%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722031527+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722031527+01'00') /Title (Defining John Bull: Political Caricature and National Identity in Late Georgian England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4510 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Defining John Bull: Political Caricature and National Identity in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Late Georgian England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The period between 1760 and 1820 was the golden age of British pictorial satire. But only in the last 20 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years have the artists and their work attracted serious study in their own right. Rather than being seen as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attractive but essentially incidental illustrations for the study of British society and politics, political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social caricatures are now analysed in depth as both a reflection of, and sometimes a formative influence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon, public opinion. Increasingly their propagandist role as tools in the hands of national government or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition is recognised. The creators of what are often highly sophisticated and intricate images are now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarded as serious artists, and the importance of their place in the political and social world of the time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognised.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The setting up of a national centre in Britain for the study of cartoons and caricature at the University of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kent at Canterbury \(see )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 151.316 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://library.kent.ac.uk/cartoons)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 151.316 95.985 m 308.300 95.985 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 311.300 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 325.292 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and the major James Gillray exhibition at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tate Gallery in 2001 \(see )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 158.984 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.tate.org.uk/britain/exhibitions/gillray/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 158.984 81.729 m 397.328 81.729 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 400.328 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 414.320 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) have set the agenda, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diana Donald's )] TJ ET BT 110.828 68.867 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Age of Caricature: Satirical Prints in the Reign of George III)] TJ ET BT 426.476 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven and London: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press, 1996\) is currently the seminal text. So Tamara Hunt's new study is timely and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(360)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 November, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tamara Hunt)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1840142685)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(57.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(452pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(https://www.ashgate.com/default.aspx?page=637&calcTitle=1&title_id=1454&edition_id=1525)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aldershot)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Johnson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 151.3157 96.2995 308.2997 108.1795 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://library.kent.ac.uk/cartoons) >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 158.9837 82.0435 397.3277 93.9235 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.tate.org.uk/britain/exhibitions/gillray/) >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7554 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcome as a detailed exploration of the political prints and their importance in the British polity of the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Her study also builds on recent research into the growth of national and regional identities, especially Linda )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colley's )] TJ ET BT 75.848 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britons )] TJ ET BT 114.188 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London and New Haven; Yale University Press, 1992\). In British caricature this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nowhere more clearly seen than in visual representations of Britannia, John Bull and the British lion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alongside the use of symbols like the cap of liberty or the scales of justice. The representation of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures such as Charles I and Oliver Cromwell, and events like Magna Carta, the Revolution of 1688 and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bill of Rights provide the context. In exploring these connections, the author has drawn upon the extensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collections of British caricatures in the British Museum and the Public Record Office, and the Library of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Congress and the Henry E. Huntington Library in the USA. Together these provide the most comprehensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coverage available of a source material, the full extent of which is unknown.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are seven chapters dealing thematically with the prints in a broad but overlapping chronological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sequence. In this context the study's title is rather misleading, since only three of them deal centrally with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Bull and national identity. Other chapters look at political and constitutional developments between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1760 and 1788, and then, under the heading 'Dissenters, Levellers and Revolutionaries' events between 1776 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1793. A chapter on the monarchy ranges over the whole of George III's reign up to 1820. This study is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really an overarching study of the place of political caricature in the politics of George's reign, but in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequence it lacks a clear focus overall. The overlapping of the chapters sometimes leads to repetition and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(awkward cross-referencing. For example, Gillray's )] TJ ET BT 280.436 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Voluptuary)] TJ ET BT 334.436 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 357.764 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Temperance)] TJ ET BT 417.080 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( prints of 1792, usually taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a pair contrasting the excesses of the Prince of Wales with the frugality of his parents, are discussed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individually in separate chapters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is also an ambivalence about national identity which needs clarification. There is no clear distinction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the text between what is British and what is English. John Bull is treated as complementary to Britannia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but as the book's title suggests is an essentially English creation, whose counterpart in Scotland was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tartan-clad Sawney Scot. No doubt these figures shared many attitudes towards government, and joined in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national resistance to Revolutionary France and Napoleon, but they were nevertheless separate icons.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, the chapters on Britannia, John Bull and the emergence of national identity are much the best, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a good deal of valuable analysis and pertinent comment. The image of Britannia was one of the oldest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of national icons, which had become standardised by the eighteenth century, with her classical garb, helmet, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spear, and shield bearing the arms of Britain. In George III's reign she was depicted as being victimized by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the king's corrupt ministers, notably a Bute or a North, as well as by radical reformers and national enemies. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Less convincing here is the ascription of a softening Britannia image, one more feminine and maternal, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the canvassing activities of the Duchess of Devonshire and her 'Bakewell tarts' in the Westminster election )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1784, and their copious representation in the prints. An alternative explanation could be the change in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(style adopted by many artists in the early 1780s, notably Sayers and Gillray, away from a largely symbolic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(type of representation to one that was more life-like, albeit with exaggerated features. The image of Charles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Fox is perhaps the best example. In his early life depicted as a fox, his image by 1784 was the familiar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stocky one with a mop of black hair and bushy eyebrows. This change was true also of Britannia. In Gillray's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britannia's Assassination)] TJ ET BT 156.272 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of May 1782 \(BM 5987\) the new Rockingham Whigs \(with an animal Fox\) force )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their way into power and decapitate Britannia, who is in traditional pose, despite losing her shield. By March )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1784 in Rowlandson's )] TJ ET BT 143.180 178.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Brittannia Roused)] TJ ET BT 230.852 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(BM 6403\))] TJ ET BT 287.516 178.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 293.516 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a very human and animated Britannia, with breasts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bared, hurls Fox and North into oblivion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The difference between Britannia as a representation of the official British state, and John Bull of the long-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffering British people, is not sufficiently emphasised. The image of John Bull, rare in the early eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, gradually became more popular as a symbol of the British people when monarchical power could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen to decline in the 1780s, giving way to a growing 'democracy'. By the 1790s Britannia had become a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helpless female, aloof and no longer involved in political affairs, but she still remained an important symbol )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in prints as a representation of the state.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7174 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Bull first appeared in 1712, and like other figures was portrayed mostly in animal form, as a bull or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes a bulldog, until around 1784, when he too took on human form as a downtrodden and helpless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(member of the disfranchised masses, suffering under heavy taxation and the burdens of government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expenditure. Later, during the war against revolutionary France, he developed into a figure who could also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represent the interests and aspirations of the middle classes. He became the national symbol of loyalty to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king and country, and of resistance to French aggression. He was the ordinary man in the street, who would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fight Napoleon with his bare hands, if necessary. By the 1800s he was a more assertive figure in domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics as well, prepared to criticise the royal family and the government, giving those outside the traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political process a voice.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alongside John Bull ran the traditional concept of the rights of Englishmen: based on the idea of the free-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(born Britons, the legitimate heirs of Magna Carta and the Bill of Rights, fighting against high prices, unfair )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taxation and repressive legislation, often under the banner of Liberty. The use of these images is here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively traced throughout the period, demonstrating the strength of feeling over the effects of wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taxation, the property tax of 1815, and the repressive legislation of both Pitt in the 1790s and Lord Liverpool )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1816-20. However, the contention that caricatures directed against taxation began in the 1780s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot be sustained, for there were certainly a number of prints attacking Walpole's excise tax in 1733; and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such prints were by the 1780s)] TJ ET BT 179.996 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of an honourable tradition among the satirists and the country gentlemen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in parliament.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After an introduction on the production and circulation of prints, the two early chapters covering political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments up to 1793 are largely descriptive and chronological. There is much useful detail, but the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political background is shaky, and the main issues not very clearly identified or explored in depth. John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilkes's career is well covered, but the issues of general warrants and the Middlesex Elections are not fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explained. Strangely, Hogarth's famous portrait of a very shifty, cross-eyed Wilkes, although mentioned is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not illustrated, yet it represents a major change in the style of caricature in its exaggeration of actual physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(features.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The long struggle between George III and the Whig opposition, led first by Rockingham and then Fox, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which culminated in the stormy politics of the period 1782-4, is also)] TJ ET BT 365.000 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely ignored. Yet this was a major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional struggle over the preservation or restriction of royal prerogative, and it largely dominated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caricaturists' output. The Fox-North coalition of 1783 and the election that followed in 1784 were the subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of over 450 caricatures, more than in any other comparable year. Many were part of a coordinated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government campaign and almost all were anti-coalition. Fox remarked that they had done more damage to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him than parliament or the press, and was in no doubt that they were largely responsible for the coalition's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(downfall. This is a serious omission. On the other hand the over-lengthy account of the Dissenters campaign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for greater toleration in the 1780s, which precedes the discussion of the relevant prints, seems over-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indulgent. There is good coverage of the French revolution, clearly illustrating the change in symbolism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used to depict the parliamentary opposition. Thus the use of English antecedents \(Cromwell, Guy Fawkes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jack Cade\) to put the Foxites in context changes after 1791, to one where they take on the image of foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enemies \(Parisian )] TJ ET BT 122.000 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sans culottes)] TJ ET BT 183.668 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) who threaten John Bull with their revolutionary ideas and intent.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A further chapter is devoted to the representation of the monarchy - its majesty and morality. By the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1780s there was a shift away from attacking the king's political activities, to criticising his moral standards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as an increasingly aloof head of state. The king and queen were models of domesticity and personal virtue, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but caricaturists focused on their lack of dignity, general dowdiness and parsimony. 'Farmer George' was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simple country bumpkin, and not at all what people expected from their monarch. On the other hand, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scandalous behaviour of other royals was an obvious target. At first, political satire largely ignored the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marital exploits of George III's brothers, the dukes of Cumberland and Gloucester, in the 1770s, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these troubles did occasion the Royal Marriages Act of 1772. Henceforward the king's consent was required )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the marriage of any of George II's descendants, an obstacle that was to cause difficulties for the Prince of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wales in the 1780s.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7490 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Prince of Wales, with his string of affairs, his illegal marriage to Mrs Fitzherbert and permanent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indebtedness, received most attention, but some of Gillray's most savage and telling satire was reserved for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the king's younger sons, the dukes of York and Clarence. )] TJ ET BT 310.796 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Devil to Pay )] TJ ET BT 394.784 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1791)] TJ ET BT 434.780 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(BM 7908\) shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clarence in bed asleep with his mistress, having 'forded the Jordan', while )] TJ ET BT 391.616 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fashionable Contrasts)] TJ ET BT 501.296 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1792: BM )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8058\), with devastating simplicity and innuendo, reveals the duke of York's large feet and shoes face down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on top of his tiny duchess's dainty feet and exquisite footwear. Neither print is referred to by Hunt. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary coverage of the Regency years, with its contrasting pictures of royal extravagance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationwide depression, and of the trials of the regent's wife, Princess Caroline, receives admirably extensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention, the chapter's overall impression is one of a rather breathless race through the royal escapades of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George III's reign.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the end this volume has tried to cover too much; the golden age of caricature is a vast canvas, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literally thousands of prints. It also betrays its origins as an academic dissertation, especially with its 90 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pages of dense footnotes. There is a great deal of detail, much of it useful and interesting for students and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researchers, but it would have been better to have concentrated on the themes of John Bull and national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity, where the author has something to contribute to the debate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are some errors of fact. John Dunning's famous resolution in April 1780 sought to reduce 'the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(influence )] TJ ET BT 81.008 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the crown' not its ')] TJ ET BT 181.652 532.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(power')] TJ ET BT 214.220 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.\(cf. p. 50\).)] TJ ET BT 270.536 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was an attack on the crown's use of patronage to secure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary majorities, and it was this, rather than parliamentary reform that was the initial and primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus of the county petitioning campaign of 1779-80. In June 1782 Fox, Shelburne and Richmond were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in opposition but were government ministers in the second Rockingham administration \(cf. p. 72\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hibernia )] TJ ET BT 80.348 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(print is wrongly ascribed to 1785, when it clearly refers to the Fox-North coalition of 1783 \(cf. p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(129\). In 1808 Pitt had not 'died several years earlier', but rather only two years previously \(cf. p. 143\), and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his memory was very much alive in the ministries of 1807-12, which were composed of his colleagues. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These errors are not in themselves important, but they undermine confidence in Hunt's depiction of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader political scene.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More serious in a general survey of the prints is the absence of any discussion of the artists - the illustrations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the most part are unattributed - or their careers and the changes in style adopted in the course of 60 years. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is no attempt to establish the artists' political and social standpoints, and whether they were sponsored )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or employed by governments or oppositions. James Sayers, who almost single-handedly brought down Fox )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1783, was a committed supporter of Pitt, whereas Gillray worked primarily for money. Without this sort )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of information, the caricatures are treated mainly at face value; the illustration captions are usually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descriptive, and often repeated in the text. 131 prints are reproduced in black and white, a broad and helpful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selection, although many are reproduced too small for any detailed appreciation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, despite the useful introduction setting the prints in the context of their production, sale and audience, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is no assessment of their impact upon contemporary politics or the public. This is undoubtedly a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult area in which to be decisive; we rarely know how many copies of a print were made, let alone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circulated and seen. But there is some evidence to suggest that pictorial caricature struck home more often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than might be thought. Fox certainly felt that his treatment in the prints between 1782 and 1784 influenced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public opinion against him, contributing to the rout of his candidates in the 1784 election. Napoleon, though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amused at times, did all he could to restrict their circulation in France. Together with political pamphlets and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a growing press, the body of satire in this period reached considerable proportions, and there is a valid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison to be made with modern times, with our world of propaganda and spin, of )] TJ ET BT 450.296 151.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Private Eye)] TJ ET BT 506.612 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(television satire. Modern cartoonists frequently acknowledge their debt to Gillray and his fellow artists. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Then, as now, 'victims' of their satire often kept extensive collections of their own cartoons. They were an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important part of the fabric of politics and society, and deserve to be studied as such. In the final analysis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite a wealth of verbal and pictorial illustration, this volume does not advance the debate a great deal.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 809 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 805.999 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 788.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 788.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/360)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 786.825 m 322.316 786.825 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 761.848 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 747.448 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2025)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.048 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://library.kent.ac.uk/cartoons)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.648 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.tate.org.uk/britain/exhibitions/gillray/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.248 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 787.1395 322.3157 799.0195 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/360) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000597 00000 n 0000000693 00000 n 0000005255 00000 n 0000005364 00000 n 0000005474 00000 n 0000005583 00000 n 0000009144 00000 n 0000009272 00000 n 0000009356 00000 n 0000009483 00000 n 0000009569 00000 n 0000009695 00000 n 0000009798 00000 n 0000009863 00000 n 0000017470 00000 n 0000017535 00000 n 0000024762 00000 n 0000024827 00000 n 0000032370 00000 n 0000032454 00000 n 0000033315 00000 n 0000033443 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33538 %%EOF