%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417232013+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417232013+01'00') /Title (From Boys to Men: Formations of Masculinity in Late Medieval Europe) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3106 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(From Boys to Men: Formations of Masculinity in Late Medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Europe)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The study of masculinity as a specific topic \(rather than an implicit element\) is not utterly new: work in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sociology in the 1980s, cultural studies in the 1990s, and concerns of feminist criticism from much earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have laid the foundations for studying how men set about being men. Historians have also engaged with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topic, most notably in work on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Medieval studies picked up the chase )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the mid 1990s, initially in three separate volumes of essays devoted to the topic )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 430.652 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 430.652 236.289 m 444.644 236.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 444.644 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and now in Ruth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mazo Karras's new book. )] TJ ET BT 159.140 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From Boys to Men)] TJ ET BT 248.792 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the first single-authored volume devoted to the topic of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval masculinity, and as such it has both a hard task to fulfil and a key role to play.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(358)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 September, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(812236998X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(31.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(246pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Pennsylvania Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philadelphia, PA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Arnold)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 430.6517 236.6035 444.6437 248.4835 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7294 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book contains five chapters, the first and last acting as general introduction and overall conclusion. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three substantive chapters focus in turn on different groups of men: knights, university scholars, urban craft )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gildsmen. Chapter 1 introduces the topic, the broad intellectual context and the framework for the book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Drawing gently on some sociological and psychoanalytic works, Karras indicates some of the overarching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions relating to the study of masculinity ? its unitary or divided nature, its production through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passage from childhood to adulthood ? and also some of the particular complexities a medieval context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brings to the discussion. For example, the fact that there was no mass media \(arguments about sermons and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preaching notwithstanding\), no mass education system, and no 'ideology of equality' all suggest that modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theories of masculine identity formation cannot simply be transplanted from contemporary to medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contexts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To these three factors ? and as a key theme running through the book ? Karras adds the way in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterns of social life provided a very different template from modernity for the transition to adulthood \(and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is implied, fully-formed masculine identity\): work began at an early age, but did not imply maturity in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other fields; age at marriage varied between aristocrats and ordinary folk, between men and women, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between northern and southern Europe. Didactic late-medieval literature on the 'Ages of Man' tended to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assume that the sins, temptations and follies of 'youth' were present well into a man's twenties, and perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even thereafter. The possession of political, economic and social power \(a key element in many modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theories of masculinity\) was restricted to a very small medieval elite. Medieval life had a different shape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from later societies; and hence masculinity must have worked differently. Chapter 1 sketches a few of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval features, for further exploration: that 'the subjection of women was always a part of masculinity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but not always its purpose or its central feature'; that 'the primary way by which a boy established his adult )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculinity was by . proving himself against other men' \(and women 'were often tools used in that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstration'\); and that the opposite of 'male' was not always necessarily 'female' but could be 'child' or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('beast' \(p. 11\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 2 focuses upon knights, mainly using the literature of chivalry \(manuals, and romances\). Different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facets of knightly masculinity are explored, including the training young knights received, and the structural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of aggression and violence in that education. It was a very male environment, and women were coded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily as erotic objects rather than, say, family members. Also important were conduct \(within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notional rules of chivalry\), military prowess, and birth: 'In a sense, the young knight, by being born into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right family, had already proven himself against most other men' \(p. 33\). Perhaps most interesting \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following on from the work of others on homosociality\) is a discussion of knightly display: the way in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male and female gazes, and male and female bodies, performed a complex pirouette intertwining different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strands of desire \(emulatory, erotic, self-regarding\) at the tournament. Men performed their masculinity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the eyes of women. Men desired by women looked impressive to other men. Men performing before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women felt part of a male group; but also saw themselves as participating in a game of individual prowess. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And through that prowess, male beauty was prized and displayed, with 'a definite tinge of the erotic' \(p. 49\) ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by both sexes? However, Karras argues, the importance placed upon heterosexual desire was less \(as others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have argued\) to assuage lurking anxiety about homosexuality and more about the importance of women as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('currency' through which knightly success was measured \(p. 51\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 3 turns our attention to a very different and contrasting realm: the medieval university. 'If the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquisition of masculinity in the European later Middle Ages was primarily a matter of proving oneself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against others, nowhere was this more true than in the single-sex environment of the university'. As Karras )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out, simply by being at university, a scholar had already 'proved himself not a woman; his task was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now to use intellect to dominate other men' \(p. 67\). This process is investigated through an examination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(university life, based largely upon university statutes, some court cases, and the )] TJ ET BT 418.964 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Manuale scholarium)] TJ ET BT 518.624 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in Heidelberg in the 1480s\), a text that presented aspects of university life ? possibly satirical ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through a dialogue between two students.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this chapter, amongst other things, Karras provides us with a very useful overview of late medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(student activity, and the social workings of universities. Of key interest here was the place of women: )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7631 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practically absent within the institution, with the university authorities discouraging contact as much as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible; but obviously present in the host town or city, where students might take their lodgings. Sadly, 'a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(main way in which students interacted with women of the town was through violence' ? rape was a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common crime \(p. 77\). Part of the blame here, Karras suggests, was the cultural environment of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(university itself: women, as absent presences, were seen primarily as objects of sexual desire or \(much the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same thing\) as the source of lustful sin. Furthermore, the intellectual environment, which also excluded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women even as objects of \(let alone subjects with\) thoughts. In place of relationships other than sexual with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the opposite sex, male students bonded with each other, through their shared and elite language, bizarre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initiation rituals, and their drinking games \()] TJ ET BT 243.008 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(plus a change)] TJ ET BT 314.996 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( .\). Like knights, students could compete in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(intellectual\) combat, through disputations. Unlike knights, the 'Other' being rejected by students was as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much animal as feminine; masculinity, for these men, was based upon 'the idea of rationality and moderation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that distinguished the man both from the woman and from the beast' \(p. 108\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter 4, we change focus again, this time to the world of cities, merchants and gilds. Again, as with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men studied in the previous two chapters, masculinity was performed in part against women and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competition with other men. But in the world of the craft workshop, Karras argues, it was primarily about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('proving oneself not a boy' \(p. 109\). The achievement of manhood was tied up with social maturity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic independence. Once more we are in a world \(though a very much wider and more populous world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than knighthood or scholarship\) where boys were brought up to be men, pulled by various mechanisms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control whilst simultaneously pushed by various encouraged desires. Class was also a key factor: as it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to marry without achieving a degree of economic success, young craftsmen could find themselves in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an extended period of quasi-adolescence, bonding into gangs rather than forming families, and resentful of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(married men. 'Their dependence did not make them feminine, but they could not achieve full adult civic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculinity, so they might turn to other means, including violence, to demonstrate their manhood' \(p. 110\) ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and again we meet rape, often gang rape, as a means of asserting masculinity. But we also encounter less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(horrendous forms of empowerment: journeymen saddlers and tailors in London, for example, adopted their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own livery for special occasions, much to the dismay of the craft masters. Drinking and feasting were semi-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formalised: a Paris doubletmaker, for example, had to provide a drinking party for his co-workers when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(joining the trade.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, in chapter 5, Karras provides some overview and conclusions. Modes of masculinity varied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerably according to the social milieu into which one was born. There were shared elements: all men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered by the book were 'training for a share in power . learning ways in which they could be unlike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women . [and] competing against each other or their elders' \(p. 151\). But the marked differences were at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least as important. Chivalric masculinity focussed upon proving manhood through prowess and violence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the notional weakness of women. At the university, the man worked through moderation, intellect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and control to prove himself not a beast. In the workshop a journeyman strove for economic independence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and self-sufficiency, to cease to be a child, proved through marriage. Turning out from the specifics of her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study, Karras notes that medieval misogyny did not function simply to oppress women: it was also about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowing men to impress or dominate other men through their control \(literal or symbolic\) of women. And, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in contrast perhaps with modern ideas about masculinity, the concept of being a 'sturdy oak' standing alone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and independent could have little purchase in the middle ages, because of the complexities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interdependence present in all walks of life: 'Total independence is a myth in most cultures, but it was a less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important myth in the Middle Ages than in many others' \(p. 166\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I suggested at the head of this review that )] TJ ET BT 236.312 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From Boys to Men)] TJ ET BT 325.964 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( had a hard task and a key role to fulfil. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter is its semi-foundational status: although a number of people have written about medieval masculinity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before Karras, they have largely focussed upon a particular area of the puzzle, whereas this book attempts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something of an overview. In that it is largely successful and thankfully written clearly and elegantly, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that one should be able to use it with students with great success. What may seem frustrating from one angle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? the lack of a very clear theoretical position in relation to topics such as subject formation, homosociality, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-consciousness of gender ? are, from a different perspective, a strength, as the book allows new readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be introduced to various viewpoints upon the topic, whilst also providing existing scholars with many )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 8647 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoughtful points to consider. The only major frustration in this respect is that the overview is not complete, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as there is very little consideration of clerical masculinity or \(perhaps more importantly and with broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications\) clerical )] TJ ET BT 138.668 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(discourses)] TJ ET BT 189.332 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and masculinity. This may affect certain areas, such as the tensions set up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by competing knightly and clerical textual communities within chivalric ideas of masculinity; or the pull that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious confraternity practices had upon craft gildsmen.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And of course this is a hard task, in a number of ways. As Karras notes at various points, there are particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems regarding the available evidence ? not least that much of it was written by those otherwise largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absent clerics. By taking the key role of )] TJ ET BT 227.648 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From Boys to Men)] TJ ET BT 317.300 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as one of providing the )] TJ ET BT 433.952 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(beginning)] TJ ET BT 481.952 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion, rather than its conclusion, perhaps we may be prompted into considering briefly some more of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these hard tasks. First, the materials and sources. There is another question, not always addressed by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, concerning the nature of the evidence: how do people relate to texts that present normative ideas? To )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what extent and in what ways do they read themselves into the text? This, of course, is a question not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for historians but also for sociologists, literary theorists and film scholars. But it is worth considering, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considering in its particularly )] TJ ET BT 178.004 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(medieval)] TJ ET BT 221.324 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( contexts. Can one read the shape of knightly masculinity in its lived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience from Arthurian romances, or does the role that a literature of fantasy played in presenting these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impossibly perfect and impossibly flawed knights to its audience involve more complex questions about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identification and reading practices? Second, fictions of self-identity. To what extent do the apparent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('realities' of social, economic and political power inform the theatre of masculinity \(as Karras tends to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest they do\)? Or do men ? so often chasing power ? sometimes convince themselves that they possess it, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even when outside commentators might demur? There is here, of course, also an element of considering the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arenas of power, and the role of the household in providing a platform for masculine identity that \(as early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern historians have analysed\) resonates up and down the socio-political spectrum.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Third, the stability or otherwise of masculinity. )] TJ ET BT 263.672 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From Boys to Men)] TJ ET BT 353.324 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( notes a number of 'tensions' within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different masculine identities, but its main focus ? and, in its 'key role' role, a very useful focus ? is upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(normative models. These models tend, by their very nature, to present solid and stable images of being a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man: thus, although the way of the journeyman might be fraught, often violent, and economically insecure, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the prize at which such men aimed ? marriage as a master craftsman ? was seen as a safe haven and place of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rest. \(Partly seen thus, of course, because it was constructed in opposition to being a journeyman\). But was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it? One wonders whether a question on )] TJ ET BT 224.312 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(perspective)] TJ ET BT 278.960 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( becomes somewhat key here: the sense in which, rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than masculinity being simply 'achieved' and thus gained, masculinity is a thing done and redone and redone, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a number of different ways ? and seen as successful or otherwise from a number of different perspectives. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A scholar may feel that he has successfully proved himself 'not woman' by being at university, and in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eyes of his peers this may well be so; but in the eyes of, say, the town's artisans .?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, there is a question of the intellectual project. As noted at the beginning, medieval studies is really )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just beginning to consider masculinity. But elements of what )] TJ ET BT 328.676 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From Boys to Men)] TJ ET BT 418.328 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( discusses \(and on occasion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depends upon\) have a longer prehistory in our studies, in the analyses of social identity, 'historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anthropology' and indeed ')] TJ ET BT 160.652 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mentalits)] TJ ET BT 209.984 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(' associated particularly with the later )] TJ ET BT 392.108 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annales)] TJ ET BT 430.772 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( school and figures such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Jacques Le Goff, Aaron Gurevich and Pierre Payer.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 294.596 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 294.596 231.603 m 308.588 231.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 308.588 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There is a question, then, about what function we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(play in bringing masculinity \(or, more broadly, gender\) to the ball. This is not to argue against such a move, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but to consider what we are up to, want to be up to, and can effectively be up to, when we make it. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choice would be to direct some of our efforts, perhaps collaboratively, to a more diachronic and comparative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(set of studies than )] TJ ET BT 123.344 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From Boys to Men)] TJ ET BT 212.996 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( can provide: to consider \(as a task largely undone in any discipline\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how masculinity has )] TJ ET BT 135.680 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(changed)] TJ ET BT 176.336 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( over the last ten centuries in the West, and to try to investigate how those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes have come about. If we medievalists pursue the topic purely within our own chosen eras, there may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be a sense that we are simply playing intellectual 'catch up' with discussions already more advanced in other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fields.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But these final remarks stray rather wide from the book itself and are not meant as criticisms, but as a small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to the next stage of the conversation that Ruth Mazo Karras has so adeptly opened. )] TJ ET BT 496.280 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From Boys )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(to Men)] TJ ET BT 67.676 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a very useful and intelligent book, written in a clear and accessible style; usefully reflective and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 294.5957 231.9175 308.5877 243.7975 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 2819 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought-provoking; and a very welcome addition to a developing area of study.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 761.571 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 730.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clare A. Lees, ed., )] TJ ET BT 156.656 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval Masculinities: Regarding Men in the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 444.284 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Minneapolis, 1994\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dawn M. Hadley, ed., )] TJ ET BT 173.324 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Masculinity in Medieval Europe)] TJ ET BT 328.304 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1999\); Jacqueline Murray, ed., )] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Conflicted Identities and Multiple Masculinities: Men in the Medieval West)] TJ ET BT 426.320 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York and London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 686.787 m 149.000 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, in these relatively recent publications, Jacques Le Goff, )] TJ ET BT 400.280 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Intellectuals in the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 552.932 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trans. Teresa Fagan \(Oxford, 1993\); Aaron Gurevich, )] TJ ET BT 323.276 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Anthropology of the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 534.272 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jana Howlett \(Cambridge, 1992\); Pierre J. Payer, )] TJ ET BT 303.308 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Bridling of Desire: Views of Sex in the Later )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 124.340 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Toronto, 1993\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 206.996 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 206.996 629.763 m 260.984 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 604.901 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 585.919 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 568.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 568.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/358)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 566.745 m 322.316 566.745 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 541.768 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.368 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2023)] TJ ET BT 34.016 512.968 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 687.1015 148.9997 698.9815 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 206.9957 630.0775 260.9837 641.9575 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 567.0595 322.3157 578.9395 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/358) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000577 00000 n 0000000666 00000 n 0000003824 00000 n 0000003933 00000 n 0000004043 00000 n 0000004152 00000 n 0000007713 00000 n 0000007841 00000 n 0000007925 00000 n 0000007954 00000 n 0000008082 00000 n 0000008118 00000 n 0000008183 00000 n 0000015530 00000 n 0000015595 00000 n 0000023279 00000 n 0000023363 00000 n 0000032063 00000 n 0000032093 00000 n 0000032221 00000 n 0000032257 00000 n 0000032355 00000 n 0000035227 00000 n 0000035354 00000 n 0000035409 00000 n 0000035537 00000 n 0000035592 00000 n 0000035720 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35815 %%EOF