness? or to redeem him. )] TJ ET BT 384.308 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Watching Hannah)] TJ ET BT 471.968 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( describes a man )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who was a ?master of early fetishism, sadomasochism and voyeurism? \(p. 10\) but, as Reay effectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues, Munby can also tell us much about Victorian attitudes to femininity. Against the backdrop of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Munby?s sadomasochistic relationship with Cullwick, )] TJ ET BT 297.344 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Watching Hannah)] TJ ET BT 385.004 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a study of voyeurism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fetishism, of Victorian male desires and not simply a book about one often hidden aspect of the sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture of late nineteenth-century England. Through Munby?s work, writings and photographs the reader is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered an insight into a ?fetishized endorsement of the subverted ideal? of Victorian femininity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reay is not the first historian to address Munby?s work or obsessions. His diaries, letters and surviving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(photographic collection have been used \(or ?mined? as Reay puts it\) to explore representations of Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working women )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 115.340 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 115.340 528.723 m 129.332 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 129.332 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; the interactions between sex and gender )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 330.284 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 330.284 528.723 m 344.276 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 344.276 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; and as a documentary source for the life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and attitudes of a domestic servant.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 203.324 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 203.324 514.467 m 217.316 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 217.316 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Munby has also been subject to feminist re-readings of the bourgeois )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(white male gaze )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 114.992 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 114.992 500.211 m 128.984 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 128.984 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and as a commentary on the connections between race and empire in private desires )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 537.212 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 537.212 500.211 m 551.204 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 551.204 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These multiple readings of Munby?s desires find expression in )] TJ ET BT 338.312 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Watching Hannah)] TJ ET BT 425.972 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. What Reay sets out to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide is a new study that addresses the themes raised by the existing historiography but which adds new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(layers of meaning. In doing so, the book re-examines Munby and his fascination with working class and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disfigured women. Rich in detail \(sometimes there is too much\) and superbly illustrated, )] TJ ET BT 461.648 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Watching Hannah)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draws heavily on Munby?s diaries, letters, poems, sketches and photographs as well as Cullwick?s letters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and diaries. Sadly, some of these have been lost or removed before entering the archive and Reay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges that there are gaps in the material, especially relating to the period when Munby and Cullwick )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lived together. In looking at this material, Reay presents more than a straightforward account of Munby and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eschews biography, even if much of the book concentrates on recounting and reconstructing Munby?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obsessions. In the process, )] TJ ET BT 164.000 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Watching Hannah)] TJ ET BT 251.660 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has new ?stories? \(p. 10\) to tell, but stories that are firmly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(located in the context of Victorian sexuality and middle-class notions of femininity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unlike Allen )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 99.344 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 99.344 317.139 m 113.336 317.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 113.336 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Reay sees Munby as more than an English )] TJ ET BT 325.976 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(flneur)] TJ ET BT 360.644 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Although this aspect of Munby?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleasure at observing the city and its working female inhabitants is not overlooked, Reay uses Munby as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(filter to grapple with the complexities of Victorian sexuality and notions of femininity, with his collections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of working women forming an ?other?, which for Reay throws light on conventional discourses. As Reay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains at the start of the book, ?Munby?s world is inexplicable without the ideological framework of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture of Victorian femininity? \(p. 16\). )] TJ ET BT 227.984 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Watching Hannah)] TJ ET BT 315.644 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( shows how Munby?s examples of femininity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be seen as a counterpoint and back-handed compliment to traditional stereotypes of femininity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with Ruskin?s image of delicate beauty and lithe airy shapes ?of the true lady?. However, Reay is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(careful not to cast Munby as a lone figure, but as a man of his time, so that his fantasies offer a way of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealing wider male preoccupations with femininity, the body, deformity and masculinity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Munby spent his adult life savouring the cross-currents and contradictions of Victorian notions of gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and class. He was a compulsive voyeur, trailing and talking to women both in towns and cities and in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countryside. However, as Reay so deftly shows, Munby was no mere distanced viewer with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?compassionate feeling for working women?. He made a habit of seeking out their histories, which he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meticulously recorded and recreated. Reay argues that most of Munby?s encounters were cynical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detached, with Munby seeing his collections of working women as objects of amusement. Photography was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central to his interaction, providing the historian with a rich collection of images that depict the dress and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearance of working women from milkmaids to servants to trapeze artists and pit-workers. Although less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt is made to discuss the multiple meanings of Munby?s photographic collection, Reay does effectively )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 115.3397 529.0375 129.3317 540.9175 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 330.2837 529.0375 344.2757 540.9175 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 203.3237 514.7815 217.3157 526.6615 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 114.9917 500.5255 128.9837 512.4055 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 537.2117 500.5255 551.2037 512.4055 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 99.3437 317.4535 113.3357 329.3335 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 7881 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate how Munby?s interest was not just to chronicle. His deliberate encounters were a means of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indulging his belief about the compatibility between femininity and hard labour. There can be no doubt from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Watching Hannah)] TJ ET BT 121.676 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that Munby was aroused by these encounters, which at points became fantasies in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Munby?s fetishistic interests were not limited to masculine women or their hard-working hands. Munby was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also fascinated by bodily de-formation, and in particular noseless women. To illustrate this, Reay describes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Munby?s relationship with Harriet Langdon, an ?erect and elegant? \(p. 40\) woman whose face was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disfigured by lupus. For Reay this relationship typified Munby?s voyeurism and the dependence he fostered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the women he encountered. He sees Munby?s interest in the context of physiognomy and nasology, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a vivid example of Victorian gothic horror. It is suggested that these noseless women offered a way of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defining femininity by representing its opposite, rather than providing a commentary on attitudes to physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deformity or the prevalence of disfiguring illness. Here Munby is merely engaging ?in a more fetishistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursuit of common cultural markers?, but little evidence is provided to support this claim beyond the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascination and excitement he felt. Although the polarity between deformity and \(feminine\) perfection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formed a leitmotif in Victorian horror literature, while the nose was used to reinforce notions about the ideal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woman, Munby?s interest can be seen in another context. It can also be interpreted as part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary fascination with freaks, the disordered body and deformity so ably discussed by Roy Porter in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another book in the same series )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 187.988 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 187.988 540.723 m 201.980 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 201.980 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? points that Reay does not acknowledge.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the start, Reay asserts that it is a mistake to read Munby?s all too probable virginity as a lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest in sex. Many of the encounters addressed in )] TJ ET BT 285.968 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Watching Hannah)] TJ ET BT 373.628 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are highly sexualised and Reay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devotes part of the penultimate chapter in dismissing the idea that Munby may have been homosexual. Links )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are made between Munby and the author of )] TJ ET BT 245.960 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(My Secret Life)] TJ ET BT 315.944 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, with Reay arguing that both saw women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar, sexualised ways. The sexualised nature of Munby?s interactions is clearest in Reay?s discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Munby's and Cullwick?s relationship, which is examined in meticulous and graphic detail. Reay suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it embodied notions of cerebral lechery and the ideal of male continence that was characteristic of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Munby?s age and class. However, the initial discussion of the relationship is one-dimensional, mediated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through Munby?s obsessions, his interest in domination, servitude and masquerade. Reay argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Munby?s marriage was an attempt to create the embodiment of his fantasy woman and his fascination with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the notion of a degraded exterior and noble interior. He also puts forward the view that Cullwick was lonely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the ?commuting? stage of their marriage and argues that Munby himself was at times troubled by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of their relationship. Little impression is given that she was a willing participant who derived pleasure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from her role. This comes later in the study, when Reay demonstrates how Cullwick was drawn into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship, and how it met her desire to be a servant to love and her apparent love of hard work. With )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Watching Hannah)] TJ ET BT 121.676 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( focusing on Munby, what is missing from the discussion of his relationship with Cullwick )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are her reactions to his voyeurism and interest in other women. Did she know or care? Are there other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readings of her diaries?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The relationship between Munby and Cullwick serves to highlight the main themes in )] TJ ET BT 448.988 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Watching Hannah)] TJ ET BT 536.648 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which are returned to again and again during the course of the study. Throughout, Reay looks for signs in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Munby?s work that help define the Victorian approach to femininity, given Munby?s interest in seeking out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its ?counterpoints? \(p. 96\). Here dirt becomes a form of disfigurement; clothing a means of unsexing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women. Reay uses this interest to discuss notions of gender hybridity, but less is said about how other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries ?saw? working women and whether they interpreted them as masculine. Given the rich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary debate about the human types associated with the Victorian city and concerns about health and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the body, this seems strange. Reay also stresses how Munby?s narratives and interactions with working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women and with Cullwick offer opportunities for Munby to return to his favourite themes of dominance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(submission. Other themes are touched upon: the place of the rural in English ideology, which Reay suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Munby tried to recreate when he and Cullwick moved to Shropshire; and the role of ritual in Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships. Although Reay is keen to point out that Munby?s collecting of urban working women was by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no means unusual ? it was present in the work of Dickens, Mayhew and other social investigators ? this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspect is only touched upon in passing. The similar sexual subjects present in social investigations of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 187.9877 541.0375 201.9797 552.9175 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 7407 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century city are alluded to but not explored. This would provide a fascinating further dimension )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and reinforce the central thesis of )] TJ ET BT 197.300 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Watching Hannah)] TJ ET BT 284.960 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that Munby should be seen as a man of his time. Reay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also highlights Munby?s attraction to nobility through servitude, but says little about the role played by work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Victorian society. Much is made of how Munby?s relationship with Cullwick crossed class boundaries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but notions of class and what they meant to Victorian society are not addressed. This leaves questions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unanswered about the wider context of master and servant relationships at a time when novelists and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentators were pointing to the corruption and abuse of servants that could be present in middle-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In suggesting that Munby?s sexuality should be read not so much as deviant pathology but as an extreme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(version of the kind of self-denial and controlled heterosexuality of Victorian middle-class masculinity, Reay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers a persuasive account of Munby?s significance for understanding latenineteenth-century notions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender. In )] TJ ET BT 85.664 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Watching Hannah)] TJ ET BT 173.324 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Munby comes to represent the complexity of Victorian sexuality and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polymorphous nature. It reminds us that there is far more to Victorian sexuality than the common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stereotypes; that transgressiveness, voyeuristic interest in pain and suffering, sadomasochism, and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascination with disfigurement were very much a part of the Victorian sexual world. By setting out a detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sensitive study, Reay adds a further level of reading to Munby and his obsessions which serves to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disrupt and explore nineteenth-century male ideals of femininity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 521.475 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 490.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Hiley, )] TJ ET BT 113.348 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Working Women: Portraits from Life)] TJ ET BT 339.680 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(David R. Godine; Boston, 1979\); A. V. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John, )] TJ ET BT 92.684 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(By the Sweat of their Brow: Women Workers at Victorian Coal Mines)] TJ ET BT 427.664 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Croom Helm; London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1980\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 460.947 m 149.000 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L. Davidoff, ?Class and gender in Victorian England?, )] TJ ET BT 328.964 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Feminist Studies)] TJ ET BT 408.632 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 5 \(1979\), 87-141.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 498.620 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 498.620 446.691 m 552.608 446.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 433.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L. Stanley, ed., )] TJ ET BT 139.676 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Diaries of Hannah Cullwick, Victorian Maidservant)] TJ ET BT 411.344 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Rutgers University Press; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Brunswick, N.J., 1984\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 203.996 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 203.996 418.179 m 257.984 418.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 405.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. Pollock, ?The dangers of proximity: the spaces of sexuality and surveillance in word and image?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Discourse)] TJ ET BT 112.676 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 16 \(1993-4\), 3-50.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 206.660 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 206.660 389.667 m 260.648 389.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 376.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. Pollock, ?"With My Own Eyes": fetishism, the labouring body and the colour of its sex?, )] TJ ET BT 509.108 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Art )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 100.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 17 \(1994\), 342-82; A. McClintock, )] TJ ET BT 277.340 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imperial Leather: Race, Gender and Sexuality in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Colonial Context)] TJ ET BT 146.360 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Routledge; London, 1995\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 283.352 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 283.352 346.899 m 337.340 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Allen, ?Munby reappraised: the diary of an English flaneur?, )] TJ ET BT 372.956 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Victorian Culture)] TJ ET BT 510.632 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 5 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2000\), 260-86.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 139.004 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 139.004 318.387 m 192.992 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 305.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roy Porter, )] TJ ET BT 122.348 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bodies Politic: Disease, Death and Doctors in Britain 1650-1900)] TJ ET BT 437.336 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Reaktion; London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 289.875 m 149.000 289.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barry Reay is grateful to Keir Waddington for his review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 238.757 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 219.775 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 201.995 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 201.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/354a)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 200.601 m 327.644 200.601 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 175.624 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.224 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4500)] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.824 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 461.2615 148.9997 473.1415 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 498.6197 447.0055 552.6077 458.8855 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 203.9957 418.4935 257.9837 430.3735 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 206.6597 389.9815 260.6477 401.8615 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 283.3517 347.2135 337.3397 359.0935 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 139.0037 318.7015 192.9917 330.5815 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 290.1895 148.9997 302.0695 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 36 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 200.9155 327.6437 212.7955 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/354a) >> endobj xref 0 57 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000582 00000 n 0000000664 00000 n 0000004956 00000 n 0000005065 00000 n 0000005175 00000 n 0000005284 00000 n 0000008845 00000 n 0000008973 00000 n 0000009057 00000 n 0000009176 00000 n 0000018668 00000 n 0000018698 00000 n 0000018826 00000 n 0000018862 00000 n 0000018892 00000 n 0000019020 00000 n 0000019056 00000 n 0000019086 00000 n 0000019214 00000 n 0000019250 00000 n 0000019280 00000 n 0000019408 00000 n 0000019444 00000 n 0000019474 00000 n 0000019602 00000 n 0000019638 00000 n 0000019668 00000 n 0000019795 00000 n 0000019831 00000 n 0000019915 00000 n 0000027849 00000 n 0000027879 00000 n 0000028007 00000 n 0000028043 00000 n 0000028176 00000 n 0000035636 00000 n 0000035763 00000 n 0000035818 00000 n 0000035946 00000 n 0000036001 00000 n 0000036129 00000 n 0000036184 00000 n 0000036312 00000 n 0000036367 00000 n 0000036495 00000 n 0000036550 00000 n 0000036678 00000 n 0000036733 00000 n 0000036860 00000 n 0000036915 00000 n 0000037043 00000 n trailer << /Size 57 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37139 %%EOF