%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417230427+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417230427+01'00') /Title (Margaret of Anjou: Queenship and Power in Late Medieval England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3849 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Margaret of Anjou: Queenship and Power in Late Medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret of Anjou, unlike most medieval queens, has been the subject of many biographies over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries but Helen E. Maurer's feminist approach to the queen's political life offers a substantially new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presentation of Henry VI's queen. It is a scholarly but very accessible work that challenges traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations of the Wars of the Roses and makes a valuable contribution to understandings of queenship in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the later medieval period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the past two decades there has been a significant surge in interest in the study of medieval queenship. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of intercession, the limitations of female authority, the potential for informal power, and perceptions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ideal queen are all persistent themes of this scholarship upon which Maurer has drawn. Maurer argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively that Margaret has hitherto been judged according to masculine standards, judgements that fail to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take into account the limitations placed upon her actions by her gender. The principal thesis of the book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Margaret's response to the failure of her king's authority and the need to exercise some form of power on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behalf of the Lancastrian dynasty was striking, not because it transgressed gender expectations, but for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent to which the queen endeavoured to live up to them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is essentially chronological in structure, divided into four sections - 'Expectations', 'Mediations', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(355)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 October, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helen Maurer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(851159273X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(29.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joanna Laynesmith)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7726 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('The Crisis of Kingship' and 'Queen's Rule?'. The introduction discusses medieval perceptions of the frailty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of women, arguing that although women were denied authority, they were often allowed considerable power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because they were encouraged to act as intercessors and as representatives of their menfolk. Maurer argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that queens often wielded less effective power than women a little lower in the social scale because as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(queens they were expected to be exemplars of ideal feminine behaviour, 'more visible and hence more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vulnerable to judgement than other women'.\(p. 12\) However, her sources for this assessment, primarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christine de Pizan's )] TJ ET BT 131.840 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Book of the Treasure of the City of Ladies)] TJ ET BT 333.176 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, are all French and Maurer does not address )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the implications of the significant differences in French and English queenship in the fifteenth century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, a more cultural-historical analysis, assessing the pageantry of Margaret's first arrival in London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and her 1456 arrival in Coventry, as well as the traditional rituals of coronation and childbirth and her legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status, would suggest that the expectations on English queens were more complex than Maurer's thesis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allows - not merely higher than for other women but distinctly different. As L. O. Fradenburg has argued, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is a 'plasticity of gender in the field of sovereignty' that this book does not really address.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 488.276 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 488.276 624.003 m 502.268 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, Maurer's conclusion that Margaret's role in the Wars of the Roses cannot be understood without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examining the limitations placed upon her by her gender is well-argued and sustained throughout the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part One deals with the negotiations surrounding Margaret's arrival in England, the contentious surrender of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maine, and her motherhood. In contrast to most recent political historians of this period, Maurer argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret's role in the surrender of Maine was significant but that her actions reflect her commitment to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional queenly role of mediator and should not be seen as diplomatic meddling. The chapter on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motherhood does not consider the practicalities of the role but discusses contemporary concerns about her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initial failure to produce an heir and later allegations that Prince Edward was either a changeling or a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bastard. The latter, Maurer argues, are closely connected with political events and reflect the complexities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret's position as a woman being drawn into politics. The allegations either denied the queen's ability to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('do what a proper woman would do' - that is, produce children - or intimated that she had 'transgressed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries of her proper place' through an extra-marital affair. In each case the allegations were also a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentary upon Margaret's political behaviour.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part Two begins with a chapter on 'Business-as-Usual', which is primarily an assessment of the queen's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surviving letters. Maurer convincingly rejects the assertions of earlier biographers that these are apolitical, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contending that many involve mediation and intervention with political implications. While the original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editor of these letters, Cecil Monro, asserted that many of the queen's attempts at intercession failed, Maurer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that what is more important is that over half were written in response to an appeal to Margaret, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implies that the initiators expected Margaret's intervention to be effective. Maurer's very interesting analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes that the one area in which action seemed to be more often entirely at Margaret's initiative was that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of clerical preferment and that the things she was asked to do were not gender-specific. Maurer also shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the letters reveal 'female networking within the system of intermediaries' \(p. 60\), who included in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number the duchesses of York and Somerset.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next chapter is a study of Cade's Rebellion, focussing largely upon Margaret's role in the issuing of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pardon to the rebels. Maurer argues that this was an instance of Margaret's personal political influence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aimed both at undermining rebel unity and presenting herself as the ideal intermediary queen tempering the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king's justice. Although Maurer admits to the complexities of the practice of intercession in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(queen's name might be invoked merely to allow the king to save face, her arguments are a little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsatisfactory here. She does not fully examine how this model works when, as on this occasion, the king )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had fled the scene. Nor does she address the fact that no contemporary chronicler seems to have been aware )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the queen's supposed role at this point: which leaves the question of whom the language of Margaret's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intercession was intended to impress unanswered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part Three examines the period 1453-6, characterized as the 'political education of Margaret of Anjou'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maurer argues that the enmity between Margaret and the duke of York has been habitually assumed to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been of long duration, but that the evidence of the queen's relations with York prior to the first battle of St )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Albans indicates that this was not the case. Maurer's important study of Margaret's gift-giving indicates that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the queen was careful to signal that she favoured Somerset and York equally in the early 1450s and that )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 488.2757 624.3175 502.2677 636.1975 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7611 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Somerset only began to rise in her favour after he had increased his influence with the king. Maurer argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuasively that this calls for a reevaluation of events following Henry VI's mental collapse in 1453. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(light of Margaret Howell's recent work on Eleanor of Provence )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 340.100 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 340.100 766.563 m 354.092 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 354.092 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Maurer suggests that Margaret's bid for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regency was not as novel as has usually been argued. She depicts Margaret attempting to create a royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centre of authority that would offer greater stability than either York or Somerset could do, but contends that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was the limitations of her gender that told against Margaret: wives could only act on their husbands' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behalf, as Eleanor of Provence had done in Henry III's absence, if the husband was 'cognizant and capable of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the authority and will that are to be represented'. \(quoted on p. 109\) Tellingly, the post of Protector, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was established in 1454 \(as it had been for Henry VI's minority\), assumed a military role that inevitably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevented a woman from occupying the position whereas a regency would have had less exclusive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret seems to have accepted York's protectorate and Maurer observes that there is no evidence that she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was responsible either for Somerset's release or York's exclusion from power on Henry VI's recovery. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maurer argues that after the protectorate, Margaret's role as representative of her dynasty had become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(redundant and that she stepped back out of the political frame. However, following the first battle of St )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Albans, Maurer asserts that the queen must have perceived York and his associates as a threat to her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husband's authority and that the enmity began at this time, possibly increased by a sense of betrayal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following her earlier efforts to signal friendship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part Four, the longest section of the book, examines the final years of Lancastrian kingship and Margaret's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts to exercise power in her family's interest despite her lack of formal authority. In a fascinating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploration of the workings of power, Maurer asserts that Margaret's approach was always to represent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(herself 'as subordinate and adjunct while asserting the king's authority', but that such a position was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inevitably short-term, because it 'denied her a more lasting authority and made her vulnerable to charges of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transgression when the extent and nature of her activities attracted notice'. \(p. 127\) Maurer argues here that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret was instrumental in undermining York's second protectorate but, having driven him from power, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was once again without a role herself and therefore retreated from the centre of power by moving out to her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(midland estates. However, with Henry's arrival in the Midlands later in the year, she was able to begin to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercise indirect rule on her family's behalf, influencing the replacement of the Keeper of the Privy Seal, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Treasurer and the Chancellor and being given institutional influence through her son's newly-appointed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(council. Maurer suggests that by appealing always to the authority of her husband or son to obscure the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent of her actual power, Margaret was able to push at the 'porous boundaries' of 'right order'. \(p. 139\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maurer contends that the gap between the image and reality of Margaret's power was especially evident in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rituals associated with her arrival and departure from Coventry on occasions in 1456 and 1457. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(September 1456 the queen was greeted by a series of pageants that referred to her in the context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional ideals of womanhood: the Virgin Mary, a queen served by chivalric heroes, and her name saint, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret. For Maurer this indicates Margaret's self-association with acceptable power relationships. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, as she mentions briefly in a footnote, the king himself was already present in Coventry and he had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not been so welcomed. Maurer does not address the implications of this unprecedented situation or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominence in the pageant scripts of themes and images of kingship, that again suggest a more complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notion of gender and sovereignty than Maurer allows. Her analysis of Margaret's controversial departure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Coventry following the 1457 council is, however, more convincing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maurer argues that Margaret's aims in the later 1450s were twofold - to exercise practical power drawing on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and reasserting the king's authority and to nullify the threat posed by York and the Nevilles, drawing them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back into the Lancastrian polity. The second aspect is explored in a fascinating chapter, focussing primarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon the Loveday procession of 1458, which has usually been dismissed as 'a fairly silly exercise'. \(p. 151\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This, Maurer asserts persuasively, was significant and meaningful at the time, despite its ultimate failure. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Because Margaret, as a woman with no official political role, could not be party to the formal settlement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recompense for St Albans, the Loveday procession was a crucial opportunity to involve her in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrations of reconciliation that both she and the king desired. The occasion did imply some 'mixed and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(murky' degree of role reversal between king and queen in terms of prayer and intercession, although it did )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 340.0997 766.8775 354.0917 778.7575 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 6359 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not challenge the king as source of authority. Initially it strengthened Margaret's position because York )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledged her informal exercise of power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In analysing 'The Road to War' which followed the failed reconciliation attempts, Maurer challenges the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accuracy of the single source, Benet's Chronicle, which claims Margaret advised a great council at Coventry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to indict the Yorkist lords in the summer of 1459 - thereby highlighting the difficulties involved in judging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret's actual role in events from the primarily Yorkist accounts that survive. Maurer maintains that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following Henry VI's captivity after the battle of Northampton, Margaret at last emerged as the publicly-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledged leader of the Lancastrian party, but that there is no way of knowing if she was responsible for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the earl of Northumberland's decision to raise the army that was ultimately to defeat York at Wakefield )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during her absence in Scotland. Maurer suggests that, although Margaret rightly recognised the need to act )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediately to capitalise upon the Lancastrian victory, being forced to travel south in winter probably made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provisioning difficult, thereby leading to the pillaging which so damaged her army's reputation and her own. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After victory at the second battle of St Albans, Maurer asserts that Margaret was again without a public role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and stepped out of the political frame. This point is perhaps debatable since the City of London's decision to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(send three ladies to negotiate suggests that they still considered Margaret to be the central decision-maker. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Various explanations for the failure after St Albans are mentioned but none explicitly favoured. Maurer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that the attainder against Margaret in the first Yorkist parliament identified her as their principal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opponent, using gender-determined language to depict her crimes: 'a "contrary" woman, guilty of sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transgression and of faithless - female? - mutability'. \(p. 202\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The conclusion deals very briefly with the last two decades of Margaret's life, rehearsing the generally-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepted version of events up to 1471. The sources for her fate after 1471 are contradictory and unclear, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maurer opts for the interpretation that a brief period of confinement was followed by four years in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(custody of Alice Chaucer, duchess of Suffolk, prior to her return to France, 'ransomed' by Louis XI.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is much more that might be said about Margaret's queenship. The management of her household and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her properties or her religious interests, for instance, are scarcely mentioned but have considerable political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance. However, the narrow focus of this book enables Maurer to tell a very readable and engaging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story and to concentrate the reader's attention on the central arguments of the limitations of Margaret's power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the circumspection of her behaviour. This makes it a book that will be appreciated by both general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers and scholars alike. Such a significant \(and long overdue\) reappraisal of one of the key figures of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wars of the Roses must be welcomed by all historians of both fifteenth-century politics and gender studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the later middle ages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 297.891 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 267.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L. O. Fradenburg, 'Introduction: Rethinking Queenship', in Fradenburg ed., )] TJ ET BT 427.964 267.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women and Sovereignty. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 253.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Conference Papers)] TJ ET BT 156.332 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1992\), pp. 1-13.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 435.980 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 435.980 251.619 m 489.968 251.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 238.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Howell, )] TJ ET BT 122.012 238.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eleanor of Provence: Queenship in Thirteenth-Century England)] TJ ET BT 431.312 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford: Blackwell, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 223.107 m 149.000 223.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 198.245 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 179.263 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 161.483 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 161.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/355)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 160.089 m 322.316 160.089 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 135.112 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 120.712 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2018)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.312 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 435.9797 251.9335 489.9677 263.8135 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 223.4215 148.9997 235.3015 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 160.4035 322.3157 172.2835 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/355) >> endobj xref 0 32 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000566 00000 n 0000000648 00000 n 0000004549 00000 n 0000004658 00000 n 0000004768 00000 n 0000004877 00000 n 0000008438 00000 n 0000008566 00000 n 0000008650 00000 n 0000008734 00000 n 0000016513 00000 n 0000016543 00000 n 0000016671 00000 n 0000016707 00000 n 0000016791 00000 n 0000024455 00000 n 0000024485 00000 n 0000024613 00000 n 0000024649 00000 n 0000024747 00000 n 0000031159 00000 n 0000031287 00000 n 0000031342 00000 n 0000031469 00000 n 0000031524 00000 n 0000031652 00000 n trailer << /Size 32 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31747 %%EOF