%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930121159+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930121159+01'00') /Title (Writing by Women in Later Medieval England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3013 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Writing by Women in Later Medieval England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The two works under review are on broadly the same subject - writing by women in later medieval England - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but could not be more different and are therefore difficult to compare directly. One author is an historian, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other a literary scholar. One book is directed at a popular, the other at a specialist academic, audience. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(361)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 October, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne Crawford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(750927984X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(271pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sutton Publishing)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stroud)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roberta Krug)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(801439248X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(28.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(247pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cornell University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ithaca)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ann Kettle)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7463 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has no foot or endnotes and a very short bibliography, the other has the full scholarly apparatus, with an 18-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(page bibliography and footnotes that, at a rough calculation, amount to nearly a third of the whole text. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is concerned solely with placing a selection of letters written by women in their social context, while the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other propounds a theory on the whole nature of women's literate practice in late medieval England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne Crawford's collection of 123 letters written by women in the later middle ages follows the pattern of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her earlier )] TJ ET BT 85.988 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Letters of the Queens of England, 1100-1547)] TJ ET BT 302.312 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Stroud: Sutton, 1994\), with the letters preceded by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanatory material, but the organisation is rather more complex and the introductions to the letters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lengthier and more generalised. The earliest letter dates from 1130 and the latest from 1506. The thirteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century letters are mainly from women members of the royal family or aristocracy; surprisingly few of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letters date from the fourteenth century and a large majority of the letters are from the fifteenth century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Letters from the three great collections of family correspondence predominate: the Plumptons \(7 per cent\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stonors \(13 per cent\) and Pastons \(32 per cent\). As more letters from Margaret Paston survive than from any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other medieval woman, it has been necessary to impose a limit of six letters from any one woman to avoid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unbalancing the collection. It is significant that only nine letters written by women to women are included )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and no letters appear to have survived of women writing to their sisters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The letters are arranged according to the relationship of the recipient to the writer of the letter. There are five )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('family' chapters on women and their parents, women and their brothers, women and their lovers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husbands, women and their sons and women and their kinfolk. The longest chapter contains letters between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women and their patrons, friends and servants and is divided into letters from patrons to clients, letters to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equals and letters from clients to lords and patrons. There is a final brief selection of letters from women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious, of which most are petitions to their patrons. There are advantages and disadvantages in this novel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and interesting way of categorising the letters. It should be possible, for example, to compare the way in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which women wrote to their fathers during this period; in practice, however, there is an odd gap between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thirteenth-century letters to members of the royal family and fifteenth-century letters of daughters to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gentry fathers. A considerable disadvantage is that letters from the same women are separated and this can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lead to repetition when explaining the context of the letters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since most letters were dictated and are businesslike in tone - no purely 'social' letters survive - an attempt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been made to select letters where it is perhaps possible to identify the views, thoughts and feelings of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women themselves. As most of the letters are very short and to the point, the detection of emotion is not easy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and even expressions of love, as the editor admits, are likely 'to be no more than convention, based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favourable first impressions, shared interests and hope'.\(p. 66\) Anger and indignation come through more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly in some of the letters, such as that from Elizabeth Clere to John Paston, relating almost verbatim her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounter with a tenant whose rent was in arrears \(pp.148-50\), or Margaret Beaufort's letter to Sir John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paston, a letter which was 'not one that any man in his right mind would have wanted to receive during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reign of Henry VII'. \(pp. 189-90\) Another unusually vituperative letter was that written by Joan Armburgh to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Horell, circa 1429-30 in which she threatens, in very colourful language, to arrange his execution.\(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(199-201\) More 'womanly' is the sympathetic letter written by Elizabeth de la Pole to Sir Robert Plumpton in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1501, which the editor says 'must stand for thousands of others written by women, expressing affection and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support to a member of their network at a time of particular trouble'.\(pp. 212-213\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The rarity of letters expressing genuine emotion reveals the difficulties facing the editor. Although this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume makes available in modern English letters published previously in editions inaccessible to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general reader, together with a handful of unpublished letters from the records of Chancery, this is not, as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publishers claim, 'an invaluable reference source for historians'. The introductions to individual letters are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admirably concise and the links between them skillfully handled but the lack both of full references to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources of some of the letters and of footnotes to explain technical points does present something of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem in using the letters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book does, however, live up to its description as 'a fascinating introduction for the general reader' to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns and social milieu of aristocratic and gentry women in the later middle ages. The lengthy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction makes some interesting points about the way in which letters were written, the forms of address, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6490 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the problems of dating and the use of seals as a means of authentication, but it then widens into a general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(description of the education of girls, marriage and widowhood as necessary background to the letters. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most part, a number of complicated matters, such as the laws of inheritance, are explained with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commendable clarity but the letters themselves become almost incidental to an account of the condition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women in later medieval England: an impression reinforced by the eleven illustrations of women's activities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including pastimes which 'are rarely mentioned in anything as serious as a letter'.\(p. 27\) There is much here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to entertain and instruct the general reader with an interest in the middle ages and occasionally the letters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves can surprise even professional historians with their freshness and immediacy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While using similar source material and agreeing on the central importance of the family, Krug, unlike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crawford, has a thesis to propound on the subject of 'women's engagement with the written word in late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval England'.\(p. viii\). She draws on a body of theory, mainly from social anthropology, to contest the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminist idea that in the middle ages 'women took part in text-based activities as expressions of )] TJ ET BT 493.460 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(female)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insurrection against male-dominated social forces'.\(p. 4\) Her central argument that women took part in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literate culture through membership of families - in the widest sense of social groups - seems eminently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensible to an historian who might, however, wish that some of the ideas could be expressed in a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(straightforward fashion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a literary scholar, Krug is concerned with historical sources as texts and is not primarily interested - as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crawford is - in the contents of letters. Letter writing is 'the most easily adopted mode of active, textual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production' \(p. 29\) but Krug, as a literary scholar, is concerned with historical sources as texts in general,)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than just with letters written by women. She aims to cover 'a range of disparate text-based practices, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including literary patronage, dictation, memorisation and recitation' \(p. 8\) in order to demonstrate 'how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literate concerns were shared in local and family circles'.\(p. 13\) This ambitious agenda is supported by an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive knowledge of both printed primary sources and the secondary literature; the footnotes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography are mines of useful information.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women's daily involvement with writing is explored by means of four case studies. The first two concern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual women, Margaret Paston and Margaret Beaufort, while the other two look at women's literate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice within two religious communities, the Norwich Lollards and the Bridgettine community of nuns at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Syon. The chapter on Margaret Paston's epistolary relationship with her husband and sons begins with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast between her inability to write and her respect for the written word, demonstrated by her advice to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her son to remember his father's advice to keep safely his 'wrytyngs and evidens'.\(p. 17\) It is argued that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret began writing in response to her 'familial situation'.\(p. 64\) Her husband expected Margaret to write )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to him during his absences and her letters to him helped to establish her authority and identity within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family. With the death of her husband, however, Margaret was forced 'to confront the male-dominated basis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of her literate practice' \(p. 53\) and change her strategies when writing to her sons. This new interpretation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar letters is intriguing, although the conclusion that Margaret came to understand how writing could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change her life is not entirely convincing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter on Margaret Beaufort's literate practice concerns the ways in which she 'responded to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic/familial dynamic in which women acquired literate skills as part of a broadly patriarchal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system'.\(p. 67\) This chapter is concerned less with letters \(although some interesting points are made about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the significance of the language used in Margaret's correspondence with her son\), than with women's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ownership of books and familiarity with literary texts; and more specifically with Margaret's patronage of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Caxton. Although Margaret was at the centre of an lite community of scholars her lack of Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excluded her intellectually but, as an act of charity, she was able to make texts available in the vernacular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through her patronage of the print trade.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6888 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first of the reading communities, or 'families', to be examined is the Norwich Lollards and it is argued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the women members of the sect had in common 'a sense of the importance of written texts and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("study", even if they were unable to read for themselves'.\(p. 117\) The involvement of the women Lollards of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norwich with textual culture is shown to be life-bringing and '"having" God's word [in your heart, in your )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home] was more important than understanding it'.\(p. 152\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second reading community, the nuns of Syon Abbey, was more orthodox. Attention is drawn to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradiction that saw members of a monastic order embracing poverty while owning valuable books. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuns of Syon were expected to be living images of St Bridget and 'reading too was construed as an act of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visual perception and reflection'. \(p.168\) The nuns 'heard' God by 'seeing' his words. The particular nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the involvement of the nuns in literate culture was helped by the fact that they were recruited from social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circles in which book ownership by women was taken for granted. Writers associated with the order were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraged to produce reading material and devotional exercises to help the nuns manage 'the disjunction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between their secular, familial experiences and the demands of life in the monastery'.\(p. 188\) The author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes by asking why, since growing numbers of women were busy becoming literate at this period, so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few of them produced literary texts themselves. The plausible answer is that women engaged with literate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture in a personal, familial context and it simply did not occur to them to write for a wider audience. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, as Krug points out, 'The dominance of men in late medieval England, the inequality of access to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education, and the expectation that women would be subordinate to men are facts about the past that will not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(go away'. \(p. 212\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Three examples of the way in which the authors interpret the same letters will serve to illustrate their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different approaches to women's writing in later medieval England. A charming letter from a Paston wife to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her husband about their first pregnancy, containing a witty postscript linking a ring which she had given him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a remembrance with her swollen stomach is wrongly attributed by Crawford to Margery Brews, Margaret )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paston's daughter-in-law. For Crawford this letter is simply an example of a woman happily exaggerating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her size in order to get a new gown from her absent husband. For Krug, however, the correct attribution to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Paston is vital, because her pregnancy demonstrates both her compliance with social norms and her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to her husband's prestige. The letter becomes, 'like the ring, like her body, a remembrance for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her husband that has explicitly extrinsic meaning'.\(p. 36\) A letter from Margaret Paston to Sir John Paston )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the siege of Caister Castle in 1469 is interpreted by Crawford, together with his 'tart and defensive' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response to her suggestion that he should seek help by writing to powerful patrons \(pp. 123-4\), as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example of the strained relations between Margaret and her eldest son. Krug goes further and claims that Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John's reply represents his 'repudiation of her faith in the supreme power of written documentation'.\(p. 61\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final letter in Crawford's collection is a petition from the abbess of Denny to John Paston. Crawford sees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this plea for financial help from an impoverished house as a 'good example of a family connection with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local convent among the nuns, which paralleled the continuing patronage of a particular house by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generations of a family of benefactors'. \(p.251\) Krug cites the same letter in her conclusion as an example of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the way in which women were acquiring literate skills. According to Krug, the abbess of Denny recognised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the written word's ability to eliminate physical distance, since she asked Paston 'to consider how we be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closed within the stone walls and may not otherwise speak with you but only by writing'. \(Krug, p. 207; cf. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crawford, p. 252\) These examples serve to show that, whereas Crawford's text engages with the surface of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these letters, Krug's examination of such documents presents the reader with new insights into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complexion of literate practice within these communities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 130.735 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 112.955 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 112.955 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/361)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 111.561 m 322.316 111.561 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 86.584 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 72.184 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2027)] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.784 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2029)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 111.8755 322.3157 123.7555 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/361) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 143 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000552 00000 n 0000000634 00000 n 0000003699 00000 n 0000003808 00000 n 0000003918 00000 n 0000004027 00000 n 0000007588 00000 n 0000007716 00000 n 0000007800 00000 n 0000007865 00000 n 0000015381 00000 n 0000015446 00000 n 0000021989 00000 n 0000022073 00000 n 0000029014 00000 n 0000029142 00000 n 0000029237 00000 n 0000029302 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29497 %%EOF