%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818112656+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818112656+01'00') /Title (Capital Cities at War: Paris. London. Berlin 1914-1919) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3841 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Capital Cities at War: Paris. London. Berlin 1914-1919)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Comparative history lives more in the ambition than in the execution - or it did. The title of this impressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume alone announces something special, but it does not prepare the reader for what is to come - what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must surely be the most powerful, distinguished and innovative work of recent social history to be published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the last twenty years. This is true comparative history in the sense that the authors apply a single agenda )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and questionnaire to each of the three cities. Statistical data and other evidence are secured and standardised, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowing close comparisons between the three cities over the whole range of their structures and activities. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Social change in wartime is related to four great areas: labour, incomes, consumption, and demography, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which run through the book The thorough, painstaking treatment recalls some of the great American city )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surveys of the 1 920s. This in itself is no unworthy lineage, but to undertake a comparative, historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of three of the world's most challenging capital cities and to complete it to this standard is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unprecedented to the knowledge of this reviewer.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Funding patiently built up from British, French and German sources has allowed the employment of a large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(36)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 July, 1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jay Winter)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jean-Louis Robert)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521571715)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(638pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521571715)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anthony Sutcliffe)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6557 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of national and local specialists. Twelve authors have contributed to the text, some of them in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adjunct capacity which has allowed a handful of senior writers to maintain continuity and consistency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the book. The authors take every care to ensure that the contribution of the adjunct authors - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is considerable - is defined and acknowledged. There is no 'slave labour' here and the quality and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistency of the text clearly reflect the happy relations between the team members, and the enlightened, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generous management of the senior authors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The argument of the book rests on the assumption that local communities take part in modern war as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic and social units based on people's daily lives, whereas the national entities which normally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominate histories of modern war have little more than a political and legal identity which separate them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from ordinary people. News of the arrival of the buff telegram would spread through a household in seconds, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and through a street in minutes. After the war, the bereaved would go to read the names of family and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friends on the local war memorial. Those spared military service would work on through the war, their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment and their attitudes almost always disturbed by the war effort. Events at national level were less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important for them. The 'unknown soldier' at the Arc de Triomphe and the even more remote 'empty tomb' in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whitehall expressed a national symbolism from which the millions of dead were curiously excluded. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(real people, dead and surviving, were members of local communities. Their war was a local war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This community approach to war is not relevant only to small towns and villages, however. It allows large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cities, and above all the capital cities with their wealth of documentation, to be singled out and compared. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Within them, districts and neighbourhoods can often be identified as communities in their own right, linking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the intimate life of the locality to the capital 'nerve centre' as a powerful machine and, sometimes, vortex of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political events. However, the authors see the family and the local community of the street, the lanes, or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crossroads as the basic social unit of wartime, as in peace. This is pure orthodoxy, of course, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among the social historians of France among whom Jean-Louis Robert is so distinguished. However, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great, socially homogeneous streets which drive across Charles Booth's East End, and the Rue Saint-Denis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other Parisian arteries old and new, enhanced by cheap transport, suggest a greater mobility by 1914. So )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do the richer gradations of social class, including those among manual workers. Finally, the growth of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour movement propelled by the war, and longer hours, created more of a workplace identity. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the concept of a local community linked to the embracing capital city unit is a very useful one and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors have done well to develop it so clearly. Furthermore, they do not question that the people of all three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cities, however local their experience, knew that they were living in the national capital and had a clear idea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of where their city stopped and countryside or peripheral town began.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, a great advantage of the capital city is that a wealth of information is available. The First World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War came at the end of a century of statistical progress in which social inquiries had increasingly focused on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the cities. From the 1 870s Germany took the lead in the collection of urban statistics, but Britain, and to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lesser extent France, kept in touch, encouraged by the growing world statistical organisations. As large, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capital cities, Berlin, London and Paris had similar institutions, so that policies and opinions can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compared. Each had a similar structure of problems, such as crime and poverty, which secured greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention in wartime because of their likely effect on the war effort. Popular experiences were similar, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their treatment in the press and, later, in memoirs, was richer than in smaller places .)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Admittedly, these are large, complex places with suburbs spreading over the official boundaries. Before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social policy can be approached, much effort has to be devoted to explaining the administrative structure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the three cities. This is because their complex institutions were based to a greater or lesser degree on two or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more tiers of government. The authors carry out this task very well, just as they explain the physical area of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the three cities and the links between their different districts.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6868 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, institutions and authority are never allowed to obscure the life of the people. This is a history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the masses, with the great city populations shaken by losses at the front, swept by panics and rumours, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divided by jealousies. Acknowledging recent linguistic concerns among historians, the-authors pay attention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the language of the newspaper and the music hall, seeking the meaning of war and its implications among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the populace.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There were many similarities between the three cities and the problems they faced. However, the authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stress some important differences which affected the war effort and attitudes to the war. The most important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the 'system of entitlements' which determined the nature of individual benefits under the pressures of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war. In London and Paris, the civil population retained the distributive share of advantages and benefits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which it had enjoyed before the war. In Berlin, military needs were given priority and the implicit pact with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the civilian community was broken, with basic supplies reduced and interrupted to the point where popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belief in the war was threatened. The authors maintain that this betrayal of the people affected the Berliners' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to the war effort, and, by 1918, their willingness to continue the war. Londoners and Parisians, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while feeling keenly the losses and tribulations of the war, never gave up their allegiance to the allied cause )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the unusual social and economic existence which it implied. In Berlin a sinister continuity becomes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visible between the early garrison city of the Electors of Brandenburg, and the Reichshauptstadt of 1945, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defended by its cheated Volksturm. A military strand extends throughout, while London and Paris, for all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their imperial pomp, never fell under military thrall after the time of Bonaparte.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Profiteers were a constant bugbear in all the cities and they are given close attention here, notably by Robert. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following Amartya Sen, the authors detect well-being in terms of fairness of distribution rather than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physical amounts available. Profiteers were seen to break the common rules of equity and they were a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constant target in the press, with even honest market traders suffering from abuse during shortages. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction of rationing from the middle years of the war was a partial solution, but it created a clearer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space for illicit trading and allowed the underground economy to carry on after the war. Here again, it was in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany that this new phenomenon did most to destabilise post-war society. The use of numerous cartoons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other illustrations to convey the popular image of the profiteer is very productive. Set against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment of the urban food supply by Thierry Bonzon and Belinda Davis, this section sets up a contrast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the problems of country production and the deficiencies of urban distribution. Berlin was the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victim, with even the humble potato often unobtainable there. 'The German potato must defeat England', ran )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a German poster of the day. Instead, it helped defeat Germany.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was not only food that Berlin lacked, however. By the end of the war coal distribution had slumped from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adequate levels in 1914 to become a threat to the war effort and to the tolerance of the Berlin working class. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here, as in the food problem, lay the foundations of the big Berlin Communist Party from 1918, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing strength of the Socialists.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jon Lawrence's economic history of the three cities during the course of the war is rich and thorough, and, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complemented by Thierry Bonzon on mobilisation and the labour market and Joshua Cole on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demobilisation, worthy of expansion into a book in itself. Britain's slow transition to full mobilisation helped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London's labour to adapt to new requirements, while Paris ultimately adjusted well enough to more brutal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes. It was Berlin that was the big failure of the three, along with Germany as a whole, where an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organised, war-oriented labour force never emerged. With Britain and France achieving a high level of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation towards the end of the war, Germany's relative weakness was on the home front, rather than on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the battlefield. In this sense, Berlin helped to lose the war, while Paris and London won it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Incomes, wages and wealth are discussed in a separate section, followed by social policy. In all three cities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was a shift towards a system of public support based on the principle of rights, replacing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philanthropic approach which had still prevailed in 1914. In Berlin, however, this concept of basic rights and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minimum entitlements was not fully established, a result which left Berlin and other German cities open to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the shocks of the post-war years.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 5854 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If food and coal were open to measures to increase supply, and to improve distribution, housing was not. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New housing in the big cities was out of the question, while the arrival of extra labour for metropolitan war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industries was bound to increase rents. In all three cities the solution was rent control, which undermined the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property owners and put tenants in a stronger position to resist the effects of inflation. As a means of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distribution, however, rent controls were ineffective and overcrowding existed side by side with under-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupation. Following Martin Daunton, this account suggests that house-owners were the only men of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property to suffer from the war, making the post-war extension of the public housing sector inevitable in all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three countries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The study rests on a great volume of comparative statistics and these are the product of great effort and care. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Equivalent categories have been established with perception. Much of the account rests on tables and graphs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and there is a long statistical appendix. This firm base allows the authors to identify trends and comparisons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which are of national as well as local importance, with international variations in living standards, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance, underlying a variety of social phenomena and attitudes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Understandably, demography is given thorough attention, at the hands of Jean-Louis Robert. Census and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(health statistics are rich in each city and the categories are universally comparable. There are some problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with boundaries but Robert resolves these readily enough. Some of the comparisons are striking and even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprising. Paris, for instance, emerges as a city of high in-migration, partly because of a low birth rate, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while London is seen as a city of children despite its low birth rate, mainly because of its low rate of in-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert uses similar techniques to compare the three employment structures. London's position as world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financial capital and centre of wealth produces large proportions of non-manual workers, including domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servants. Paris is not very different, as the continental centre of capital and favoured residence of the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and international rich. Berlin is more fragmented, its new industries sustaining numerous manual workers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and its lack of an international community reducing the numbers of the idle rich and their households. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert goes on to compare spatial and housing structures, with London's low residential densities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrasting with the multi-storey habitat of the other two cities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The comparison of military losses in the three cities is harder to achieve than one might expect, and Adrian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gregory's treatment of this topic is no routine. In fact, his is a tour de force, drawing out aspects and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations which rarely figure in more specialised treatments. The delayed build-up of British forces in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France meant that London lost 6.9 per cent of its population of military age while Paris lost 11.2 per cent. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The big surprise here is that Berlin lost 9.0 per cent, apparently because the enlistment rate there was lower )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the national average for Germany. Robert provides a useful discussion of the possibility that men from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the land were- favoured as front-line soldiers while unreliable urbanites were placed in safer positions or not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobilised at all. He shows that this argument works well for France but those mobilised in Berlin suffered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very high losses.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Passing from statistics to experience, Robert provides a varied appraisal of the experiences of some of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who died and of those who survived. Hospitals and remedial treatment are discussed, where they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(located in the capital cities. Memorial ceremonies and monuments are compared. This discussion provides a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth of information and thought on some neglected aspects of social experience. As elsewhere, Robert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goes on and on from one perception to another, creation a rich tableau of social history which will inspire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researchers for years to come.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2073 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For all the originality of this study, the authors are touchingly careful to acknowledge and thank those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have contributed, however indirectly, to this brilliant result. This includes not just the authors of influential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature, but those who have contributed to seminar discussions or have read drafts. This conveys an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impression of joint enterprise which does credit to the historical profession, and emphasises the great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heuristic potential of international history. It also suggests that the European historiography of the future is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already with us? in the form of multi-lingual pioneers like Winter and Robert, and their associates.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Modestly, the authors make scant reference to the fact that-this is only the first of two volumes, with another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already in preparation on social movements, experiences and mentalities. With all this in prospect, historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the twentieth century will have even greater cause to be grateful to this creative team.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 613.183 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 595.403 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 595.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/36)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 594.009 m 316.316 594.009 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 569.032 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.632 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/318)] TJ ET BT 34.016 540.232 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 594.3235 316.3157 606.2035 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/36) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000564 00000 n 0000000646 00000 n 0000004539 00000 n 0000004648 00000 n 0000004758 00000 n 0000004867 00000 n 0000008428 00000 n 0000008556 00000 n 0000008640 00000 n 0000008705 00000 n 0000015315 00000 n 0000015380 00000 n 0000022301 00000 n 0000022366 00000 n 0000028273 00000 n 0000028357 00000 n 0000030483 00000 n 0000030611 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30705 %%EOF