%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R 25 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140922074248+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140922074248+01'00') /Title (Luxury in the Eighteenth Century: Debates, Desires and Delectable Goods) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4203 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Luxury in the Eighteenth Century: Debates, Desires and Delectable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Goods)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Luxury in the Eighteenth Century is a welcome collection of essays on a very important topic. Since the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1982 appearance of the path-breaking The Birth of a Consumer Society, studies of consumption in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth-century Western Europe have proliferated to confirm the thesis that the century experienced a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatic surge in the production and consumption of goods.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 322.988 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 322.988 207.777 m 336.980 207.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 336.980 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This new, handsomely-edited volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explores two significant aspects of that expansion, namely the increased circulation of luxury goods and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great literary debates it provoked. Situating itself at the intersection of economics and culture, the book aims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only to follow the fabrication and transmission of various commodities but also to decipher their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning for the age. To achieve this worthy goal, Maxine Berg and Elizabeth Eger have assembled an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressively heterogeneous group of essayists, including six scholars of history, five of English, two of art )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and design, one of American studies, and a museum curator. As the editors proclaim in the book's opening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentence, 'This volume provides the first interdisciplinary treatment of the history of luxury.'\(p. 1\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first section of the book, 'Debates', examines the sprawling literary controversy over luxury in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century. The opening chapter, written by the volume's editors, provides an impressionistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overview of 'the rise and fall of the luxury debates.' That the authors chose to employ the term 'debates' in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(357)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 September, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maxine Berg)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Eger)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(333963822X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Kwass)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 322.9877 208.0915 336.9797 219.9715 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7426 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the plural is revealing. Rather than tracking the evolution of a single, two-sided debate, Berg and Eger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present a variety of sources and themes that constituted British and French engagement with the problem of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(luxury. Thus, we are introduced to the texts of commercial writers, novelists, social satirists, and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economists, and are invited to consider such themes as the relationship between luxury and commerce, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(categorization of luxury goods, consumer taste and aesthetics, and changes in economic thought. While this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kaleidoscopic approach renders any overarching argument difficult to discern, it nonetheless offers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tantalizing insights into the literature on luxury, insights that will undoubtedly stimulate further research on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the vortex of ideas, attitudes, and representations that comprise the luxury debates of the eighteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other chapters in Part I focus on particular pieces of the luxury debate, adding nuance to a debate that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often depicted in stark or simplistic terms. In the second chapter \('Mandeville, Rousseau and the Political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Economy of Fantasy'\), Edward Hundert picks up where Adam Smith's review of Rousseau's second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse left off. Hundert expertly summarizes Mandeville's Fable of the Bees, the scandalous yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundational text that dared defend luxury as essential to national opulence and power, and suggests how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mandeville informed Rousseau's understanding of the modern world. Both writers agreed that luxury went )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand in hand with commercial growth, politeness, and vanity, but, whereas Mandeville emphasized the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material benefits of modern commercial civilization, Rousseau lamented the loss of a natural and more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innocent human self. Hundert's analysis is razor-sharp and wholly convincing, but his parting comment that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mandeville ended up carrying the day, in the eighteenth as well as the twentieth century, may have missed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mark. Uncomfortable with both Mandeville's cynicism and Rousseau's backward-looking morality, many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth-century writers attempted to find a middle way between the two. As for today's consumer culture, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the packaging of luxury SUVs as rugged vehicles that will take us off-road to unspoiled nature speaks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volumes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Chapter Three \('Luxury in the Dutch Golden Age in Theory and Practice'\), Jan de Vries leads the reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back in time to the Dutch Republic of the seventeenth century, where, he argues, a precocious consumer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture developed. De Vries associates that culture with what he calls 'New Luxury', a sociable and inclusive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban form of luxury that he contrasts with 'Old Luxury', a type of consumption that thrived at court and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(served mainly to demarcate social status. Arguing against historian Simon Schama, who underscored Dutch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Calvinist discomfort with luxury consumption, de Vries points out that the Dutch seemed rather comfortable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with 'new' luxury, so comfortable in fact that opposition to luxury was never weighty enough to provoke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thorough-going debates such as those that erupted in eighteenth-century Britain and France. All in all, this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a very useful chapter, not only because it prompts us to remember the Dutch Republic as we search for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origins of modern consumer society, but more importantly because its insightful distinction between 'new' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 'old' luxury is widely applicable to eighteenth-century western Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the final chapter of part I \('Aestheticising the Critique of Luxury: Smollett's Humphry Clinker'\), Michael )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McKeon turns our attention to eighteenth-century British literature to challenge the contention, advanced by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Sekora, that Tobias Smollett's 1771 novel The Expedition of Humphry Clinker constitutes 'the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful conservative attack upon luxury' of the era.\(p. 57\) McKeon seeks to overturn that interpretation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by suggesting that the novel offers a highly ambiguous assessment of luxury. Conceding that, on the surface, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the novel reiterates traditional critiques of luxury, McKeon cleverly shows how these critiques are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenged by the form and narrative of the book itself. In the end, the novel's multiple protagonists both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exemplify and challenge traditional tropes of pastoral opposition - country and city, nature and artifice, need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and want. Indeed, in terms of the luxury debate, neither the pro-luxury thrust of Mandeville nor the anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(luxury parry of Rousseau seems wholly to pertain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part II, 'Delectable Goods', moves beyond literary representations to take a closer look at the circulation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural meaning of specific luxury goods. For Dena Goodman \('Furnishing Discourses: Readings of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Writing Desk in Eighteenth-Century France'\), this does not mean leaving intellectual history behind. On the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrary, she prefaces her analysis of writing desks with a discussion of the luxury debate, arguing that, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1770s, the moralizing discourse on luxury confronted a competing discourse on commerce that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('effectively changed the subject by focusing on questions of productivity, utility, taste, comfort, industry, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improvement and innovation.' \(p. 76\). Goodman's distinction between the rhetoric of luxury and that of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 5414 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commerce, which echoes de Vries' distinction between 'old' and 'new' luxury, is part of recent trend to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change the image of pre-revolutionary France from a retrograde and sclerotic kingdom to a commercially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vibrant society. Goodman elegantly formulates this reinterpretation by highlighting the ambiguous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of the writing desk, a piece of furniture that could be found in both high-end and middling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markets. While we may almost instinctively see such a precious object as belonging to the world of courtly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(luxury and aristocratic frivolity, Goodman demonstrates that it belonged as well to a vigorous world of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth, commerce, and utility. Located at the intersection of these two worlds, writing desks and the women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who used them suggest the social and cultural complexities of eighteenth-century luxury consumption.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the writing desk represents the high and middling luxury market, the truly popular side of luxury is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealed in essays by Laurence Fontaine and John Styles. Fontaine \('The Circulation of Luxury Goods in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eighteenth-Century Paris: Social Redistribution and an Alternative Currency'\) looks at the spread of luxury )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goods in eighteenth-century Paris, but casts his gaze beyond the nicely appointed shops that dotted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashionable streets to focus on the lesser known distribution circuits of itinerant peddlers, second-hand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealers, public auctions, and pawnshops. Scouring the underbelly of the luxury market, he finds that, far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from being passed over by the Parisian commercial boom, peddlers thrived by serving as intermediaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between manufacturers and shopkeepers. Peddlers criss-crossed the city, selling snuff boxes, books, watches, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and jewellery of widely varying prices. Such goods were valuable, Fontaine shrewdly observes, not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because they marked status and provided pleasure but also because they could easily be turned into cash. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Their potential cash value helps to explain why cash-strapped Parisian commoners were drawn to the luxury )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market in such great numbers during the eighteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like Fontaine, John Styles \('Custom or Consumption? Plebeian Fashion in Eighteenth-Century England'\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looks at the world of luxury from below. But Styles sets out to intervene in a specific historiographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate over the social limits of English consumer society: pessimists, who do not wish to cheer the 'progress' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the eighteenth century, argue that the new consumer society was an exclusive affair; optimists argue, on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the basis of anecdotal evidence, that new forms of consumption reached far down the social order. Styles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(injects some hard evidence into this debate by scrutinizing an account book that once belonged to a plebeian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family, the Lathams of Scarisbrick, England. The Latham account book reveals the extent to which family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption depended on individual and collective life cycles. Although the family barely scraped by in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early years, it purchased a number of petty luxuries, from gowns to personal accessories \(hats and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(handkerchiefs\), when the Latham daughters reached their mid-teens and began to earn money from spinning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cotton. Although Styles concedes that such petty luxuries did not match the finery of the local gentry, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sides with the optimists by insisting that the Latham family's sartorial acquisitions were still very much a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of the expanding world of eighteenth-century fashion. It is difficult to know how the Lathams and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commoners conceived of their stylish clothing, but Styles offers some thoughtful possibilities: a means of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual attraction, a source of self-regarding pleasure, or a professional investment. Whatever its purpose, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Styles insists that plebeian consumption of petty luxuries did not erode popular custom.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7230 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reconstructing how consumers imagined their own acts of consumption is a daunting challenge, as both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goodman and Styles suggest. One fruitful way to approach the meaning of luxury goods, however, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through their aesthetics, a neglected dimension of consumption that the volume explores in Part III, 'Beauty, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taste and Sensibility'. The section begins with an interpretation of Hogarth \('From the Moral Mound to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Material Maze: Hogarth's Analysis of Beauty'\), by Annie Richardson, a historian of art and design. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richardson analyzes Hogarth's serpentine lines, explaining how the engraver's curves derived from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular understanding of the human body. But, most originally, she links Hogarth's definitions of beauty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and pleasure to the pro-luxury stance of such writers as Mandeville. According to Richardson, the eighteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century apology for luxury, which we normally associate with Enlightenment economics and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentary, was present in aesthetic theory as well, as Hogarth and 'modernizers' in the luxury debate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shared a common de-moralized, sense-based, materialistic view of human desire. Although historians are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often reluctant to accept connections between such seemingly distant fields as art and political economy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they should take Richardson's argument and methodology seriously. To interpret the material world of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century, the historian must know how contemporaries interpreted that world themselves.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Crowley's chapter on landscape architecture \('From Luxury to Comfort and Back Again: Landscape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Architecture and the Cottage in Britain and America'\) moves from aesthetic theory to practice. Through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example of the cottage, Crowley argues that the concept of comfort was an invention of eighteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain. Once identified exclusively with rural poverty, the cottage was adopted as an architectural design )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which, while still exuding rustic simplicity, reflected genteel desires for modern convenience, cleanliness, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(privacy, and functionality. Later, in the 1790s, cottages were also construed as exhibiting refined elegance. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although scholars emphasize how eighteenth-century fashions and tastes spread down the social hierarchy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the evolving aesthetic of the cottage beautifully illustrates how taste-makers also revamped popular forms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for middling and elite consumers. This multi-directional process is often ignored in studies that rely on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simplistic notions of social emulation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the last twenty years, scholars of eighteenth-century consumption have tried to compensate for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generations of supply-oriented economic research by paying more attention to demand. Yet properly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conducted studies of production can reveal a great deal about the meaning of luxury goods, as Jenny Uglow's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter \('Vase Mania'\) demonstrates. Uglow traces the steps of two enterprising manufacturers, Josiah )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wedgwood and Matthew Boulton, who sensed the rising taste for things classical, forged a partnership, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalized on the trend by producing copies of ancient vases. What is most striking in this account is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(free-wheeling improvisational style of the manufacturers. After they agreed on a collaborative partnership in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Boulton would set Wedgwood's vases in metal, the two men met in London, with their wives in tow, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to go hunting for model vases. One gets the sense from Sarah Wedgwood that her husband, 'upon the ramble )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continually,' thoroughly enjoyed these inspiration-seeking jaunts \(although he only allowed his wife to spend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(half as much on ribbons and lace as he spent on vases\). The two manufacturers were constantly on the prowl )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for new vase designs, cheaper methods of production, and the support of high-profile patrons. As Goodman's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovative furniture makers also attest, it seems that for every group of fanciful eighteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumers, there was an imaginative producer who was constantly refashioning his products to profit from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and simultaneously reshape consumer tastes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Sarah Wedgwood's desire for ribbon and lace, the Latham daughters' taste for gowns, and the Parisienne's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attachment to her writing desk, the volume has already provided glimpses into women's role in the rise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth-century luxury consumption. Part IV, 'The Female Vice?' directly addresses the fraught )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between women and luxury. Ros Ballaster follows a common literary personification of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(luxury -- luxury as Oriental woman - to see if it underwent a re-evaluation in the eighteenth century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the Oriental woman was often depicted as a source of violent and excessive passions, Ballaster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finds that she was also portrayed in a more positive light, as capably curtailing masculine excess and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(securing her own political status. If the former, negative representation is consistent with an older critique in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which luxury signaled decadence, the latter representation, Ballaster argues, reflects newer apologies for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(luxury in which luxury was recast as a productive source of power.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 7156 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vivien Jones also emphasizes ambiguities in fictional representations of women, focusing on the figure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the prostitute as a sign of luxury and excess. On the one hand, for conservative moralists, the prostitute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented the supreme feminine villain, a seductress who tempted men away from productive labor and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turned them into prodigals. But as the English prostitute memoir transformed the figure of Lady Luxury into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the whore of commerce, the figure of the prostitute began to exhibit certain Mandevillian ironies. 'Like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commerce itself,' Jones writes, the prostitute's 'resourceful adaptability refuses the containment of a simple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral narrative.'\(p. 187\) There now seemed something admirable in her seemingly endless capacity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generate trade. Goodman's observation of a conceptual shift from luxury to commerce seems relevant here, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the literary trickster-whore benefited from positive associations with commerce.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final essay on women, by Elizabeth Eger, considers the 'bluestocking philosophy' of Elizabeth Montagu. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Writer, salonnire, philanthropist, and patron of literature and the arts, Montagu was the epitome of female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taste and intellect in her own lifetime. She also managed Newcastle coalmines, oversaw a Berkshire country )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estate, and built a luxurious palace in Portman Square. With such prodigious wealth, luxury, and autonomy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Montagu could have made an easy target for moralist critics, but, as Eger makes clear, she self-consciously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented herself as a virtuous and sociable woman of taste. By characterizing her extraordinary house as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('a Temple of virtue and friendship' and 'a palace of chaste elegance,' \(quoted on p. 197\) and by placing social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intercourse, intellectual exchange, and good taste above luxurious display, Montagu bestowed a moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sanctity upon the delightful material world she created. Putting luxury in the service of higher Enlightenment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideals made this 'mistress of conspicuous consumption' seemingly immune to the corruption of luxury.\(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(202\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fifth and final section of the volume, 'Luxury and the Exotic,' reflects an increasingly forceful trend in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical scholarship to place the eighteenth-century European economy in a global context. Shelagh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vainker \('Luxuries or Not? Consumption of Silk and Porcelain in Eighteenth-Century China\) takes us out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe altogether to investigate how two goods with exotic associations in Europe - Chinese silk and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(porcelain - were consumed in the country that produced them. Although in China porcelain and especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(silk had associations of exclusivity, Vainker suggests that by the eighteenth century both products circulated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a broad middle market and conferred little social status on those who possessed them. It would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting to contrast Chinese consumption of these goods with European \(mis\)conceptions of the place of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(silk and porcelain in Chinese culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shifting to the western hemisphere, Rebecca Earle \('Luxury, Clothing and Race in Colonial Spanish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America'\) provides a fascinating analysis of the relationship between sartorial display and race in colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish America. In the seventeenth and eighteenth century, she notes, European travellers in Spanish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America were struck by the fact that broad sections of the population, including poor, mixed-race women, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wore fine clothing and jewellery. Because Europeans at this time tended to regard clothing as one of several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial characteristics - skin color was understood to be 'in part a function of culture \(including dress\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment' - colonial authorities imposed sumptuary legislation to preserve racial as well as social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctions.\(p. 222\) In the nineteenth century, however, when Spanish colonialism was overthrown and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial theory was 'biologised', dress no longer functioned as a racial characteristic and sumptuary law was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abandoned.\(p. 224\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maxine Berg \('Asian Luxuries and the Making of the European Consumer Revolution'\) finishes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection with a gloriously panoramic view of the Asian luxury market and its impact on Europe. Berg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains how seventeenth- and eighteenth-century European merchants fuelled the desire at home to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consume exotic 'Oriental' goods by intervening in already well-developed Asian luxury and semi-luxury )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markets. Asian commodities such as Indian textiles and Chinese porcelain, while hardly mass-produced, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were nonetheless fabricated and shipped in sufficient volumes to keep prices down so they could be sold as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ornamental novelties and decencies to middling class Europeans. If, in Europe, these goods were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily high-end luxuries, they were undoubtedly quality products that, reflecting a mix of Asian forms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and European themes, were aesthetically diverse enough to excite European consumers of discerning taste. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, as Berg recounts, Asian goods sold so successfully that European governments attempted to protect )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 3220 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home industries by imposing heavy tariffs and prohibitions. This protectionism, in turn, gave rise to import-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substituting industries in Europe that, by both imitating and competing with Asian producers, became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integral to the development of European luxury and semi-luxury markets in the age of consumer revolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This splendid volume adds much-needed specificity to the grand question of luxury in the eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. In delving deeper into the literature on luxury and in tracking the circulation of luxury goods with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater precision, the book opens up new and promising lines of research into the culture and economy of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age on the threshold of modernity. In particular, the collection demonstrates the value of studying the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpenetration of high, middling, and even low luxury markets and its social implications; the ambiguous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meanings of luxury and of women's relationship to it, at a moment when the Enlightenment was embracing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(values of commerce, utility, and comfort; and the global context in which goods and the meanings attributed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to them were produced, marketed, and appropriated. All historians of the eighteenth century - social, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural, economic or otherwise - will benefit from reading these thoughtful essays.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.755 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 562.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neil McKendrick, John Brewer, and J. H. Plumb, eds., The Birth of a Consumer Society: The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commercialization of Eighteenth-Century England \(Bloomington, IN: University of Indiana Press, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1982\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 532.227 m 149.000 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors thank Dr Kwass for his review, and do not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 481.109 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 466.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 462.127 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 444.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 444.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/357)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 442.953 m 322.316 442.953 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 417.976 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 403.576 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2021)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.176 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 532.5415 148.9997 544.4215 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 443.2675 322.3157 455.1475 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/357) >> endobj xref 0 31 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000588 00000 n 0000000677 00000 n 0000004932 00000 n 0000005041 00000 n 0000005151 00000 n 0000005260 00000 n 0000008821 00000 n 0000008949 00000 n 0000009033 00000 n 0000009062 00000 n 0000009190 00000 n 0000009226 00000 n 0000009291 00000 n 0000016770 00000 n 0000016835 00000 n 0000022302 00000 n 0000022367 00000 n 0000029650 00000 n 0000029715 00000 n 0000036924 00000 n 0000037015 00000 n 0000040288 00000 n 0000040415 00000 n 0000040470 00000 n 0000040598 00000 n trailer << /Size 31 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40693 %%EOF