%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141221115910+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141221115910+00'00') /Title (Religion and the Cold War) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4180 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Religion and the Cold War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That religion played a significant role in the Cold War might seem self-evident, given the atheistic nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communism and the powerful influence of Christianity on the lives of millions of people on both sides of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Iron Curtain. But, according to Dianne Kirby, editor of )] TJ ET BT 300.644 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Religion and the Cold War)] TJ ET BT 429.980 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, many Cold War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians have barely mentioned the subject, or have even omitted it altogether. She points out that even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Lewis Gaddis, while concluding that the Cold War was a contest between good and evil, has chosen to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus his attention on communist ideology, the 'evil', rather than that of the West, 'the good'. \(p. 3\) In this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume of essays, Kirby has set out to rectify this omission.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book has evolved from a meeting of scholars who gathered in London in 2000 to consider the subject of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion and the Cold War. They were a diverse group, from different countries and different disciplines. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kirby draws attention to the fact that within this diversity lies one of the reasons why religion is only now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning to be accorded a place at the top table of Cold War historiography. The ability to cross )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographical and denominational boundaries makes it a difficult area for the lone scholar.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She also points to other reasons why religion should have escaped the attention of so many Cold War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars, some of them almost of an administrative nature. Where does religion fit within university )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(departmental boundaries? What is meant by religion: belief or culture? To what extent has religion's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invisibility been due to the simple fact that Cold War historiography has been dominated by American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(362)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 October, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dianne Kirby)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(333993985X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(47.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(245pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Merrilyn Thomas)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7481 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars working in 'secular' universities? \(p. 7\) George Egerton also addresses the question in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution \('Entering the Age of Human Rights: Religion, Politics and Jurisprudence in Early Cold War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canada, 1945-1950'\))] TJ ET BT 137.156 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and suggests that:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The contemporary peripheralisation of religion in the public domain of most modernised political cultures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the West has abetted a lacuna in historical understanding of the powerful political functions of religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the eagerness of politicians to draw upon religious resources that operated in most Western states until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1960s. \(p. 164\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These words suggest to me another possible reason why religion has so far been the Cinderella of Cold War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography. To what extent is it a matter of perception, dependent upon on which side of the Iron Curtain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians spent their formative years? This history is so recent that all those now writing about it will also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have experienced it. That religion mattered during the Cold War will surely have seemed obvious to those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who actually experienced religious persecution in Eastern bloc countries, or who, by virtue of their Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faith, jeopardised their educational or employment opportunities. There is no doubt that the governments of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communist countries saw Christianity as a threat and responded accordingly. Erich Mielke, head of the East )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German Stasi, described the Church as 'this legal organisation of the enemy'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 401.948 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 401.948 571.491 m 415.940 571.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 415.940 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But in the secular West, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion has been sidelined in life and in contemporary historiography. Many scholars fail to recognise the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power of religion despite the fact, as Kirby points out, that it is perhaps more important today than ever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before that the 'political influence of religion, its role in the international arena and in the hearts and minds of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men' should be properly understood.\(p. 21\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The thesis of Kirby's excellent introduction is that the Cold War was one of history's great religious wars, 'a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global conflict between the god-fearing and the godless'. \(p. 1\) It was a war in which 'Christianity was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriated by Western propagandists and policy-makers for their anti-communist arsenal' \(p. 2\), nowhere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more so than in the USA. But in addition, as this volume demonstrates, Christianity was not simply a tool of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychological warfare. Church leaders were not merely pawns in a political game; they were active )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participants. Their flocks were not only recipients of propaganda; for millions religious faith was central to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their lives. This fact is most vividly demonstrated in the several chapters that deal with the Catholic Church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Pope Pius XII during the early years of the Cold War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frank Coppa \('Pope Pius XII and the Cold War: Confrontation between Catholicism and Communism'\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines the Pope's stance in relation to Bolshevism and Fascism, concluding that the Vatican's alliance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the Western bloc contributed towards the post-war triumph of Christian Democratic parties in Italy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany, as well as the containment of the Soviet Union. The Pope's warning that it was not possible to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both a Catholic and a communist struck home. Peter Kent \('The Lonely Cold War of Pope Pius XII'\) puts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forward a different view. While acknowledging that the Catholic Church was 'among the first ranks of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cold Warriors' \(p. 67\), he raises the question of how close and effective a working alliance there was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the American government and the Holy See and argues that, although the Vatican contributed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards Cold War ideological rhetoric, it had little direct influence on the course of events in the years that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed the Second World War. Its main success was in persuading the USA not to impose a punitive peace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement on Germany and Italy that would drive them into the arms of the communists.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kirby \('Harry Truman's Religious Legacy: The Holy Alliance, Containment and the Cold War'\) examines the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of the relationship between the Vatican and Truman, focussing on the value of religion in the fields of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda and psychological warfare. She makes the case that the defence of Western civilisation and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defence of Christianity became linked in the minds of people in general, and also in the minds of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders, taking on the characteristics of a crusade. She quotes Truman in 1945: '. I believe honestly - that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Almighty God intends us to assume the leadership which he intended us to assume in 1920, and which we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refused'. \(quoted on p. 86\) One of the main attributes of Kirby's essay is that it gets down to the nitty-gritty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of what went on behind closed doors, giving examples of precisely how governments believed they could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manipulate religion. She quotes a discussion that took place on the subject of the Catholic Church within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Foreign Office's Russia Committee in 1946. Faced with the question of how publicly Britain should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ally herself with the Vatican, the view was that Britain should keep her distance, while at the same time )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 401.9477 571.8055 415.9397 583.6855 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7469 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assisting the Church to deploy its influence by 'inconspicuous means'.\(p. 99\) In addition, the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representative at the Vatican would feed information about communist activities to the Holy See. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conversely, the Americans accepted the Vatican's offer to share information from its 'world-wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligence sources'. \(p. 86\) The Cold War was largely an intelligence war and, as Kirby demonstrates, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this murky world that researchers must look for evidence of manipulation by and co-operation between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church and state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Gallagher \(')] TJ ET BT 130.148 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pro Patria, Pro Deo)] TJ ET BT 228.812 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: The United States and the Vatican in Cold War Yugoslavia, 1945-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1950'\) provides an example of such activity, putting the spotlight on evidence of secret diplomacy between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the USA and the Vatican in Tito's Yugoslav republic. The 'flowering of furtive diplomatic contact' between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Vatican and the USA was nowhere more prevalent than in Yugoslavia, he asserts where, in 1945, Tito )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initiated a period of brutal repression against the Catholic Church.\(p. 118\) In order to stem this persecution, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Vatican aimed to establish a 'cosy relationship' with the USA and appointed prominent American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prelates to key diplomatic posts behind the Iron Curtain. \(p. 119\) The relationship became so close that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vatican secretly provided the Americans with intelligence material, in return for official Vatican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence being sent from Belgrade in the US diplomatic pouch.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Pollard \('The Vatican, Italy and the Cold War'\))] TJ ET BT 287.624 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses on the Vatican's use of religious propaganda in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the domestic arena and demonstrates the way in which it influenced the course of events within Italy in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-war years. Referring to the manner in which the Catholic electorate was mobilised during the 1948 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(election, Pollard describes the way in which the 'pulpit was also used as a major instrument of anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Communist propaganda in the weeks leading up to the poll'. \(p. 108\) In the following years 'Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholicism seemed to assume more and more the characteristics of a mass, political movement with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charismatic leader - the pope.' \(p. 110\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are two essays dealing with Christianity in Germany, the European country which experienced the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cold War division most directly. Matthew Hockenos \('German Protestants Debate Politics and Theology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the Second World War'\) concentrates his attention on the Darmstadt statement of 1947)] TJ ET BT 475.088 418.325 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 481.088 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of the Confessing Church, that branch of the German Protestant Church which provided some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition to the Nazi regime, defined the way in which the Church had erred politically during this period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and provided precise guidelines aimed at ensuring that it did not repeat its mistakes. Hockenos' contribution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succinctly describes the debate which dominated German theological thinking, a debate which centred on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lutheran doctrine of the division of power between the earthly and the spiritual and the question of whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or not the Church had a duty to interfere in the administration of earthly power. This debate is crucial to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the dilemma faced by German Protestant Church leaders living under communism who, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once again, were faced with the decision of whether to openly oppose a totalitarian regime or find an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accommodation within it. It was not merely an esoteric theological debate but one with real political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning in terms of opposition to communism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hockenos whets the appetite for more on the subject of the influence of the German Protestant Church on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cold War politics but the volume's only other contribution on the German Cold War, while enlightening, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more of a dessert than a main course. Hartmut Lehmann devotes his essay \('The Rehabilitation of Martin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Luther in the GDR: or, Why Thomas Mntzer Failed to Stabilize the Moorings of Socialist Ideology'\) to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story of how the GDR regime tied itself in philosophical knots, in its attempt to argue the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correctness or incorrectness of two of Germany's leading theological figures, Thomas Mntzer and Martin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Luther. The story of the glorification of Mntzer and the vilification of Luther by the communist regime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the 1950s and 1960s, followed by a reversal of these characterisations during the 1970s, reflects the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twists and turns of official policy towards Christianity in the GDR. The 500th birthday of Luther in 1983 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrated the minds of Marxists and non-Marxists, faced with the difficulty of celebrating this event. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this time, Willy Brandt's )] TJ ET BT 154.520 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ostpolitik)] TJ ET BT 201.860 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, with its concept of dialogue, had penetrated beyond the purely political. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition, in 1978 GDR Church leaders had agreed a form of accommodation with the regime. In the end, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Luther the traitor became Luther the reformer. The significance of Lehmann's piece, in the context of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, is that it demonstrates how deeply Christianity mattered to the atheistic East German regime.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7372 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France and the Soviet Union merit one essay apiece. Anna Dickinson's contribution \('Domestic and Foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Policy Considerations and the Origins of Postwar Soviet Church-State Relations, 1941-46'\) is very much a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scene-setter, being an analysis of Soviet Church/state relations between 1941 and 1946. She tells us how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian Orthodox Church was transformed from an institution fighting for survival before the Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patriotic War, to one of real political influence both domestically and abroad in the years following it. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transition took place due to the mutual recognition by the Church and the Soviet government that co-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operation would benefit both institutions. The Soviet Union was looking for ways to strengthen its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hegemony in its Western territories and also to crush the Uniate Church in Western Ukraine, which was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyal to the Vatican and therefore seen as a political threat. The Russian Orthodox Church was sympathetic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to these aims, as it also was to the government's desire to rid itself of underground churches that had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established themselves during the period of persecution. Dickinson's contribution provides an interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific example of the Cold War's occasional unholy alliances between atheist states and Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations, with communist governments seeing Churches as powerful institutions that could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manipulated for political purposes and Church leaders co-operating in the interests of self-preservation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Hainsworth \('Cold War on High and Unity from Below: The French Communist Party and the Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church in the Early Years of the Gaullist Fifth Republic'\) gives us an account of the complex relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the Catholic Church, the de Gaulle government and the French Communist Party during the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1950s and 1960s. Again, this is in essence an investigation of Catholic/communist co-operation. Despite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact that French communists saw the Catholic Church as an ally of the de Gaulle government, there was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(room for flexibility within the communist/Church relationship. Hainsworth shows how this flexibility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gathered momentum as the Cold War moved into its period of dtente and co-existence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church/state relations are also the subject of Egerton's essay, in this case in Canada. Egerton focuses on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canadian reaction to the Cold War debate on human rights. He argues that the perceived threat of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communism created a new interest in human rights in Western democracies, resulting in the United Nations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted in 1948. Canadian opinion on human rights varied, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some Christian leaders arguing against the need for their legal incorporation within the constitution because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the freedom this would give to 'communists and Jehovah's Witnesses' \(p.169\), while others stressed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact that all rights were God given and this fact needed to be included within any human rights declaration. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Egerton's essay provides a good illustration of the way in which Christianity was seen as a defence against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the threat of communism, much as the fight against Nazism had been seen as a defence of Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilisation against pagan forces.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Jones picks up this theme in his piece on the manner in which British clergy in the Birmingham area )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented the Cold War to their congregations \('The Clergy, the Cold War and the Mission of the Local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church: England c.1945-60'\). This is a look at the grass roots, as opposed to the high policy of most of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other contributions. It appears that local clergy saw themselves as very much involved in the global conflict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that was taking place. According to Jones, the Cold War began to seem 'a serious pastoral issue'. \(p. 190\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Essentially, the clergy saw Christianity as being under attack from an atheistic dogma, not only in far-flung )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign places, but also closer to home through the actions of organised labour or increasing state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervention.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the final chapter 'Martyrs, Miracles and Martians: Religion and Cold War Cinema in the 1950s', Tony )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shaw explores the way in which filmmakers on both sides of the Iron Curtain linked religion with domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and international politics in the 1950s. He quotes the critic Catherine de la Roche, who noted in 1955 that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hollywood and others believed that the Cold War was 'fundamentally a conflict between Christianity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(atheism and that religion is therefore a strong weapon against Communism'. \(quoted on p. 212\) Shaw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines the links that existed between filmmakers and governmental Cold War propagandists, the religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(message conveyed in film, and how that message was received by audiences. He demonstrates a trend for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet films to become more liberal in their attitudes towards religion, while the West became more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dogmatic in showing the Cold War as a conflict between Christianity/capitalism and communism. Biblical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epics, such as )] TJ ET BT 102.668 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Quo Vadis)] TJ ET BT 153.668 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 176.996 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ten Commandments)] TJ ET BT 296.324 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for example, portrayed Roman or Egyptian despots )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 5560 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a 'thinly veiled metaphor for Soviet tyranny'.\(p. 217\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is Kirby's opinion that the most important contribution made by this volume to the Cold War debate 'is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence that religion mattered'. \(p. 20\) It is, she says:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first major step towards establishing if religion warrants the same sort of consideration given to ... the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('stuff' of international politics, in a world in which power remains the currency that states use in international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affairs. \(p. 20\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One small practical way in which this point could have been made more effectively would have been by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclusion of a religious map of the world showing the strength of different denominations in different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries - a visual demonstration of the power of religion. That apart, Kirby has achieved her aim. Religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not a subject to be relegated to a rather woolly area loosely described as 'culture'. Religion is about power, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the stuff of politics. Both politicians and Church leaders know this. One of those who recognises this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bruce Kent, veteran peace campaigner, priest and active participator in the Cold War who has contributed a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreword to the book. He writes that, since 11 September 2001, the world has once more had to understand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('that religion still plays a major part in the shaping of global relationships' and that this book has done a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service by lifting a curtain on the 'use and misuse of religion during Cold War days'. \(p. xii\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To have done more than lift the curtain, it would have been necessary to include a wider spread of essays in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of geography, denomination and period. As it is, there is only one essay relating to the Soviet Union, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is a heavy bias towards the Catholic Church, and most of the essays focus on the 1950s. Although the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bias towards the Catholic Church is understandable, given the united global nature of that church, it would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been useful to have had, for example, a piece on the World Council of Churches which also played its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part in the Cold War. A chapter on the role played by Pope John Paul II in the final years of the Cold War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would also have been welcome. Both Kirby and Kent refer briefly but tantalisingly to his significance, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kent asserting that it was this Pope's election that 'instigated the public process leading to the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cold War and the break-up of the Soviet Union'. \(p. 67\) Surely more on this thesis would clinch the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument that religion mattered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But, as Kirby says, this is a first step and it is for others to fill the gaps. If success is judged in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaving the reader wanting to know a great deal more, then this volume has more than fulfilled its purpose. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a very welcome and much-needed contribution to our understanding of the Cold War. It has opened a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(door for future researchers, demonstrating that the subject of religion during the Cold War lies firmly within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the borders of mainstream history and that, yes, it mattered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 288.147 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 257.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 257.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Klaus Schroeder, )] TJ ET BT 149.660 257.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Der SED-Staat. Partei, Staat und Gesellschaft 1949-1990)] TJ ET BT 426.980 257.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Munich; Carl Hanser, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 243.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998\), p. 474.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 131.012 243.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 131.012 241.875 m 185.000 241.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 217.013 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 198.031 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 180.251 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 180.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/362)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 178.857 m 322.316 178.857 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 153.880 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.480 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2031)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.080 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 131.0117 242.1895 184.9997 254.0695 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 179.1715 322.3157 191.0515 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/362) >> endobj xref 0 29 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000535 00000 n 0000000617 00000 n 0000004849 00000 n 0000004958 00000 n 0000005068 00000 n 0000005177 00000 n 0000008738 00000 n 0000008866 00000 n 0000008950 00000 n 0000009034 00000 n 0000016568 00000 n 0000016598 00000 n 0000016726 00000 n 0000016762 00000 n 0000016827 00000 n 0000024349 00000 n 0000024414 00000 n 0000031839 00000 n 0000031930 00000 n 0000037543 00000 n 0000037671 00000 n 0000037726 00000 n 0000037854 00000 n trailer << /Size 29 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37949 %%EOF